### Part I - Department of Computer Science and Engineering

```AAAI 2014 Tutorial
Latent Tree Models
Nevin L. Zhang
Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering
The Hong Kong Univ. of Sci. & Tech.
http://www.cse.ust.hk/~lzhang
HKUST
2014
HKUST
1988
Latent Tree Models
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Part I: Non-Technical Overview (25 minutes)
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Part II: Definition and Properties (25 minutes)
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Part III: Learning Algorithms
(110 minutes, 30 minutes break half way)
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Part IV: Applications (50 minutes)
AAAI 2014 Tutorial Nevin L. Zhang HKUST
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Part I: Non-Technical Overview
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Latent tree models
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What can LTMs be used for:
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Discovery of co-occurrence/correlation
patterns
Discovery of latent variable/structures
Multidimensional clustering
Examples
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Danish beer survey data
Text data
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Latent Tree Models (LTMs)
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Tree-structured probabilistic graphical
models
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Leaves observed (manifest variables)
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Internal nodes latent (latent variables)
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Discrete or continuous
Discrete
Each edge is associated with a
conditional distribution
One node with marginal distribution
Defines a joint distributions over all the
variables
(Zhang, JMLR 2004)
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Latent Tree Analysis (LTA)
From data on observed variables, obtain latent tree model
Learning latent tree models: Determine
•
•
•
•
Number of latent variables
Numbers of possible states for latent variables
Connections among nodes
Probability distributions
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LTA on Danish Beer Market Survey Data
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463 consumers, 11 beer brands
Questionnaire: For each brand:
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Never seen the brand before (s0);
Seen before, but never tasted (s1);
Tasted, but do not drink regularly (s2)
Drink regularly (s3).
(Mourad et al. JAIR 2013)
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Why variables grouped as such?
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Responses on brands in each group strongly correlated.
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GronTuborg and Carlsberg: Main mass-market beers
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TuborgClas and CarlSpec: Frequent beers, bit darker than the above
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CeresTop, CeresRoyal, Pokal, …: minor local beers
In general, LTA partitions observed variables into groups such that
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Variables in each group are strongly correlated, and
The correlations among each group can be properly be modeled using
one single latent variable
AAAI 2014 Tutorial Nevin L. Zhang HKUST
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Multidmensional Clustering
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Each Latent variable gives a partition of consumers.
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H1:
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Class 1: Likely to have tasted TuborgClas, Carlspec and Heineken , but do not
drink regularly
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Class 2: Likely to have seen or tasted the beers, but did not drink regularly
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Class 3: Likely to drink TuborgClas and Carlspec regularly
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H0 and H2 give two other partitions.
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In general, LTA is a technique for multiple clustering.
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In contrast, K-Means, mixture models give only one partition.
AAAI 2014 Tutorial Nevin L. Zhang HKUST
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Unidimensional vs Multidimensional Clustering
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Grouping of objects into clusters such that objects in the same cluster
are similar while objects from different clusters are dissimilar.
Result of clustering is often a partition of all the objects.
AAAI 2014 Tutorial Nevin L. Zhang HKUST
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How to Cluster Those?
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How to Cluster Those?
Style of picture
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How to Cluster Those?
Type of object in picture
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Multidimensional Clustering
•
Complex data usually have multiple facets and can be meaningfully
partitioned in multiple ways. Multidimensional clustering / Multi-Clustering
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LTA is a model-based method for multidimensional clustering.
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Other methods: http://www.siam.org/meetings/sdm11/clustering.pdf
AAAI 2014 Tutorial Nevin L. Zhang HKUST
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Clustering of Variables and Objects
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LTA produces a partition of observed variables.
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For each cluster of variables, it produces a partition of objects.
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Binary Text Data: WebKB
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1041 web pages collected from 4 CS departments in 1997
336 words
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Latent Tree Model for WebKB Data
89 latent variables
(Liu et al. MLJ 2013)
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Latent Tree Modes for WebKB Data
Why variables grouped as such?
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Words in each group tend to co-occur.
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On binary text data, LTA partitions word variables into groups such that
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Words in each group tend to co-occur and
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The correlations can be properly be explained using one single latent variable
LTA is a method for identifying co-occurrence relationships.
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Multidimensional Clustering
LTA is an alternative approach to
topic detection
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Y66=4: Object Oriented Programming
(oop)
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Y66=2: Non-oop programming
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Y66=1: programming language
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Y66=3: Not on programming
More on this in Part IV
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Summary
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Latent tree models:
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Tree-structured probabilistic graphical models
Leaf nodes: observed variables
Internal nodes: latent variable
What can LTA be used for:



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Discovery of co-occurrence patterns in binary data
Discovery of correlation patterns in general discrete data
Discovery of latent variable/structures
Multidimensional clustering
Topic detection in text data
Probabilistic modelling
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Key References:
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Anandkumar, A., Chaudhuri, K., Hsu, D., Kakade, S. M., Song, L., & Zhang, T. (2011). Spectral
methods for learning multivariate latent tree structure. In Twenty-Fifth Conference in Neural Information
Processing Systems (NIPS-11).
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Anandkumar, A., Ge, R., Hsu, D., Kakade, S.M., and Telgarsky, M. Tensor decompositions for learning
latent variable models. In Preprint, 2012a.
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Anandkumar, A., Hsu, D., and Kakade, S. M. A method of moments for mixture models and hidden
Markov models. In An abridged version appears in the Proc. Of COLT, 2012b.
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Choi, M. J., Tan, V. Y., Anandkumar, A., & Willsky, A. S. (2011). Learning latent tree graphical models.
Journal of Machine Learning Research, 12, 1771–1812.
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Friedman, N., Ninio, M., Pe’er, I., & Pupko, T. (2002). A structural EM algorithm for phylogenetic
inference.. Journal of Computational Biology, 9(2), 331–353.
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Harmeling, S., & Williams, C. K. I. (2011). Greedy learning of binary latent trees. IEEE Transactions on
Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 33(6), 1087–1097.
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Hsu, D., Kakade, S., & Zhang, T. (2009). A spectral algorithm for learning hidden Markov models. In
The 22nd Annual Conference on Learning Theory (COLT 2009).
Key References:
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E. Mossel, S. Roch, and A. Sly. Robust estimation of latent tree graphical models: Inferring hidden
states with inexact parameters. Submitted. http://arxiv.org/abs/1109.4668, 2011.
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Mourad, R., Sinoquet, C., & Leray, P. (2011). A hierarchical Bayesian network approach for linkage
disequilibrium modeling and data-dimensionality reduction prior to genomewide association studies.
BMC Bioinformatics, 12, 16.
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Mourad R., Sinoquet C., Zhang N. L., Liu T. F. and Leray P. (2013). A survey on latent tree models and
applications. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 47, 157-203 , 13 May 2013.
doi:10.1613/jair.3879.
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Parikh, A. P., Song, L., & Xing, E. P. (2011). A spectral algorithm for latent tree graphical models. In
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML-2011).
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Saitou, N., & Nei, M. (1987). The neighbor-joining method: A new method for reconstructing
phylogenetic trees.. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 4(4), 406–425.
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Song, L., Parikh, A., & Xing, E. (2011). Kernel embeddings of latent tree graphical models. In TwentyFifth Conference in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS-11).
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Tan, V. Y. F., Anandkumar, A., & Willsky, A. (2011). Learning high-dimensional Markov forest
distributions: Analysis of error rates. Journal of Machine Learning Research,12, 1617–1653.
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Key References:
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T. Chen and N. L. Zhang (2006). Quartet-based learning of shallow latent variables. In Proceedings of
the Third European Workshop on Probabilistic Graphical Model,59-66 , September 12-15, 2006.
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Chen, T., Zhang, N. L., Liu, T., Poon, K. M., & Wang, Y. (2012). Model-based multidimensional
clustering of categorical data. Artificial Intelligence, 176(1), 2246–2269.
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Liu, T. F., Zhang, N. L., Liu, A. H., & Poon, L. K. M. (2013). Greedy learning of latent tree models for
multidimensional clustering. Machine Learning, doi:10.1007/s10994-013-5393-0.
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Liu, T. F., Zhang, N. L., and Chen, P. X. (2014). Hierarchical latent tree analysis for topic detection.
ECML, 2014
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Poon, L. K. M., Zhang, N. L., Chen, T., & Wang, Y. (2010). Variable selection in modelbased clustering:
To do or to facilitate. In Proceedings of the 27th International Con-ference on Machine Learning (ICML2010).
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Wang, Y., Zhang, N. L., & Chen, T. (2008). Latent tree models and approximate inference in Bayesian
networks. Journal of Articial Intelligence Research, 32, 879–900.
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Wang, X. F., Guo, J. H., Hao, L. Z., Zhang, N.L., & P. X. Chen (2013). Recovering discrete latent tree
models by spectral methods.
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Wang, X. F., Zhang, N. L. (2014). A Study of Recently Discovered Equalities about Latent Tree Models
using Inverse Edges. PGM 2014.
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Zhang, N. L. (2004). Hierarchical latent class models for cluster analysis. The Journal of Machine
Learning Research, 5, 697–723.
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Zhang, N. L., & Kocka, T. (2004a). Effective dimensions of hierarchical latent class models. Journal of
Articial Intelligence Research, 21, 1–17.
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Key References:
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Zhang, N. L., & Kocka, T. (2004b). Efficient learning of hierarchical latent class models. In Proceedings
of the 16th IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence (ICTAI), pp. 585–593.
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Zhang, N. L., Nielsen, T. D., & Jensen, F. V. (2004). Latent variable discovery in classification models.
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, 30(3), 283–299.
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Zhang, N. L., Wang, Y., & Chen, T. (2008). Discovery of latent structures: Experience with the CoIL
Challenge 2000 data set*. Journal of Systems Science and Complexity, 21(2), 172–183.
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Zhang, N. L., Yuan, S., Chen, T., & Wang, Y. (2008). Latent tree models and diagnosis in traditional
Chinese medicine. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, 42(3), 229–245.
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Zhang, N. L., Yuan, S., Chen, T., & Wang, Y. (2008). Statistical Validation of TCM Theories. Journal of
Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 14(5):583-7.
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Zhang, N. L., Fu, C., Liu, T. F., Poon, K. M., Chen, P. X., Chen, B. X., Zhang, Y. L. (2014). The Latent
Tree Analysis Approach to Patient Subclassification in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Evidence-Based
Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
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Xu, Z. X., Zhang, N. L., Wang, Y. Q., Liu, G. P., Xu, J., Liu, T. F., and Liu A. H. (2013). Statistical
Validation of Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome Postulates in the Context of Patients with
Cardiovascular Disease. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 18, 1-6.
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Zhao, Y. Zhang , N. L., Wang, T. F., Wang, Q. G. (2014). Discovering Symptom Co-Occurrence
Patterns from 604 Cases of Depressive Patient Data using Latent Tree Models. The Journal of
Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 20(4):265-71.
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