Santo Domingo Metro & Climate Change

Report
“A Multidimensional Approach To Sustainable Development
And The Millennium Development Goals:
The Santo Domingo Metro System As A Model For Mass
Sustainable Transport”
Conference Room 6,
U.N. Headquarters, New York
May 3, 2010
Climate Change & Transport: Global Issue
• Current conditions
• Global Impacts
• International trends
Climate Change & Transport: Dominican Republic situation
• Up to date
• Global and local Impacts
• On going programs and projects
Future and Challenges
• Tendencies and expectations for transport sector
• Towards a sustainable transport
Source: IPCC, Fourth Report. 2007

The transport is responsible of 23% of global
energy consumption, and 13% of GHG
emitted.

The emissions are predicted to increased
about 120% on 2000 levels by 2050.

The IPCC recommend to decrease 50%
developing countries and 80% developed
countries.



The mobility is linked to
economic growth of the
countries.
97 % of increase in fuel
use is attributed to
transport sector (WEO
2009).
Long-range transport of a
variety of air pollutants
remains an issue of
concern for human and
ecosystem health, and for
the provision of
ecosystem services.

Billions of hours are being
lost in congestion, with
commensurate financial
losses for economies
businesses and
individuals. ($90
billion/year, due partly to
four billion hours (texas
transportation institute)).



As with globalization, a two-way
relationship
exists
between
the
environment and trade.
Transport has increased as a result of
increasing flows of goods and global
production networks.
Transport is now one of the most dynamic
sectors in a modern economy, and has
strong environmental impacts.



Urban transport is the planet’s fastestgrowing source of GHG emissions.
Rapid increases in the number of vehicles
on city roads.
Insufficient investment in urban transport
planning and traffic management in
developing countries are exacerbating.



Air pollution and decreasing economic
productivity.
Low-density, sprawling cities in developed
countries are two to three times more
expensive to run and service than more
densely populated ones.
Atmospheric emissions from the transport
sector depend upon several factors, such as
vehicle fleet size, age, technology, fuel
quality, vehicle kilometers travelled and
driving modes.


Fuel and vehicle technologies have
improved substantially during the last two
decades, driven by technological and
legislative developments.
Vehicle emissions have been partially
controlled by the removal of lead from
gasoline, requirements for catalytic
converters, improved evaporative emission
controls, fuel improvements, on-board
diagnostic systems and other measures.
Diesel vehicle emissions have been reduced by
improved engine design and, for some vehicles,
particle traps. Widespread use of particle traps will
await reductions of sulphur in diesel fuel to below
15 ppm.
 Reducing sulphur in gasoline to low levels enables
use of more effective catalytic converters, thus
leading to improved emission control. Hybrid
gasoline-electric vehicles, which tend to be more
fuel efficient in urban traffic than gasoline-only
vehicles, have been introduced in many developed
countries, but their use is still very limited.

Production
and
technology
Improving
transit
Consumer
Market





The Concepción system, includes plans
to build four roadway corridors with 50
kilometers of exclusive bus way and
three stations to integrate different
modes of transport into the City’s bus
system, a bus management centre, a
centralized control system for railway
traffic, improving the infrastructure of
urban trains, and constructing 21.4
kilometers of bike lanes.
Introducing large numbers of electric
scooters and three-wheelers to replace
conventional ones in Indian cities.
Another envisages modern fleet-control
telecommunications
systems
to
streamline
bus
movements.
In
Chongqing, China.
Mass transit cable cars linking to the
metro system are being planned for hilly
areas of the city of Medellin, Colombia.
Among others

UNEP is demonstrating alternatives in
Guatemala City Guatemala; Concepción
City, Chile; Cartagena, Colombia; DaresSalaam, Tanzania; and Jakarta, Indonesia
in partnerships with the Network for
Environmentally Sustainable Transport in
Latin America and the Caribbean and the
Institute for Transport Development and
Policy, backed by funding from the Global
Environment Facility.

3,000,000.00
2,500,000.00
2,000,000.00
1,500,000.00
1,000,000.00
500,000.00
-
The number of
vehicles in the country
is increasing up, there
are almost 3:1

This picture
describes a
common
situation of
transport in the
main avenue of
Santo Domingo.

Carbon monoxide (CO)
The main sources of carbon monoxide, almost
anywhere, are motor vehicles, especially
those that run on gasoline. It stands to reason
that the vehicles in the Dominican Republic
are high emitters of CO, since the age of the
fleet is very high, in addition, as all vehicles
are imported (and mostly used), it is
recognized that relatively few units have
catalytic converters, so that their emissions
would be considerable.

PPM2.5
In recent years there has been particular
attention to concentrations of particulate
matter 2.5 micrometers in the fraction due to
the high correlation between the pollutant
and a wide range of damage to human health.
Currently, measurements indicate that in the
Dominican Republic PM2.5 concentrations are
observed in all cases, greater than those
acceptable according to the standards of air
quality (EPA annual standard of 15 ug/m3 and
daily 65 mg/m3).
1990
1994
1998
2000
Transport
2416
4600
4743
5980
Energy
8175
14359
15370
17630
Link-up transport &energy
30%
32%
31%
33%
20000
18000
16000
14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
1990
1994
1998
Transporte
Energía
2000

Mass transport – Metro de Santo Domingo is
a rapid transit system in Santo Domingo,
Dominican Republic. The first line is part of a
major "National Master Plan" to improve
transportation.
The DR Metro
project has an
estimated
emission
reduction of
64,500 tons of
CO2 per year (1st
trend)


The efficient end-use energy (including
transport) should be promoted, it has
short return periods and zero or very low
cost.
Improve mobility while reducing transport
related CO2 emissions in a cost/effective
way.


We need to reach a new international
agreement on climate policy (Kyoto was
not enough) for a rapid and widespread
transformation in the transport sector.
Action on transport can be an important
source of reduction in demand for petrofuels, fuel savings, adoption of alternative
fuels, new technologies and construction of
road infrastructure and mass transit.
Research and development programs and projects
for successful policies.
 Measures as smart traffic control, will reduce
pressure on the roads, congestion is already a
problem on some streets, with inevitable loss to
the economy.
 Increased uptake of public transport is essential will
intend, that the government, absorb most of the
forecast growth in traffic — but this requires it to be
seen as an attractive alternative to the car.
 Therefore, significantly extend and improve its
public mass transport, providing more trains, at
more regular intervals and with shorter journey.


Mass transport is an important alternative
to private vehicles, and has been
successfully implemented in many cities by
using light rail, underground and rapid bus
transit systems . In many countries,
widespread use of mass transport continues
to be hampered, however, by inefficiency
and negative perceptions.
•Energetic efficiency
•Renewable energies
•Green buildings
•Clean Transport
Reducing transport’s impact is the
single most cost-effective measure
towards mitigation on climate change.
Muchas Gracias
Many Thanks

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