IPv6 Internet Society Meeting

Report
T-Mobile USA IPv6 Deployment
IPv6-only Mobile Perspective
[email protected]
May 2012
1
News Flash!
• T-Mobile IPv6 Deployment COMPLETE.
• Android Phones are starting to support IPv6
•
•
•
Nexus S
Galaxy Nexus
464XLAT code submitted
•
•
https://android-review.googlesource.com/#/c/34490/
ROM supporting 464XLAT and dual-stack WLAN tether
http://dan.drown.org/android/clat/
2
Objectives
• Listen for good ideas
• More technology cooperation's and aligned strategies
• Share perspective
•
•
•
•
IPv6 is needed for the Internet to grow
Dual-stack is not the answer (always…)
IPv6-only can work
User experience is key
3
Agenda
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
IPv6 is deployment is critical and possible
NAT is bad
Quick Review on Mobile Architecture
T-Mobile USA’s Path
Beta Deployment Results
IPv6-Only Service Enablement with 464XLAT
4
Define desired result, and work backwards
Problem: Global IPv4 exhaustion
Target: End to end IPv6
End to end IPv6 +
NAT64/DNS64 for ~50%
of flows (Possible today)
Squat-space IPv4 +
NAT44 (Yesterday)
End to end IPv6
End to end IPv6 +
NAT64/DNS64 for
long tail
5
A few big fish make IPv6 possible
Bing, Google,
Yahoo,
Facebook…
Grandma’s blog
6
We are out of IPv4 and IPv6 is not deployed
3 February 2011 APNIC
Out
2002 FreeBSD, Solaris,
Linux, Windows all have
IPv6 support
31 January 2011 IANA
Out
7
http://www.potaroo.net/tools/ipv4/plotv
ar.png
8
Everyone agree IPv4 is a dead-end for
“strategy”?
• Mobile
• Grid (m2m)
• Cloud
FAST GROWING EDGES THAT CAN ONLY GROW ON
IPV6
9
Amazon is big, and how many servers in
Google? And why did Microsoft BUY IPv4
addresses?
10
Machine-to-Machine Traffic to Increase
40-Fold Between 2010 and 2015
11
Nearly 6 Billion Mobile Subscribers
12
Over 1 Billion Mobile Broadband Subscribers
• 45% annual growth over the last 4 years
• Mobile broadband subscriptions outnumber fixed by 2:1
13
Mobile Traffic Growth
14
Review
• Mobile
• Grid
• Cloud
FAST GROWING EDGES THAT CAN ONLY GROW ON
IPV6
We all have to engineer for IPv4-only, IPv6-only, and
Dual-stack users and services
15
Total of 4.3 Billion IPv4 Addresses?
16
So, what should we do about this
problem of already having 4x
more connected devices than
IPv4 addresses?
17
Dual-stack is not bad… but ... An imperfect Analogy
Hybrid 44/44 $24k
(52% premium over base)
Tesla all-electric Model S
No gas, $50k, 0-60mph in 4.5
seconds
Standard 28/39 $15.8k
“Compared to a vehicle like the BMW
535i, Model S will save its owners
approximately $8,000 over five years
in fuel costs alone.”
18
20 Connections
http://www.nttv6.jp/~miyakawa/IETF72/IETF-IAB-TECH-PLENARY-NTT-miyakawa-extended.pdf
19
15 Connections
Buy Now
20
Anyhow, lets talk about mobile
• IPv6 in mobile network is easy, its all just tunnels
• Mobile has NAT today, NAT is bad
• Mobile has squat-space and overlapping IPv4 – this is a
big problem for IMS / SIP / WebRTC / P2P
• IPv6-only in mobile is feasible with NAT64/DNS64 and
has full IPv4 service parity when using 464XLAT
• After world IPv6 Launch, over 50% of T-Mobile’s traffic
for IPv6 users will be IPv6 end-to-end… NO NAT
21
From a network perspective, what
does a smartphone want?
Constant connection to 30+
clouds for updates
push notifications,
advertisement streaming, real
time communications
22
Quick Architecture Briefing
IP Anchor
Gn
Aggregation
+ Mobility
Gb
Cell Site
23
T-Mobile USA’s Path to IPv6
(as a new service, incrementally per handset model deployment)
 Dual-stack + NAT44

Drives 2x the PDP and thus 2x the cost directly via contract or
indirectly via utilization (bearer setup, mobility events …)


Relies on IPv4 addresses that legitimately are not available
Two different transports make troubleshooting at the user level
more difficult, harder to isolate the variables
IPv6-only + NAT64/DNS64
 Cost neutral for packet core (single PDP) and drives down cost of
NATs as IPv6 content goes up (AAAA)
 Familiar architecture to today (1 PDP + NAT function)
 Enhances current NAT with DNS64 load steering functionality,
NAT no longer must be “on path”
 Positively incentivizes use of IPv6 in the content network to bypass NAT
24
Brief on how NAT64 / DNS64 works
www.viagenie.ca/publications/2010-06-03-terena-nat64.pdf
25
Impact to Network Entities
Per subscriber PDP
Type to be changed to
IPv6
Dual Stack UE capable
of IPv4 and IPv6
Generate IPv6 AAAA
record from IPv4 A
record
Used for accessing IPv4 content on
Internet. Constructs IPv4 addresses from
last 32 bits of IPv6 address
HLR
DNS 64
IPv4
Content
No Change
SGSN
RAN
No Change
IP Backbone
‘IPv6 on User Plane’
feature to be activated
GGSN
NAT64
Test APN setting to be
changed to allocate
IPv6 addresses
Internet
IPv6
Content
26
Findings From the Beta
• Most things works fine
• Web, email, … work fine. No user impact
• 85% of Android apps work fine, similar general
experience with Symbian market (Ovi)
• Apps are developed in modern SDKs with high-level
APIs
• Some things don’t work
• Peer to peer communication using IPv4 referrals
(Skype, MSN, …)
• IPv4 literals http://10.1.1.1
• IPv4 sockets APIs
27
What breaks in IPv6-only environments? goo.gl/z3j3q
App Name
connection tracker
Crackle
Functionality
Broken
Broken
Version
NA
NA
Description
utilility
Video
DoubleTwist
Go SMS Pro
Broken
Broken
1.6.3
NA
media
Social
Google Market
Broken
3.4.4.
shopping
Google Talk
Broken
4.0.3
communication
Google+
Hotels.com
IP Track
Last.fm
Lookout
Netflix
ooVoo
Pirates of the Caribean
Scrabble Free
Broken
Broken
Broken
Broken
Broken
Broken
Broken
Broken
Broken
2.3.0
2.0.2
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
1.12.57
social
shopping
utilility
music
7utility
video
communication
game
game
Skype
Spotify
T-Mobile MyAccount
Broken
Broken
Broken
2.6.0.95
NA
5.6.11
communication
music
utilility
Tango
Texas Poker
TiKL
Broken
Broken
Broken
NA
NA
communication
game
2.7communication
Test Notes
does not show ipv6 connections
Does not play videos
cannot load radio station, says there is a
network error
sends SMS, but invites have ipv4 literals
says it cannot connect when downloading free
song for purchase. It cannot load carrier billing
agreement
text chat works fine, but video chat fails to
connect
status updates and instant upload, and IM
works, but no video hangouts. Says it times out
while connecting
cannot load search, says error connecting
does not show ipv6
cant create account, says network error
fails to login
fails to login
fails to login
says no network connection
cannot create account or find random opponent
Cannot connect to Skype, will not sign in
unknown error 101
cannot get any data
fails to login
cannot connect to servers
fails to connect
28
The Face Of IPv4 Literals
29
How to make EVERYTHING work on IPv6-only?
http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-v6ops-464xlat-00
30
464XLAT Traffic Treatment
31
Opt-in vs. Opt-out of IPv6

IPv6-Only has limitations today for legacy applications on
advance handsets, netbooks and laptops like Skype
 But, it is a good choice for basic data devices that
focus on web and email
 IPv4 is not going away. IPv4-only + NAT44 will be maintain as
long as needed, but we need to
start the migration to IPv6-only where
it fits. We cannot let corner cases stop
the progress of IPv6. We cannot wait
perfect.
32
References
[1] 464 IETF Draft http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-v6ops-464xlat-00
[2] T-Mobile USA IPv6 Beta http://goo.gl/HGmsy or
https://sites.google.com/site/tmoipv6/lg-mytouch
[3] Open Source 464XLAT CLAT implementation on Android
http://code.google.com/p/android-clat/ and http://dan.drown.org/android/clat/
[4] T-Mobile USA Android Market Application Functionality http://goo.gl/z3j3q or
https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0AnVbRg3DotzFdGVwZWlWeG5w
XzVMcG5qczZEZloxWGc
[5] Write up on the T-Mobile USA IPv6 Service http://goo.gl/W55YQ or http
://www.androidpolice.com/2012/01/29/t-mobile-usa-testing-ipv6-on-select-deviceshere-is-what-it-all-means-and-yes-no-more-nat/
33
Backup Slides
34
Things to Keep in Mind
 Content, Applications, and Services will be better served via end-to-end IPv6,
not NAT44 or NAT64.
 In 3GPP networks, the UE always request IPv4, IPv6, or v4v6 at the start of
each sessions. All 3 types can coexist which allows migration to IPv6 on a
device by device basis
 IPv4 Literals are a bad practice and will break our shared customers
 IPv4 address embedded in HTML / XML or applications, issue explained
well, but no good solution

Commonly found in video streaming content


IPv4 Literals represent major breakage in the IPv6-only network.
PLEASE USE FQDNs SO DNS64 CAN WORK, FQDNS ARE EASY
AND NOBODY WANTS CONTENT TO BREAK
 Customers will not tolerate broken content, they will move on to content that
works. Best for the content owner to control the IPv6 experience by providing
native IPv6 services, and not depend on CGN / LSN
 Must be mindful of security, but security != stateful network firewall
 Digital divide considerations
35
IPv6 is a requirement for LTE backhaul networks, and
will open opportunities for truly flat mobile networks
Internet
Border
Router
MME
Border
Router
IMS
MME
S and PGW GGSN
RAN
AGG01
i
SG 2
,
S1 d X
an
RAN
AGG02
e
ern
h
t
l
E
e r kh a u
b
i
c
F Ba
Mobile Switching
Office
t
SGi
Cell site router with
integrated S / P-GW and
NAT64 function
Local Internet
(GPON …)
36
And remember how we talked about innovation and
restoring the e2e principle
37
IPv6 is a Priority
 All T-Mobile users, with few exceptions, have non-routable
addresses and NAT44 to the Internet

Very difficult to scale and manage NAT44 capacity, AJAX and
other web technologies driving hundreds of sessions per user
(see NTT report …)

Large operators have to choose between BOGONs or overlapping
RFC1918 space, each have pros and cons
 T-Mobile USA has limited public addresses

VZW has 30x the public IP space that T-Mobile USA has, but TMobile is very good at LSN

NAT44 and can sustain current session growth for another ~5
year
 CGN/LSN is a risk to Femto cells, UMA, and FMC in general
IPv6 is needed to continue growth and avoid
scaling issues on NAT44
38
The IP Address Environment
 IPv4 end-point addressing is exhausted, majority of TMO mobile data






users have BOGON addresses with NAT44 to keep pace with mobile
data subscriber growth
Smartphones are driving a very large amount of network signaling as
they create and teardown bearers
Data subscribers keep growing as well as the amount of time a
subscriber is attached to the data network (always-on)
EOY 2012, projections indicate ~50% of user traffic can be served by
IPv6 end-to-end -- World IPv6 Launch
Any change to handsets drives substantial cost and drives out lead
time
There is no traditional business case for IPv6, have to rely on less
compelling story about business continuity and exposure to upside of
innovation in IPv6 combine with low cost to deploy
Leaders like Microsoft and Comcast have shown IPv6 is relevant
39

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