Transatlantic Joint and Double Degree

Report
2012 Conference
Feedback on transatlantic
double degrees
Evaluate-E and Adde Salem Projects
Giancarlo Spinelli
02/22/12
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
Nowadays there is a flourishing of highly
integrated curricula often leading to the
awarding of
• Joint Degrees
and
• Double Degrees.
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
We speak of double (or dual) degree project
when each of the two Institutions involved awards
its own (full fledged) degree to the candidate who
fulfilled the prescribed requirements.
A joint degree project on the contrary leads to
the awarding of a single degree issued by the
Institutions involved.
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
• The Double Degrees were originally
designed as elite projects.
• A typical example is given by the
Double Degrees of the T.I.M.E.
Association (Top Industrial
Managers for Europe) implemented
since 1988.
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
• Started in 1988.
• At present 53 top level Universities are
members of the T.I.M.E. Association.
• Almost 4000 Double Degrees at the Master
level awarded in 22 years. More than 400 from
PM
• A rigorous quality control of the process has
been maintained.
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
Nowadays
•Almost every European institution and
many non-European ones offer double,
and/or joint degrees.
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
They are considered as
“Top Products”
• That is why, when referring to quality in international
exchanges, we Europeans very often quote:
– Number of Double Degrees agreements.
– Number of students involved.
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
• Are these two parameters really
relevant?
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
There are reasons for concern
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
• For example many Double Degrees are offered
where the same workload is required as for a
single degree.
• What is the difference with respect to an
horizontal student mobility as in the
ERASMUS program?
• For the Universities this practice is often
justified by the legal obstacles (or complexities)
of joint degrees.
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
Will the job market consider those
double degrees as a simple rubber
stamping by the Universities?
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
• These are reasons of great concern for
some of us and, in particular, for almost
all our US partners.
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
• That is why, for example, the T.I.M.E.
Association established a “T.I.M.E. label
certificate” for its member Double
graduates who:
 Spent at least three semester at the host
Institution.
 Got at least 360 ECTS credits by the two
member Institutions without any double
dipping.
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
Anyway,
assessment, feedback and a common
nomenclature are badly needed since
Double and Joint Degrees are
mushrooming almost in a “wild” way
(and European Commission is strongly
promoting them).
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
• We need the opinion of stakeholders more rapidly.
• Institutions have discussed these issues in many
conferences.
• However, the points of view of other stakeholders
like alumni and employers are often quoted in an
anecdotal manner, not through a systematic study.
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
These needs are addressed by the
projects
EVALUATE-E
and
ADDE SALEM
Building a Secure World Through International Education
EVALUATE-E
2012 Conference
It is an ATLANTIS project (policy oriented measures) supported by
FIPSE and EC/EACEA
Partner Institutions:
Europe:
Politecnico di Milano, Italy (Leader),
TU Wien, Austria,
Lund University, Sweden
U.S.A.:
Virginia Tech (Leader),
University of Kentucky
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
Objective
Systematic feedback on transatlantic
Double Degrees mainly in engineering.
Building a Secure World Through International Education
ADDE SALEM
2012 Conference
It is an ERASMUS MUNDUS Action 3 project
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
European Universities
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Politecnico di Milano (leader)
Lund University – Faculty of Engineering
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
Instituto Superior Tecnico de Lisboa
Ecole Centrale Paris
Ecole Centrale de Lille
Ecole Centrale de Nantes
Budapest University of Technology and Economy
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
South American
Universities
Argentina
• Instituto Tecnologico de Buenos Aires
• Universidad Austral
Brazil
• Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
• Universidade de Sao Paulo
Chile
• Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Santiago de Chile
• Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso
Colombia
• Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla
• Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotà
Building a Secure World Through International Education
Purpose
2012 Conference
Enhancing attractiveness of highly integrated
programmes with Europe avoiding brain drain.
The core of the project is a study of the needs of
the South American job market and a feedback
on designing new integrated programmes.
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
ADDE SALEM project just started
EVALUATE-E project just finished
Let us see the general outcomes of EVALUATE-E
Building a Secure World Through International Education
Stakeholders
2012 Conference
 Actual students of Double Degrees
 Alumni
 Faculty and Administrators
 Employers
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
Actions
Survey questionnaires
Working conference
Focus Groups
Dissemination
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
Surveys
Four questionnaires were designed, one for
each category of stakeholders.
Each questionnaire was focused on four
areas:
 Engineering-specific skills,
 General academic skills,
 Reflections on program,
 Demographics
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
Data Analysis
Steve Culver
Associate Director
Office of Academic Assessment
Virginia Tech
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
Here very few examples only are shown.
For the detailed preliminary results of the survey see
Culver SM, Puri IK, Spinelli G, DePauw KK, and Dooley JE
Collaborative Dual-degree Programs and Value Added for Students:
Lessons Learned Through the Evaluate-E Project (2011)
in: Journal of Studies in International Education.
Another article will soon be published
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
1. Students
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
Engineering-specific skills
% indicating change for the better
(somewhat better, better, much better)
80%
syn
info
75%
70%
65%
60%
55%
50%
apply
knowl
id
probs
solve
probs
analyze
&
interpret
Building a Secure World Through International Education
social,
global
impact
2012 Conference
General Academic skills
% indicating change for the better
(somewhat better, better, or much better)
100%
adapt
to new
sit
90%
80%
think
critical
create
&
maintain
relate
effective
comm
70%
60%
50%
40%
Building a Secure World Through International Education
problem
solve
Reflections on program
% agreement
2012 Conference
(somewhat agree, agree, or strongly agree)
100%
comm
other
cultures
90%
80%
70%
60%
More
mrktable
more
scient
collab
across
discip
50%
40%
30%
Building a Secure World Through International Education
more
opport
for
pubs
2012 Conference
2. Faculties
Building a Secure World Through International Education
Engineering-specific skills
% improvement
2012 Conference
(somewhat better, better, or much better)
100%
95%
90%
85%
80%
75%
70%
65%
60%
55%
50%
syn info
probs
IND
prod
reports
Use
skills
problem
solve
Building a Secure World Through International Education
ethical
prin
2012 Conference
90%
85%
80%
75%
70%
65%
60%
55%
50%
45%
40%
General Academic skills
% improvement
(somewhat better, better, or much better)
retrieve
info
adapt
to new
sit
think
critical
Building a Secure World Through International Education
form
solution
problem
solve
Comparisons to other programs
% agreement
2012 Conference
(somewhat agree, agree, or strongly agree)
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
comm
other
cultures
More
mrktable
more pub
opps
more
scient
more
collab
scient
in
collab
discip
across
discip
40%
30%
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
3. Alumni
Building a Secure World Through International Education
Engineering-specific skills
% agreeing they were well prepared
2012 Conference
(somewhat agree, agree, or strongly agree)
100%
95%
90%
85%
80%
75%
70%
65%
60%
55%
50%
id
probs
apply
knowl
analyze
&
interpret
solve
probs
Building a Secure World Through International Education
syn
info
social,
global
impact
2012 Conference
General Academic skills
% improvement
(somewhat better, better, or much better)
100%
90%
think
80% critical
70%
60%
adapt
to new
sit
create
effective
&
comm
maintain
relate
problem
solve
50%
40%
Building a Secure World Through International Education
Comparisons to other programs
% agreement
2012 Conference
(somewhat agree, agree, or strongly agree)
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
comm
other
cultures
More
mrktable
more pub
opps
more
scient more
collab scient
in
collab
discip across
discip
50%
40%
30%
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
4. Employers
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
Here are the four items that the Employers
judged as the most important
for successful performance in their company
(scale 1-not imp; 7-extremely imp)
•
Item
Function effectively on multidisciplinary teams
Mean
6.19
SD
1.2
•
•
Solve previously defined & open-ended
engineering problems
5.81
1.2
•
•
Understand the impact of engineering solutions
in a social and global context
5.63
1.2
•
Identify and formulate engineering problems
5.62
1.3
Building a Secure World Through International Education
Length of degree program
2012 Conference
The following question was asked to the employers.
“If a term is four months long, what is the extra time
you believe would be appropriate for a dual-degree
program at either the masters or doctoral level?”
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
• The amazing (and reassuring)
answers:
– None (9%)
– One term (13%)
– Two terms (28%)
– Three terms (38%)
– Four terms (13%)
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
FOCUS GROUPS
 Stakeholders believe that collaborative programs
add value.
 Particular engineering skills and general
academic skills are emphasized.
 Emphasis on soft skills.
 Not great demand for teaching ethics.
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
The majority of the outcomes are extremely positive
…BUT…
Let me outline some criticalities to be taken into
account in future studies on the subject
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
On the problem of Joint/Double Degrees, so far, at
the University we have very often been selfreferential.
Many “data” on the reaction of the external world
still come from anecdotal experiences.
Very often employers do not know what we are
speaking of, but they emphasize their interest in
particular skills and ask to measure them.
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
Summary of External
Evaluation
University of Kentucky Meeting,
September 25-27, 2011
Ray E. Van Dyke, External Evaluator
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
General recommendations
Clarify the terms
Increase the N
Include the university as a stakeholder
Develop methods to gather empirical evidence –
academic analytics
Leadership of consortium should continue to
disseminate results of study
Seek further funding to focus and extend this work
Explore further the notion of value-added and
marketability
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
Broader recommendations
Determine the learning outcomes (skills/abilities,
knowledge, and attitudes/beliefs) that students should gain
from collaborative degree programs, specifically those
outcomes that would probably not be addressed in traditional
programs
Move beyond content, discipline-specific learning to
engage in the big questions of our time such as energy,
sustainability, poverty, etc.
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
Summary
Study provided significant contributions to
research on collaborative degrees
Not so much questions that were answered but
questions that arose
The exploration of unexpected findings and
questions from this study will provide important
evidence that could be used to continuously improve
collaborative
Building a Secure World Through International Education
CONCLUDING
2012 Conference
• More evaluation is needed
• More two-ways interaction with the world external
to the University is needed.
• Tools for measuring the skills of the graduates
could help.
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
Thank you very much
for your attention
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
February 19-22, 2012
JW Marriott, Washington, D.C.
Session: Feedback on Transatlantic Joint and Double
Degree: Evaluate-E Project
February 22, 2012
“Implications
and Future Directions for
Evaluate-E: Defining Degree Profiles
Through Tuning”
John H. Yopp
University of Kentucky
Lexington
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
• Key goals of the Evaluate- Project of the
Politecnico di Milano, Virginia Tech
University, Lund University, Technical
University of Vienna, and the University of
Kentucky- sponsored by the U.S.
Department of Education FIPSE Atlantis
Program and the European Commission
EU-US Cooperation in Higher Education
and Vocational Training Program.1,2
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
• Evaluate the effectiveness and added value of
existing joint or double degree graduate
engineering programs compared to conventional
single degrees from three European universities
and one U.S. university.
• Test the general assumptions that joint and double
degree programs, despite usually being longer and
more expensive, better prepare graduates to work
in a global job market through programmatic
interactions of a more discipline-relevant
international experience with a highly integrated
curriculum and research experience, leading to
greater and better employment opportunities.
Building a Secure World Through International Education
Project Methodology
2012 Conference
• Examine the strengths and weaknesses of these existing double
and joint degrees versus the conventional single degree programs
through surveys and focus group interviews with the four major
stakeholders: enrolled students, recent graduates, faculty
instructors and employers of the graduates of these programs.
• Use the findings from previous surveys and focus group studies
on joint and double degrees to supplement and guide those of the
Evaluate-E project.
• Lessons learned will be used to design future studies to
determine the effectiveness and value-added dimensions of
double and joint degrees.
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
Previous & Current Survey and/or Focus-group Studies
of Principal Stakeholders of Double and Joint Degree
Programs
Survey (S) and/or Focus Group Study (FG)
Stakeholders Surveyed or Interviewed
European University Association: Developing
Joint Masters Programmes for Europe Project
(2002-2004)-S3
Directors of international program centers, and
university administrators
EU-FIPSE ATLANTIS: Joint and Double Degree
Programs in the transatlantic context (2208-09)
S4
Faculty, international program administrators,
students, and employers
CGS Graduate International Collaborative
Project: NSF (2010)- S and FG5
Graduate deans from U.S. member schools and
Canadian universities
EU-FIPSE ATLANTIS: Evaluate-E project for
Engineering (2009-11)- S and FG2
Students and faculty in these programs, alumni
of the programs, and employers of program
graduates in Europe and the U.S.
Summary of Previous Surveys: Report to AIEA
All stakeholders
(2009)6
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2012 Conference
Lessons Learned & Implications for Future Directions
from the Evaluate-E & Previous Studies of Double and
Joint Degrees1-6
Evaluate-E Study
• Employer involvement as a key stakeholder in the creation of
double, joint, or single degrees is much less effective without prior
definition and understanding of program goals and competencies
and student learning outcomes that constitute the degree. The
academic terms used in the surveys and focus group discussions
were not fully understood by the employers.1,2,7
• “The benefits (value-added) of a dual (double) degree perceived by
all the stakeholder groups related more to personal growth,
communication and cross-cultural skills and less to subject matter
and personal growth.” and “There is added value in experiencing a
degree program in tow cultures.”2,7
• “There was no evidence provided by any of the stakeholders that
participation in a double degree program increased a graduate’s
employability.”7
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
Previous Studies
• An analysis of the findings from previous studies and of the
assumptions of the principal stakeholders found little research-based
assessments of these assumptions to establish actual “value-added.”7
• Previous studies (unlike Evaluate-E) were not designed “to capture
the structural characteristics of each program by degree type or
discipline.”5
• Major challenges to creating transatlantic double and joint degrees
include resolving the differences in degree requirements, defining
course and research requirements, and recognition and transfer of
credits.5
• Concerns of graduate faculty over awarding two degrees for one body
of work. “There is no consensus on how institutions should
address concerns about potential for double degrees to
confer double credit for a single body of work.”5
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
Key Questions Raised by these Studies and their
Implications for Future Directions
• How can the concern about
awarding double credit for one body
of work be addressed?
• How can the “value-added” of
double and joint degrees be created
and demonstrated by the
stakeholders involved?
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
A proposed approach to establishing the “valueadded” of joint and double degrees
Employ the Tuning Process developed in
Europe in the “Tuning Educational Structures
Europe” and “Competences in Recognition and
Education (CoRe2)” Projects8 and now a
Lumina Foundation-supported “Tuning USA”
Project in the United States9,10 to
Define and Assess the Program
Competences and Program Learning
Outcomes of the Degree Profiles of the Double
or Joint Degree.7
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
Information Sources for Comparison of Tuning
Processes in Europe (Bologna Process) and the U.S.
• A Tuning Guide to Formulating Degree Programme
Profiles (including programme compentencies and
programme outcomes)
Publication of the competences in education and recognition
project. J. Lokhoff, B. Wegewijso, K. Durkin (UKBARIC), R.
Wagenaar, J. Gonzalez, A.K. Isaacs, L.F. Dona dalle Rose, and M.
Gobbi (Tuning) Bilbao, Groninger, and the Hague-20108
• The Degree Qualifications Profile, defining degrees: A
new direction for American higher education to be tested and
developed in partnership with faculty, students, leaders, and
stakeholders Lumina Foundation. 20119,10
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The Definitions of Degree
Profiles from the European and
U.S. Tuning Processes: The
Basic Equivalencies7
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
The European Tuning Process8
• “The Degree Profile is a very brief document, of
around two pages, designed to convey the essential
information about a specific degree programme. It
locates the programme in the academic map of
disciplines or thematic studies. The profile specifies
the subject area or areas studied, identifies the level
(first [bachelor], second [master], or third [doctoral]
cycle) and indicates the special features that
distinguish it from other, similar programmes.
• The degree profile describes in terms of competences
and learning outcomes, what graduates will know,
understand, and be able to do by the time they have
successfully completed the programme.”8
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
U.S. (Lumina) Degree Profile
• “A Degree Profile- or qualifications frameworkillustrates clearly what students should be expected to
know and be able to do once they earn their degreesat any level. This degree profile thus proposes specific
learning outcomes that benchmark the associate,
bachelor’s, and master’s degrees- regardless of a
student’s field of specialization.”
• “…the Degree Profile defines competences in ways that
emphasize both the cumulative integration of learning
from many sources and the application of learning in a
variety of settings…”9,10
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
Rationale for Employing the Tuning Process for
Establishing the “Value-Added” Component of
International Double or Joint Degrees
• The Tuning Process is faculty-led and involves
students, alumni, and employers of the degree
holders defined in terms of degree profiles.
• The resultant degrees are clearly defined in terms
of program competencies to be achieved and
student learning outcomes, making the valueadded components transparent.
• The Tuning Process is spreading from Europe
rapidly to higher education institutions in other
parts of the world. It is now a major project of the
Lumina Foundation in the United States.
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
•
Defining student achievement in terms of student learning outcomes is
the current practice in both Europe and the United States. It is a core
requirement for institutional accreditation in the and is used for
disciplinary accreditation and departmental reviews in the U.S.7
•
The conference of European ministers at the Bologna Conference of
2009 in Leuven and Louvain-la-Neuve called for emphasis to be placed
on degree qualifications in terms of student learning outcomes.7
•
There is a close correspondence of the Generic Student Learning
Outcomes from the Tuning processes with the “Essential Learning
Outcomes” of the LEAP (Liberal Education & America’s Promise)
initiative of the AAC&U (Association of American Colleges &
Universities). These are commonly used by US colleges and universities
in their reform of General Education. Tuning would identify this
commonly assumed “missing component” in “Bologna degrees”. 7,11
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
• “AAC&U warmly welcomes he recent decision of the Lumina
Foundation for Education to create and test a “Degree Qualifications
Profile that defines US degrees at the associate’s, bachelor’s, and
master’s levels in terms of what students know, understand, and can
do with their knowledge.” 12
• “AAC&U and (we trust) our 1,200 college and university members
will work with Lumina in this game changing effort to set expected
standards for the meaning of the degree.”12
• “Hundreds of colleges and universities already use AAC&U’s
essential learning outcomes for their own work in curricular
reform.” “The competencies articulated in the Degree Profile closely
relate to AAC&U’s LEAP initiative’s essential learning outcomes. 12
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
References
Yopp, J.H. 2011. Evaluting transatlantic dual and joint degree programs: Assuring and assessing their “valueadded component (evaluate-E project as case study). NAFSA 2011 Annual Conference & Expo, Innovation and
sustainability in international education. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, May 29-June3, 2011.
Culvier, S.M., Puri, I.K., Spinelli, G., DePauw, K., and Dooley, J. 2011. Collaborative Dual-Degree Programs and
Value-Added for Students: Lessons Learned through the Evaluate-E Project. Studies in International Education
XX(X): 1-21, (In press).
European University Association. (2002-2004) Developing Joint Master’s Programmes for Europe: Results of the
Joint Master’s Project. Brussels, Belgium.
www.eua.be/eua/jsp/en/upload/Joint_Masters_report.1087219975578.pdf.
Kuder, M. and Obst, D. 2009. Joint and Double Degree Programs in the Transatlantic Context: A Survey Report.
www.iienetwork.org/file_depot/0-10000000/0-10000/1710/Folder/80205/TDP+Report_2009_Final21.pdf
Joint Degrees, Dual Degrees, and International Collaborations: A Report on the CGS Graduate International
Collaborations Project 2010. Prepared by Denecke, D. and Kent, J. Council of Graduate Schools, Washington, D.C.
Yopp, J.H. 2009. Differing and Convergent Views and Practices Employed by U.S. and European Universities
Regarding Joint and Double Degrees at the Doctoral Level. AIEA Annual Conference, International Education:
Engaging Communities, Atlanta, GA.
Yopp, J.H. 2011. Determining the “Value-Added” of Joint and Double Degrees: Assumptions, Challenges, and a
Proposed Approach. EAIE 2011 Annual Conference. Copenhagen, Denmark, September 15.
Lokhoff, J., Wegewij’s, B., Durkin, K., Wagenaar, R., Gonzalez, J., Isaacs, A.K., Dona dalle Rose, L.F., and Gobbi,
M. 2010. A Tuning Guide to Formulating Degree Programme Profiles, Including Programme Competencies and
Programme Learning Outcomes. Competences in Education and Recognition Project (CoRe2). Lifelong Learning
Education and Culture. DG Bilbao, Groninger, and the Hague. Published by U. of Deusto.
www.tuning.unideusto.org/tuningeu.
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
9. Lumina Foundation. 2011. The Degree Qualifications Profile- Defining degrees: A new direction for American higher
education to be tested and developed in partnership with faculty, students, leaders, and stakeholders.
10. FAQ’s on Bologna and Tuning. Wwwluminafoundation.org/ourwork/tuning/Q_and_A-Bologna_and_Tuning.html.
11. The LEAP Vision for Learning. 2011. Outcomes, Practices, Impact, and Employers Views. Association of American
Colleges and Universities.
12. Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) 2011. AAC&U statement on the Lumina Foundation for
Education’s Proposed Degree Qualifications Profile. Approved, January 2011.
Building a Secure World Through International Education
2012 Conference
• Research assistance was provided by Ms.
Andrea O’Leary ([email protected]).
Inquiries for this and related presentations
may be addressed to the author or Ms.
O’Leary.
• John H. Yopp ([email protected])
Building a Secure World Through International Education

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