The Relationship Between Second

The Relationship Between Second
Language Acquisition Theory and
Computer-Assisted Language
Chapelle, C. A. (2009). The Relationship Between Second
Language Acquisition Theory and ComputerAssisted Language Learning. The Modern Language
Journal, 93, 741-753. doi: 10.1111/j.15404781.2009.00970.x
Four general approaches of
Cognitive linguistic (Universal Grammar,
autonomous induction theory, and the
concept-oriented approach);
2. psycholinguistic (processibility theory, input
processing theory, interactionist theory);
3. human learning (associative–cognitive
CREED, skill acquisition theory); and
4. language in social context (sociocultural,
language socialization, conversation analysis,
systemic–functional, complexity theory)
Generative linguistics and Universal
Grammar (White, 1989) and autonomous
induction theory (Carroll, 2006)
focused on natural rather than instructed
 focus on explaining how innate mental
structures are responsible for a learners’
development of language
between SLA and CALL
language as “a dynamic interactive system for
conveying meaning,”
language learning as “the acquisition of the ability
to construct communicative meaning in a new
“since so complex an ability can hardly be ‘taught,’
the implication for instruction is to create an
environment—in class or in our materials—in
which students can work on acquiring that
(Garrett, 1991, p. 92).
Garrett, N. (1991). Technology in the service of language learning:
Trends and issues. Modern Language Journal, 75, 74–101.
Communicative CALL
“aim at acquisition practice rather than
learning practice,”
“not try to judge and evaluate everything
the student does,”
“use the target language exclusively”
(Underwood, 1984, pp. 52–53).
Underwood, J. H. (1984). Linguistics, computers, and the language teacher:
A communicative approach. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Instructional design
CALL designers, users, and researchers
need to be able to theorize not only the
“normal” process of acquisition but also
how to modify this normal process in
hopes of helping students to learn faster
and better.
Theoretical Approaches to
Second Language
Acquisition, Their Focus,
Example Implications for
Language Learning
Theoretical Approach to SLA
Focus of Theory
Example Implications for CAL
Cognitive Linguistic Approaches
Theoretical Approach to SLA
Focus of Theory
Example Implications for CAL
Psycholinguistic Approaches
Theoretical Approach to SLA
Focus of Theory
Example Implications for CAL
General Human Learning
Theoretical Approach to SLA
Focus of Theory
Example Implications for CAL
Approaches to Language in Social Context
Example of
CALL Instructional Strategies
Interpreted Through
Interactionist SLA
From a Psycholinguistic
 If
technology-based materials and tasks
are to be evaluated in terms of the
opportunities they provide learners for
SLA, then frameworks and guidelines
are needed for conducting such
A framework and principles for
evaluation of CALL (Chapelle, 2001)
six characteristics of
1. language learning potential
2. meaning focus
3. learner fit
4. Authenticity
5. Positive impact
6. Practicality
Chapelle, C. (2001). Computer applications in second language acquisition:
Foundations for teaching, testing,and research. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Communicative Competence
Contexts, Input, and Interaction
in SLA
Communicative Competence
Because learners communicate through
technology, communicative competence
needs to include the ability to
communicate using readily accessible L2
technology aids (such as online bilingual
dictionaries and tools that check
grammar), the ability to make appropriate
linguistic choices in face-to-face, remote,
written, and oral modes, and the ability to
choose appropriate technologies for
communication and language learning.
Contexts, Input, and Interaction in SLA
All approaches to SLA that theorize a role
for linguistic input need to consider the way
that technology changes linguistic input and
how learners’ access to new forms of input
might affect acquisition.
 Specific features of technology are relevant
to important aspects of interaction, such as
timing, directing attention, multimodality
and access to help, and feedback (Chapelle,
2003, ch. 5).
Chapelle, C. A. (2003). English language learning and technology: Lectures on
applied linguistics in the age of information and communication
technology. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

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