CDM Application on Power Sector Projects (Engr Arshad Chughtai

Report
CDM APPLICATION ON
POWER SECTOR
PROJECTS
ENGR ARSHAD CHUGHTAI
CONSULTANT PLANNING (POWER) NTDC
Background
• Only a portion of the solar energy hits the
Earth
• The remainder either returns to space
• Or is absorbed by the atmosphere
• Upon contact with the incident radiation, the
Earth heats up and emits this energy in the
form of infrared radiant heat
• Directed towards space, a portion of this
radiation is intercepted and absorbed by the
greenhouse gases.
The Greenhouse Effect
The Greenhouse Effect is a natural phenomenon that allows us to
survive on Earth. Without the greenhouse effect, average global
temperatures would be – 18oC rather than the current 15oC.
The green house effect is the process by which absorption and
emission of infrared radiation by the gasses in the atmosphere
warm planets lower atmosphere and surface. It was proposed by
Joseph Fourier in 1824 and investigated quantitatively by Svante
Arrhenius in 1896.
Global Warming is an increase in the average global temperatures
caused by an increase in concentration of gases that trap the
sun’s energy.
The global mean surface temperature increased over the 20th
century by about 0.6oC.
Resulting Impact








Snow cover and ice extent have decreased;
Global average sea level has risen and ocean heat content has
increased.
Higher maximum temperatures and more hot days over nearly
all land areas;
Higher minimum temperatures and fewer cold days and frost
days over nearly all land areas;
More intense precipitation over numerous regions;
Increased summer continental drying and associated risk of
drought over most middle latitude continental land areas;
Increase in number of infectious diseases due to higher
nocturnal temperatures (malaria already reaching higher
altitudes where it was previously unknown).
Fall in agricultural production of staple crops such as wheat
and corn due to higher temperatures.
Sources Green House Gasses
 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) – Stems from combustion of fossil fuels,
linked to transport and the production of heat or electricity,
certain industrial process; deforestation.
 Methane (CH4) – Stems from agriculture, oil and gas activities,
and waste management activities.
 Nitrous Oxide (N2O) – Stems from agriculture, the chemical
industry and combustion activities.
 Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6), Per fluorocarbon (PFC), and Hydro
fluorocarbon (HFC) stem from specific industrial processes
(manufacture of aluminum, or magnesium, the semi-conductor
industry), and from aerosols, air conditioning and insulating
foam.
The Kyoto Protocol
 1997 International treaty signed in Kyoto Japan:
• Sets an emission reduction target for 40 industrialized
nations: Overall, nations must reduce GHG emissions by
5% below 1990 levels.
 Because each GHG is different and has different global
warming impacts, emission reductions described in tCO2eq.
• 1 tonne of CO2 = 1 tCO2-eq=1 carbon credit
• 1 tonne of CH4 = 21 tCO2-eq=21 carbon credits
• 1 tonne of N2O=310 tCO2-eq=310 carbon credits
• 1 tonne of PFC = 9,200 tCO2-eq= 9,200 carbon credits.
• 1 tonne of SF6 = 23,900 tCO2-eq=23,900 carbon credits
IMPACT OF EMISSIONS FROM
ELECTRICITY GENERATED
On average, each Mega Watt hour (Mwh) of
electricity generated in the U.S results in the
emission of 1,341 pounds of carbon dioxide
(CO2), 7.5 pounds of sulphur dioxide (SO2)
and 3.55 pounds nitrogen oxide (NOx).
Thus the 10 million Mwh of electricity
generated annually by US. Wind farms
represents about 6.7 million tons in avoided
CO2 emissions, 37,500 tons of SO2 and
17,750 tons of NOx. This avoided CO2
equals over 1.8 million tons of carbon,
enough to fill 180 trains, each 100 cars long,
with each car holding 100 tons of carbon
every year.
EMISSIONS FROM FUEL ENERGY CHAIN
Energy/Technology
Plant
Emissions
Other Chain
Steps
Total
LIGNITE
1990S Technology (high)
359
7
366
1990s Technology (low)
247
14
261
2005-2020 Technology
217
11
228
1990s Technology (high)
278
79
357
1990s Technology (low)
216
48
264
2005-2020 Technology
181
25
206
1990s Technology (high)
215
31
246
1990s Technology (low)
195
24
219
2005-2020 Technology
121
28
149
1990s Technology (high)
157
31
188
1990s Technology (low)
99
21
120
2005-2020 Technology
90
16
105
COAL
OIL
NATURAL GAS
Kyoto Protocol and Carbon Credits
• Provides financial incentives for investors in
developing countries to invest in most
efficient
and
environmentally
friendly
technologies;
• Facilitate the most cost-effective reductions
of GHGs
• It costs comparatively less to reduce one
tonne of CO2 in developing Countries than in
the developed countries.
• It helps developing countries continue on
path of industrialization and leapfrog over
most pollution-intensive stages;
How to Implement Carbon Credit
Projects
 Invest in new, cleaner, more efficient technologies,
such as the following:
• Construct and operate a wind farm or hydropower
plant – will displace electricity produced from fossil
fuels;
• Application of biomass fuels instead of fossil fuels,
such as rice husk, biogases, or MSW instead of coal;
• Capture waste heat to produce additional electricity,
thereby reducing overall fuel consumption;
• Replace older, less efficient equipment with newest
models available in the market.
 It is to ensure that investment in technology goes
above and beyond the environmental performance of
the business-as-usual scenario in the country.
Carbon Credit Project Process
 The project must first be approved by host country and
validated by a third-party auditor.
 After validation, the project is submitted to the United
Nations for approval by the Clean Development
Mechanism Executive Board.
 For validation and approval, the project must first meet
certain eligibility criteria, as well as use an approved
methodology for determining emission reductions.
 Subsequent approval, the project is closely monitored to
ensure that emission reductions are achieved.
Monitoring data will be evaluated by a third-party auditor.
 Carbon Credits are only issued once monitoring data are
verified by the auditor and the issuance is approved by
the United Nations.
Initial Costs
Protect Identification
Project Formulation
National Approval
Carbon credit processsteps
Submission of PDD &
Country Approval to
Validator
Validation
Submission of PDD &
Validation Report to CDMEB
Recurring Costs
Monitoring
Registration
Monitoring
Submission of Monitoring
Report to DOE-B
Verification/Certification
Submission of Monitoring
Report to DOE-B
Verification Certification
Submission of request for
CERs
Submission of request for CERs
Issuance of CERs
Issuance of CERs
Criteria
 Country is a signatory to the international treaty to
climate change and has ratified Kyoto Protocol and
set up DNA for approve projects.
 Project must reduce/displace one of the six
greenhouse gases.
 Project must not have been commissioned yet.
 Emission reductions should be additional to
emission reductions that would occur under normal
business-as-usual scenario.
 Required funding must not divert official
development assistance.
 Project must contribute to the country’s sustainable
development.
 Project must use technology that is readily available
in a market.
Criteria
 Carbon Credit revenue essentially to be a
part of feasibility study. If a project has
already commissioned – and it has not got
carbon credits– that means it did not need
carbon credits in the first place.
 Carbon credits are intended to provide a
financial incentive to invest. But if one has
already invested without considering carbon
credits, apparently such incentive was not
required.
Additionality
 The Clean Development Mechanism provide financial
incentives to invest in new / more efficient / cleaner
technologies.
 It is essential to prove Additionality.
 Carbon credit revenue need to play a role in
decision-making while considering investing in a
project!
 What are the barriers to your investment?
 Barriers on Investment: Cost, financial penalties,
lack of available service providers, lack of skilled
technicians, etc.
POWER SECTOR CARBON
CREDIT PROJECTS
1. Replacement of Incandescent Bulbs/ Tube-lights
with Energy Savers on Domestic and Commercial
Consumers
2. Provision of Capacitors on Industrial and
Agricultural Loads
3. Conversion of Street Lights to Solar Power System
4. RMS/AMR Smart Metering
5. Revamping of Thermal Plants
6. SF-6 Gas Leakage Reduction
7. Replacement of Energy Inefficient Irrigation Tube
wells pump / motors with energy efficient standard
agricultural pumps / motors
8. Installation of Energy Efficient Distribution
Transformers
CDM PROJECT
COMPONENTS/ STEPS
Minimum Project Requirements
1.
Type of Project
Greenhouse gases targeted covered under the Kyoto
Protocol (CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6)
2.
CER Volume
Minimum threshold of 50,000 tCO2e/year
3.
Additionality
Why the project should not happen without CDM revenue?
4.
Project Participants and
institutional Arrangement
Demonstration of sound legal arrangement and technically
experienced
5.
Viable Business and
Operation Model
•Potential for scale-up
•Involvement of intermediaries who can invest, bundle, and
implement project-related CDM services locally.
6.
Expected Schedule
7.
Financing
•The baseline component of the project should be financed
by project developer;
•Payment on delivery of Emission Reductions.
8.
Technical Summary of
Project
Project should be replicable and/or facilitate technology
transfer for the country;
9.
Expected Environmental
Benefits
The project can be demonstrate sound environmental
benefits
10.
Safeguard Policies of the
World Bank Group
The project must be consistent with the World Bank
safeguard policies and the host country’s overall
sustainable development framework
11.
Contribution to Sustainable
Development
As defined by the host country.
Project Cycle
SR STEP/COMPONENTS
NO
DURATION
1.
3 months
2.
Project Identification and
Initiation
Project Preparation
3.
Appraisal
3 months
4.
Negotiation and Registration
2 months
5.
Construction, Implementation
and Supervision
Up to 2012
6.
Verification, Certification and
Supervision
Up to 21 years
7.
Project Closed
Up to 21 years
2 months
Project Idea Note (PIN)
PIN – Project sponsors / proponents submit
potential projects for consideration to the
CFU in the form of a Project Idea Note
(PIN).
Early Notification and Letter of
Endorsement (LoE)
LOE – If the PIN was submitted by a
third-party project sponsor, and the CFU
decides to develop it further, the Host
Country (e.g the UNFCCC National Focal
Point) will be notified of the project.
Carbon Finance Document (CFD)
CFD – CFU experts will investigate
further and evaluate particular aspects of
the project in discussions with the
project proponent and prepare a CFD
with the risk assessment.
Letter of Intent LoI
LOI – The CFU formally signals its
intention
to
purchase
emission
reductions generated by a specific
project under terms agreed in return for
the exclusive right to contract for the
purchase of emission reductions.
World Bank Due Diligence
World Bank Due Diligence – All projects
must comply with World Bank Group
Operational Policies and Procedures,
including
those
on
environmental
assessment.
An Integrated Safeguard
Policies
review
and
Environmental
Assessment (EA) is performed as a
standard part of the appraisal of World Bank
Group Projects.
Baseline Study (BLS) and
Monitoring Plan (MP)
BLS and MP – Once the CFU has decided
to include the project in the Portfolio, it will
commission a Baseline Study and
Monitoring Plan, if the project is not applying
an approved methodology.
Project Design Document (PDD)
• PDD – A project – specific document
required under the CDM which will enable the
Operational Entity (OE) to determine whether
the project:
– (i) has been approved by the parties involved in a
project,
– (ii) would result in reductions of greenhouse gas
emissions that are additional,
– (iii) has an appropriate Baseline and Monitoring
Plan. The PDD is prepared by the CFU and
project sponsor.
Validation
Validation – After the BLS, MP and PDD
have been satisfactory developed, the CFU
engages
an
Independent
Validator
(Designated Operational Entity, DOE) to
validate them. This means that the Validator
agrees that the ERs are additional to the
baseline, the MP is sufficient, and that the
ERs have a high chance of being certified
under the Kyoto Protocol.
Registration
Registration – The designated Operational
Entity (DOE) contracted to undertake
validation, upon the request of the CFU,
submits the validation report and validation
opinion to the Executive Board, along with a
request for registration, together with the
PDD, Baseline Study, MP, stakeholder
consultation documentation and LoA, plus
any
other
appropriate
supporting
documentation.
Negotiation of Emission Reduction
Purchase Agreement (ERPA)
Negotiation of ERPA – After the
consultations, the CFU legal team prepares
a ‘term sheet’ and/or a draft ERPA for
further discussion the project sponsor.
Initial Verification / project
commissioning
Initial Verification / Project Commissioning –
After the project’s construction and before its
commissioning to produce ERs, the CFU
contracts an Independent Third Party (a
Verifier) for the project (different from the
Validator). The Verifier will establish contact
with the project and undertake an Initial
Verification, which should confirm that the
project is ready to generate verifiable and
certifiable ERs.
This will trigger the CFU
acceptance of ERs from the project.
Monitoring
• Monitoring – As part of project
implementation, the project operator must
implement the MP, which provides a
methodology and a tool for measuring and
calculating the emission reductions
generated by the project. Once the project
starts to generate emission reductions, the
project entity monitors the project in
accordance with the MP.
Verification and Certification
• Verification and Certification–Verification
and certification of the emission reductions
will be undertaken periodically in accordance
with the MP and other applicable guidelines
by a DOE, who is contracted for the project
by the CFU.
The verifier will submit a
verification report to the UNFCCC CDM
Executive Board (EB) for a certification,
which will confirm that the ERs have been
achieved in the verification period in
compliance with applicable CDM rules.
Transfer of Certified Emission
Reductions (CERs)
• Transfer of CERs – Once the ERs are
certified, the CFU will pay for the
amount of ERs as agreed in the ERPA
and the ERs are transferred to
Participants in accordance with the
ERPA and / or Host Country Agreement
and applicable UNFCCC or other rules.
POWER SECTOR CARBON CREDIT PROJECT
•
REVAMPING OF THERMAL PLANTS, ENHANCEMENT OF EXISTING THERMAL
GENERATION CAPACITY OF GENCO’S
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Rehabilitation / Efficiency Improvement Plans of GENCO’s
Jamshoro Unit 1-4:
Capacity to be Regained: 95MW
Heat rate to be improved: 4%
Additional Energy: 530MKWH / Year,
Fuel savings: 11.4 million US $ year
Availability to be increased by 4-5%.
Muzaffargarh Unit 1-6
Capacity to be Regained: 165MW
Heat rate to be improved :12%
Additional Energy 930MKWH/year
Fuel saving: 17 million US $ / year
Availability to be increased by 3-4%.
Guddu Unit 1– 4
Capacity to be Regained: 180MW
Unit 11,12 & 13
Capacity to be Regained 125MW
Unit 5,7 & 8
Capacity to be Regained 55MW
Total Optimization of GENCOs
620 MW
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT (APPROXIMATE)
Average g /KWh CO2
= 414
Tons/KWh CO2
= 0.000414 t CO2-eq
Tons/ MWh CO2
= 0.414 t CO2-eq
1 ton CO2 Emission Reduction = 1 Carbon Credit
CO2 Emission Reduction from
Capacity Gain/Enhanced
Capacity of Existing Thermal
Plants of 675 MW
= 620x0.414 t CO2 –eq =
256.68 t CO2 –eq
CO2 Emission Reduction Per
Annum
= 256.68x8760 = 2,248,516.8 t
CO2 –eq
2,248,516.8t CO2 – eq
= 2,248,516.8 Carbon Credits
Carbon Credits Per Annum
= 2,248,516.8
POWER SECTOR CARBON CREDIT PROJECT
CONVERSION OF THE EXISTING 366MW STREET LIGHTING
LOAD TO SOLAR POWER SYSTEM.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The Solar Lighting Systems consist of Lighting Equipment (lamp) with a rechargeable
battery and a photovoltaic module. Photovoltaic (pv) modules consist of solar cells which
can convert sunlight directly into electricity.
Solar LED street lights present the perfect and cost-effective solution for residential
streets, roadways, and other general area lighting applications.
Solar street lights can be economically viable and efficient in a number of applications.
Due to their low power consumption and very long life-span, solar LED street lights are a
good alternative to LPS (Low Pressure Sodium)
Unlike LPS lamps that produce a yellow-orange light, Solar street lights using LED
technology generate a very powerful and targeted crisp white light of excellent quality,
which significantly improves color rendition and night visibility.
Project Highlights.
PEPCO intends to convert the existing street lightning load to solar power system.
PEPCO has jurisdiction over 10 Distribution Companies (DISCO’S)
LESCO, FESCO, CEPCO, MEPCO, IESCO, PESCO, TESCO, QESCO, HESCO & SEPCO.
Total number of Street Light Connections in Disco’s is 83302.
Load of street lights :
366 MW
DISCO wise break up of street light connections is as under:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
LESCO:
1837
GEPCO:
458
FESCO:
1375
MEPCO:
1255
IESCO:
1438
PESCO:
838
HESCO&SEPCO:
863
QESCO:
238
TOTAL:
8302
Number of Lighting Points: 639704*
Local Bodies involved are also being dovetailed into the project.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT (APPROXIMATE)
Average g /KWh CO2
= 414
Tons/KWh CO2
= 0.000414 t CO2-eq
Tons/ MWh CO2
= 0.414 t CO2-eq
1 ton CO2 Emission Reduction
= 1 Carbon Credit
CO2 Emission Reduction from Power = 366x0.414 t CO2 –eq = 151.524 t
Saving of 366 MW
CO2 –eq
CO2 Emission Reduction Per Annum = 151.524x3650 t CO2 –eq =
on 10 Hours Daily Usage of Streets
553062.6 t
Lights
CO2 –eq
553062.6t CO2 –eq
= 553062.6Carbon Credits
Carbon Credits Per Annum
= 553062.6
POWER SECTOR CARBON CREDIT PROJECT
INSTALLATION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT DISTRIBUTION
TRANSFORMERS.
• Recently PEPCO has amended specification for Oil immersed
Hermetically sealed type distribution Transformers, rated
voltage 11/0.415 KV reducing the maximum allowable iron and
copper losses on KVA ratings of 5, 10, 15, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400
and 630.
• Following table indicate the maximum allowable losses before
and after the amendment and the impact of amendment in
reduction of allowable losses resulting in increased efficiency.
Iron losses (Watt)
KVA
Before
After
Copper Losses (Watt)
Difference
Rating Amendment Amendment
Before
After
Amend
Amend
ment
ment
Difference
5
55
44
-11
175
140
-35
10
65
52
-13
320
256
-64
15
85
68
-17
435
348
-87
25
123
98
-25
640
512
-128
50
175
140
-35
1170
936
-234
100
310
248
-62
2020
1616
-400
200
495
396
-99
3410
2728
-682
400
925
740
-185
5600
4480
-1120
630
1350
1080
-270
8150
6520
-1630
• Impact (Power Saving)
• Reduction in Iron losses (No load losses) in the Energy
Efficient Transformers will effect MW saving of 1.701 MW (On
total number of 34080 Transformers Installed and Replaced
during 2010-2011)
• Reduction in Copper Losses (Load Losses at 60% load factor)
in the Energy Efficient Transformer will effect MW saving of
5.2901 MW.
• Total Power of Saving
= 1.701 + 5.2901
•
= 6.9911 MW (Say 7MW)
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT (APPROXIMATE)
Tons/KWh CO2
Tons/ MWh CO2
1 ton CO2 Emission Reduction
CO2 Emission Reduction of
Power Saving of 7 MW
CO2 Emission Reduction Per
Annum
= 0.000414 t CO2-eq
= 0.414 t CO2-eq
= 1 Carbon Credit
= 7x0.414=2.898 t CO2-eq
25386.48 CO2 -eq
Carbon Credits Per Annum
25386.48 Carbon Credits
25386.48
= 2.898x8760 t CO2-eq = 25386.48
t CO2 -eq
•
•
•
•
•
POWER SECTOR CARBON CREDIT PROJECT
PROVISION OF LT CAPACITORS ON INDUSTRIAL AND
AGRICULTURAL LOADS
Among the various energy conservation measures, improvement of
low power factor is an area where significant potential for saving
exist. The power factor on the Industrial and Agricultural loads can
be improved easily by the use of power factor equipment and is
normally achieved by a suitable amount of capacitors load to
compensate for the presence of inductive load in the system. Poor
power factor on the system is also main cause of energy losses.
To improve the low power factor on LT side PEPCO has envisaged a
plan to install LT capacitors on Agricultural Tube well and small
industrial connections as well having load up to 40KW.
Total Number of Agriculture Tube well Connections in to DISCO’s
:27875
Load on Agricultural Tube well Connections in DISCO’s: 3511 MW.
Total Number of Industrial Connections up to 40KW load in to
DISCO’s: 239266.
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•
•
•
•
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•
•
•
•
•
Load on Industrial Connections in DISCO’s: 2575 MW.
Agricultural Connections in DISCO’s
LESCO:
51600
GEPCO:
35093
FESCO:
34183
IESCO:
7385
MEPCO:
67374
PESCO:
26651
TESCO:
8377
HESCO&SEPCO:
26555
QESCO:
21055
Impact of Power Factor Improvement
• Generally the existing Power Factor is 0.8 and which is required to
be improved to 0.95.
• The improvement can be achieved by installation of LT
Capacitors. By following calculations impact of Power factor
improvement on agricultural and industrial loads (up to 40 KW)
can be derived concluding that as to how much gainful active
power will be achieved or increased.
• Agriculture tube well connections No : 278475
•
Load : 3511 MW
• Gainful Active Power or Active Power Difference: 554.37 MW
• Reactive Power Difference or MVAR required to improve Power
Factor from 0.8 to 0.95
• = 1480.16 MVAR
• Small Industrial Connections NO: 239866, Load: 2575 KW
• Gainful Active Power or Active Power Difference: 406.58
• Reactive Power Difference or MVAR Required to Improve the
Power Factor from 0.8 to 0.95 lagging = 1085057 MVAR
• Total Gainful Active Power/Capacity Increase by Installation of
Capacitors = 554.37+406.58 MW
= 960.95 MW
• Annual Energy Savings by Gainful Active Power/Capacity
Increase
•
=
960.95x8760 MWH
•
=
8417922000KWH
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT (APPROXIMATE)
Average g /KWh CO2
= 414
Tons/KWh CO2
= 0.000414 t CO2-eq
Tons/ MWh CO2
= 0.414 t CO2-eq
1 ton CO2 Emission Reduction
= 1 Carbon Credit
CO2 Emission Reduction for
Gainful Active/Capacity Increase
of 960.95 MW
CO2 Emission Reduction Per
Annum
= 960.95x0.414 t CO2 –eq =397.833 t
CO2 - eq
3,485,019t CO2 –eq
= 3,485,019Carbon Credits
Carbon Credits Per Annum
= 3,485,019
= 397.8333x8760 t CO2 –eq =
3,485,019.708 t
CO2 –eq
POWER SECTOR CARBON CREDIT PROJECT
SF6 GAS LEAKAGE REDUCTION
• SF6 is a nonflammable, colorless, nontoxic, chemically very
stable gas which is five times as heavy as air. At atmospheric
pressure, its dielectric strength is 2.5 times higher than that of
air.
• SF6 circuit breakers are installed in NTDC and DISCO’s
(LESCO, FESCO, GEPCO, MEPCO, IESCO, PESCO, TESCO,
HESCO, SEPCO & QESCO) Transmission Network.
• At present there are 12 NOs of 500 KV, 26 NOs of 220 KV, 508
NOs of 132 KV and 173 NOs of 66 KV & 33 KV Grid Stations
catering Power to the System.
• PEPCO has introduced new technology and old oil and Air CB’s
are being replaced with SF6-Gas Type. However during
operations leakage is being experienced at different stations,
this leakage needs to be reduced / minimized.
SF6 GAS CONSUMPTION ON RECYCLING & REFILLING AGAINST
LEKEAGES AND DURING MAINTENANCE & SERVICE OF
INSTALLED CIRCUIT BREAKERS IN ONE YEAR
UTILITY
RATED
VOLTAGE
NO OF
CIRCUIT
BREAKERS
INSTALLED
QTY OF SF6
GAS IN
INSTALLED
CIRCUIT
BREAKERS
(Kg)
QTY OF SF6 GAS
CONSUMED for
replacement, reduction of
leaks, &
repair/maintenance
(Kg)
I
II
III
IV
V
NTDC
500kv
137
15953.76
659.5
220kv
394
13204
1292.1
132kv
437
9713.4
636.6
132kv
345
3681.05
1195
66kv
06
36.00
5
132kv
183
1671.8
386.5
& 66kv
7
132kv
193
2742
343
66kv
08
132kv
180
2790
100
132kv
123
2229
303.3
66kv
12
175
27
HESCO
132kv
180
1260
472
& SEPCO
66kv
31
156
169
PESCO
132kv
205
2563.7
2180.8
132kv
11
186
120
66kv
4
500,220,132 & 66Kv
2456
56361.71
7889.8
LESCO
GEPCO
FESCO
IESCO
66kv
MEPCO
66kv
TESCO
TOTAL
SF6 GAS PURCHASE IN AN AVERAGE YEAR (KG)
UTILITY
Qty of SF6 Gas Purchased
(Kg)
NTDC
LESCO
GEPCO
FESCO
MEPCO
HESCO & SEPCO
PESCO
QESCO
3700
1100
320
650
1200
300
300
180
Total
7750
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT (APPROXIMATE)
Average g /KWh CO2
= 414
Tons/KWh CO2
= 0.000414 t CO2-eq
Tons/ MWh CO2
= 0.414 t CO2-eq
1 ton CO2 Emission Reduction
= 1 Carbon Credit
1 ton SF6 Emission Reduction
= 23900 Carbon Credit
Leakage of SF6 Gas Reduction (Kg) = 7889 Kg
Leakage of SF6 Gas Reduction
(Tons)
SF6 Gas Emission Reduction
= 7.889 ton
SF6 Emission Reduction Per
Annum
Carbon Credits Per Annum
= 7.889x23900
= 7.889 ton
= 188547.1
•
•
•
•
•
POWER SECTOR CARBON CREDIT PROJECT
REPLACEMENT OF ENERGY INEFFICIENT IRRIGATION
TUBEWELL PUMPS/MOTORS WITH ENERGY EFFICIENT
STANDARD PUMP/MOTORS
One million tube wells in the country heavy on power and fuel are
known to be extremely inefficient in operations.
Total number of agriculture tube wells installed in DISCO’s is 278475
with the load of 3511 MW, (Out of which the number of tube wells are
219584 with a sanctioned Load of 2908, 858 MW) while the remaining
are diesel driven pumps.
According to survey carried out by ENERCON and other consumer
groups the efficiency of the present pumps is only 30% of the standard
equipment. The pump sets are old centrifugal, turbine or submersible.
Tube well Efficiency Improvement Program (TWEIP)
USAID has initiated a Tube well Efficiency Improvement Program. A
pilot program focusing within the jurisdiction of Multan Electric Power
Company (MEPCO) to replace, 1000 old and inefficient agricultural tube
well pumps sets (Pumps and Motors) with energy efficient tube well
pump set has been commenced. USAID is Subsidizing 50% of the
equipment cost for the farmers. The country wide program has a target
a total number of 1000 tube wells in seven DISCO’s (MEPCO, FESCO,
LESCO, GEPCO, IESCO, HESCO & PESCO).
• Energy Savings
• Post replacement audits on 324 sites concluded that average
pump set Energy Efficiency (%) has been enhanced from
previous 37.45% to 54.85% and the average demand per pump
set (Kw) reduced to 12.57 Kw from 19.57 Kw previously meaning
there by 5.38 Kw savings per pump set replacement.
• On the basis of above Taking into account the total number of inservice/active Tube wells in the DISCO’s the Energy Savings to
be generated from the replacement of old and inefficient
agricultural tube well pump sets with energy efficient tube well
pumps sets will be = 219584x5.38Kw = 1181 MW
• Estimated Power Saving: 1181 MW
• Average Operational Hours: 10 hours per day.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT (APPROXIMATE)
Average g /KWh CO2
Tons/KWh CO2
= 414
= 0.000414 t CO2-eq
Tons/ MWh CO2
= 0.414 t CO2-eq
1 ton CO2 Emission Reduction
= 1 Carbon Credit
CO2 Emission Reduction from Power = 1181x0.414 t CO2 –eq = 488.934 to CO2 –
Saving of 1181 MW on Replacement
eq
of in Service Inefficient Tube Well
Motors/Pumps by Installation of
efficient Pumps and Motors
CO2 Emission Reduction Per Annum
on 10 Hours Daily Operation Basis
= 488.934x3650 = 1,784,609 t CO2 –eq
1,784,609 t CO2 –eq
= 1,784,609Carbon Credits
Carbon Credits Per Annum
= 1,784,609
POWER SECTOR CARBON CREDIT PROJECT
PROVISION OF RMS/AMR, SMART METERING – AS A DSM
ACTIVITY
PEPCO Manages 10 DISCOS, (LESCO,FESCO, GEPCO, MEPCO,
IESCO, PESCO,TESCO, HESCO, SEPCO & QESCO) More than 20.05
million customers are served through primarily Electro Magnetic
Meters and lately Digital meters have also been inducted. The Digital
Meters have a proven record of reducing the line losses by eliminating
theft of electricity.
PEPCO intends to arrange for a remote system capable of measuring
electricity consumption/ Customer usage besides generating all other
information and data needed to run its specified Management
information system (MIS) without the glitches inherent to the existing
normal system. A major requirement of the system is to control the
present level of administrative losses i.e. pilferage, theft and stealing of
energy constricted installation of energy meters by-passing of the
same and other such internal and external features. Introduction of
Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) fully incorporating RMS/AMR
systems is expected to relieve the Distribution system of the present
extravagant use / wastage. Consequently thereby it will significantly
relieve the generation system.
AMI and Its Benefits
•
•
•
•
AMI, in its essence, serves to move data and control signals between a
consumer’s energy consumption and the DISCO that provides the electricity.
The most basic level of AMI is called automated meter Reading (AMR). More
sophisticated use of AMI involve two – way communication between the
Distribution company and the smart Meter so data is transmitted in real time to
the distribution company and tariffs and other control signals can be sent to
the meter.
Benefits:
Customer service is improved through Remote Meter Reading and efficient
data management. Power outages can be detected, identified and corrected
more quickly for customers whose meters are connected to and work.
Direct load Control: AMI allows for the energy flow to be set at a peak
threshold on a per meter basis at specific times during the day. This allows the
distribution company to do load shedding without having to completely switch
off entire feeders as is currently the case. Peak usage is minimized.
Consumers can benefit from lower electricity bill by using smart card
controlled energy meters. Improve metering accuracy despite nonlinear loads.
Number of Consumers in DISCO’s
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
LESCO
3270611
GEPCO
2618344
FESCO
2846236
IESCO
2109791
MEPCO
4177546
PESCO
2566686
TESCO
438670
HESCO & SEPCO
1531587
QESCO
499184
Entire Customer Base PEPCO 20,058,815
Total Sanctioned Load
47,716,148 KW
Number of Single Phase Connections: 19261606
Number of Three Phase Connections: 797210
Estimated Power Saving: 500 MW
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT (APPROXIMATE)
Average g /KWh CO2
= 414
Tons/KWh CO2
= 0.000414 t CO2-eq
Tons/ MWh CO2
= 0.414 t CO2-eq
1 ton CO2 Emission Reduction
= 1 Carbon Credit
CO2 Emission Reduction from Power
Saving of 500 MW on PROVISION OF
RMS/AMR, SMART METERING
= 500x0.414 t CO2 –eq = 207 t CO2 –eq
CO2 Emission Reduction Per Annum
= 207x8760 = 1,813,320 t CO2 –eq
1,813,320t CO2 –eq
= 1,813,320 Carbon Credits
Carbon Credits Per Annum
= 1,813,320
SUMMARY
POWER SAVINGS AND CARBON EMISSIONS REDUCTION
(TENTATIVE)
Sr.
No.
Name of Project
Power Saving
(MW)
Carbon Emissions Reduction
per Annum (t CO2-eq)
1.
Installation of Energy Efficient Distribution
Transformers
7
25386.5
2.
Provision of LT Capacitors on Industrial and
Agricultural Loads
960.95
3485019
3.
SF6 Gas Leakage Reduction
-
(7.889 ton SF6)
188547.1
4.
Conversion of Existing 366 MW Street Lighting Load
to Solar Power System
366
553062.6
5.
Revamping of Thermal Plants- Enhancement of
Existing Thermal Generation Capacity of GENCO’s
620
2,248,516.8
6.
Replacement of Energy Inefficient Irrigation Tube well
Pumps/Motors with Energy Efficient Standard
Pumps/Motors
1181
1784609
7.
PROVISION OF RMS/AMR, SMART METERING – AS A
DSM ACTIVITY
500 MW
1,813,320
3634.95
10,297,926
Total
THANK YOU
LET US ALL CONTRIBUTE TO THE
ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE.

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