The challenges and opportunities of post-disaster waste management Charlotte Brown [email protected] (until 30 November 2012) [email protected] presentation outline • background • existing plans and guidelines • waste characteristics • operational strategies • management considerations background disaster waste management background 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami Photo credit: Erica Seville, University of Canterbury background 2005 Hurricane Katrina Photo credit: Tim Townsend, University of Florida background 2009 Victorian Bushfires background 2010/2011 Christchurch earthquakes Year Event Waste Quantities 2011 Japanese tsunami estimated 25 million tons (on land) 2011 Christchurch earthquake estimated 8 million tonnes 2010 Haiti earthquake estimated 23 - 60 million tonnes 2009 L’Aquila earthquake, Italy estimated 1.5-3 million tonnes 2008 Sichuan earthquake , China 20 million tonnes 2005 Hurricane Katrina, US 76 million cubic metres 2004 Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne, Florida, US 3 million cubic metres 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami 10 million cubic metres (Indonesia) 2004 Hurricane Charley, US 2 million cubic metres 1999 Marmara Earthquake, Turkey 13 million tonnes 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, Kobe, Japan 15 million cubic metres social impact economic impact environmental impact background Why is good disaster waste management important? 2008 USEPA Planning for Natural Disaster Debris http://www.epa.gov/wastes/conserve/imr/cdm/pubs/pndd.pdf existing plans and guidelines 2011 UNOCHA Disaster waste management guidelines www.ochanet.unocha.org/p/Documents/DWMG.pdf existing plans and guidelines • current planning focusses on operational aspects. • it is challenging to plan for a very wide spectrum of disaster impacts. • a possible approach is to use disaster waste ‘indicators’ (see Brown, 2012 thesis, for more detail) - disaster scale number of displaced persons geographical extent of damage duration of hazard event damage to road network volume of waste human & environmental health hazards movement of the waste (from point of origin), and difficulty in handling the waste. existing plans and guidelines typical types of waste • vegetative • construction and demolition • personal property / household items • household hazardous wastes • white goods • soil, mud and sand • vehicles and vessels • putrescent waste characteristics - composition how much waste? • varies widely between different disaster types and built environments. • FEMA have developed some waste estimation tools (FEMA, 2010, Debris Estimating Field Guide and FEMA, 2009, Multihazard loss estimation methodologies). • UNEP are currently developing some debris estimating tools. • some models have also been developed in Japan. waste characteristics - quantity Photo credit: Tim Townsend, University of Florida waste characteristics - hazards operational strategies operational strategies - collection Hurricane Katrina kerbside collection http://www.ees.ufl.edu/homepp/townsend/disaster/DD_Overview.pdf Photo credit: Tim Townsend, University of Florida operational strategies - collection 2009 Samoan tsunami clean-up operational strategies – handling Temporary storage in rice paddies and mangroves, following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami operational strategies – handling Space needed: 50ha per 1,000,000 cu.m debris 2007 FEMA Debris Management Guide operational strategies – treatment reuse / recycling waste to energy incineration Lyttelton Port Reclamation Christchurch, 2011 operational strategies – final disposal • overall management and coordination: link with recovery authority • human resources: skilled and unskilled work, livelihood and capacity building opportunities • public participation • public communication • human health and environmental risk management: accept there will be higher risks • laws and regulation: flexible and bounded • funding – public vs private management considerations • disaster waste has a significant impact on a community's social, economic and environmental recovery. • flexible planning is needed. • both operational and management aspects need to be considered. summary • UNOCHA, 2011. Disaster Waste Management Guidelines, January 2011, Emergency Preparedness Section, Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit. • USEPA, 2008. Planning for Natural Disaster Debris EPA530-K-08-001, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Office of Solid Waste, USEPA. • Brown, C., 2012. Disaster Waste Management: a systems approach. PhD thesis. University of Canterbury. (in particular, Appendix N) http://ipac.canterbury.ac.nz/ipac20/ipac.jsp?index=BIB& term=1793295#focus • Brown, C., Milke, M. & Seville, E., 2011. Disaster Waste Management: a Review Article. Waste Management, 31, 1085-1098. key references [email protected] thank you and questions?