72x36 Poster Template - University of Central Florida

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Kyle S. Beyer, Maren S. Fragala, Gabriel J. Pruna, Carleigh H. Boone, Jonathan D. Bohner, Jeremy R. Townsend, Adam R. Jajtner, Nadia S. Emerson, Jeffrey R. Stout, FACSM,
Jay R. Hoffman, FACSM, Leonardo P. Oliveira
Institute of Exercise Physiology and Wellness, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FLA,
INTRODUCTION
• Age-related cognitive decline
is
associated
with
an
increased risk of developing
dementia.1
• Decreased spatial awareness
and reaction time lowers an
individual’s ability to process
information and react to
situations.2
6 Weeks
Resistance Training
or
Control
Post-Testing
• Peripheral
Visuomotor
Reaction
• Visual and
Motor Reaction
• Spatial
Awareness
Participants
• Twenty-five previously untrained older adults (70.64 ± 6.11 y; 1.69 ±
0.09 m; 80.72 ± 19.42 kg) volunteered for the study.
• A total of thirteen men and twelve women were randomly assigned to
either an experimental group (n=13) or control group (n=12).
Table 1: Participant Characteristics
• Spatial awareness was assessed
by completing one core session
on the Neurotracker, a 3dimensional
multiple
object
tracking device.5
• All reaction times were assessed with
the DynaVision D2 Visuomotor Training
Device.
Changes in Perceptual 3D Tracking
Threshold
0.9
0.8
• Peripheral visuomotor reaction time
was measured with one trial of the
Mode A program.
Control
Training
• During Mode A, a participant has sixty
seconds to hit as many lights on the
board as quickly as possible as they
illuminate one at a time.
• Visual, motor and physical reaction
times were measured with ten trials of
the Reaction Test.
• During this test participants were
instructed to track four of the
eight yellow balls as they moved
around the screen.
Changes in Physical Reaction Time
0.6
0.975
0.95
Dynavision D2 Visuomotor Training
Device
• For the Reaction Test, participants pressed and held down a light
directly in front of them. Another light would illuminate on the other
side of the board. The participant would then release the original light
and strike the newly lit light.
Training Protocol
0.925
0.55
0.9
0.5
0.875
0.85
0.825
0.8
0.775
0.45
0.75
0.725
0.4
0.7
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
• Participants in the experimental group completed two resistance
training sessions per week over the six week intervention period.
Figures 1-3: Changes from pre-testing to post-testing for each group in variables
that likely improved with resistance training.
• Each training session lasted for one hour and there was at least fortyeight hours between sessions to allow for proper recovery.
SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS
• Table 2 shows mean changes and differences between groups
expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Probability of positive,
trivial and negative effect and magnitude based inferences.
Qualitative
Inference
% Negative
% Trivial
Variable
Difference
Between
Groups ±
90% CI
% Positive
Mean and Percent Change
Stages of the Neurotracker: a) Starting screen displaying 8 yellow balls. b) Four of the yellow balls
light up white indicating that they are the ones to be followed. c) All balls return to yellow and move
around the screen for 8 seconds. d) After the balls stop moving they are numbered 1-8. e)
Participants select four of the balls that turn white as they are selected.
Post
Changes in Visual Reaction Time
• Six weeks of resistance exercise training was shown to have
beneficial effect on spatial awareness and visual and physical
reaction times.
• To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to examine how
resistance exercise effects spatial awareness and the distinct visual
and motor aspects of reaction time.
• Previous research has shown resistance exercise to improve
cognitive function at training periods of six to twelve months.3 This
study indicated that a short-term resistance training period of only six
weeks is sufficient to see results.
• While only spatial awareness, visual and physical reaction times
were likely to improve with resistance training, peripheral visuomotor
and motor reaction times were trending towards improving but results
were unclear because of high standard deviations.
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
Table 2: Mean and Percent Changes
PURPOSE
0.5
Pre
RESULTS
• Currently it is unknown how resistance exercise training effects
spatial awareness and subsets of visual and motor reaction time.
0.6
0.3
• Magnitude-based inferences provide a more useful statement about
the clinical or practical application of the data than null hypothesis
testing.6
A participant completing the Neurotracker test
0.7
0.4
• Magnitude-based inferences were generated at a 90% confidence
interval, utilizing a p value and value of effect from a paired samples
t-test.6
• Previous research has shown
an improvement in various
aspects of cognitive function
Participant completing the leg extension
with aerobic and resistance
exercise with their personal trainer
exercise.3,4
• Previous research has utilized psychological tests and MRI
imaging to
assess cognitive function. However, with new
technologies, we will be able to test spatial awareness and specific
aspects of reaction time.
• To determine the effects of six weeks of resistance exercise
training on the cognitive function and visuomotor reaction time of
previously untrained older adults.
Reaction Time
• A dynamic warm-up and full body workout was completed at all
training sessions. The workout consisted of seven or eight exercises
targeting all major muscle groups.
Statistical Analysis
Spatial Awareness
• The speed at which the balls
moved
was
increased
or
decreased until an appropriate
threshold was reached.
RESULTS CONT.
Reaction Time (s)
Pre-Testing
• Peripheral
Visuomotor
Reaction
• Visual and
Motor Reaction
• Spatial
Awareness
METHODS CONT.
Threshold Speed
Cognitive function (CF) has been shown to decline as a person ages.
Risks associated with this decline include an increased risk of falling
or the development of dementia. Several studies have shown that
aerobic exercise can slow this decline, and in some cases, improve
CF in the older population. However, few studies exist that have
investigated the effects of resistance training on CF.
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of a 6-week resistance training
program on CF in previously untrained older adults.
METHODS: Twenty-five previously untrained older adults (70.64 ±
6.11 y; 1.69 ± 0.09 m; 80.72 ± 19.42 kg) volunteered for the study.
Participants were split into two groups. The experimental group
(n=13) underwent full-body resistance training two days a week for six
weeks. The control group (n=12) continued on their normal physical
activity routines. CF was evaluated before and after the training
period with two visuomotor reaction tests where average peripheral,
visual, motor and physical reaction times were recorded and a
perceptual 3D object tracking test where a threshold was determined.
Independent t-tests were used to make magnitude based inferences
comparing changes in CF scores between training and control
groups.
RESULTS: Data suggests that resistance training is “likely beneficial”
at improving perceptual 3D tracking threshold. Also, visual and
physical reaction times were shown to “likely” improve with resistance
training. It is “unclear” how training will affect peripheral visuomotor or
motor reaction times.
CONCLUSION: Older adults who undergo six weeks of resistance
training may experience improvements in aspects of their CF.
Resistance training may therefore be an effective means to slow age
related cognitive decline.
METHODS
Reaction Time (s)
ABSTRACT
Training
Group
Control Group
Neurotracker
Threshold Speed
0.178 ± 0.163
40.0%
0.021 ± 0.246
2.9%
0.160 ± 0.150
85.0 14.3 0.8
Likely
Beneficial
Peripheral
Visuomotor
Reaction Time
(s)
-0.102 ± 0.072
9.0%
-0.072 ± 0.110
6.3%
0.030 ± 0.066
38.5 57.7 3.8
Unclear
Visual Reaction
Time (s)
-0.078 ± 0.182
14.6%
-0.008 ± 0.048
1.7%
0.070 ± 0.093
Motor Reaction
Time (s)
-0.053 ± 0.084
14.8%
-0.022 ± 0.101
5.6%
0.032 ± 0.065
• The results of this study support the use of resistance training to
improve spatial awareness and reaction times in older adults.
• Resistance exercise training may be an effective treatment option to
prevent age-related cognitive decline or dementia in older adults.
• Older adults could improve their physical and psychological wellbeing by engaging in resistance exercise training.
REFERENCES
1.
76.3 19.8 3.9
61.8 28.9 9.4
Likely
Beneficial
Unclear
2.
3.
4.
5.
Physical
Reaction Time
(s)
-0.123 ± 0.188
14.0%
-0.031 ± 0.112
3.6%
0.093 ± 0.110
80.2 17.2 2.6
Likely
Beneficial
6.
Riewald, S. (2009). Exercise for improved cognitive function in the elderly. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 31(5),
89-90.
Salthouse, T. A. (1995). Selective influences of age and speed on associative memory. American Journal of
Psychology, 108(3), 381-396.
Liu-Ambrose, T., Nagamatsu, L. S., Voss, M., Kahn, K. M., & Handy, T. C. (2012). Resistance training and functional
plasticity of the aging brain: A12-month randomized controlled trial. Neurobiology of Aging, 33, 1690-1698.
Weuve, J., Kang, J. H., Manson, J. E., Breteler, M. M. B., Ware, J. H., & Grodstein, F. (2004). Physical activity, including
walking, and cognitive function in older women. The Journal of the American Medical Association,292, 1454-1461.
Faubert, J., & Sidebottom, L. (2012). Perceptual-Cognitive Training of Athletes.Journal of Clinical Sport
Psychology, 6(1), 85.
Hopkins, W. G. (2007). A spreadsheet for deriving a confidence interval, mechanistic inference and clinical inference
from a P value. Sportscience, 11, 16-20.

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