Process-Piping-Pipeline Engg PDP_Ray R10copies

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PROCESS ENGINEERING
PIPING ENGINEERING
PIPELINE ENGINEERING
RAY ALVARADO, P.E.
Member, Mapua Alumni Association
Alberta Chapter
Presentation Breakdown
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INTRODUCTION
PROCESS
ENGINEERING
PIPING
ENGINEERING
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PIPELINE
ENGINEERING
Acronyms
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CAE – Computer Aided Engineering
CAD – Computer Aided Design
HMB – Heat and Mass Balance, a Process activity
CFD – Computational Fluid Dynamics
FEA – Finite Element Analysis
PFD – Process Flow Diagram
P&ID – Piping and Instrumentation Diagram
LDT – Line Designation Table
ROW – Right of Way, for pipeline routing
HDD – Horizontal Directional Drilling, for pipeline crossing
HVAC/R – Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning &
Refrigeration
PROCESS ENGINEERING
PROCESS ENGINEERING
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PROCESS ENGINEERING - an early project activity for analysis of physical
separation or chemical conversion. It follows project definition and early financial
studies. System-wide Process simulation nowadays is computer-aided e.g. heatand-mass balances, logical block flows, control philosophies, and equipment
selection.
Important Deliverables:
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Process Flow Diagrams(PFDs) - schematic showing major process equipment,
main fluid flows, and basic stream characteristics (pressure, level, temp., flow).
Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams(P&IDs) - schematics with much more
detail and confirmed data. Shown here are process condition limitations, major
machinery specifications, minor equipment data, pipe size/details, instrumentation
types, and more precise controls/automation.
Line Designation Tables (LDTs) - spreadsheet report showing details of every
piping section e.g. start-end point, process variables, and other mechanical data.
PROCESS ENGINEERING
Usual entry-level positions:
 Chemical Process Engineer
 Mechanical Process Engineer
 Process Simulation Specialist
Minimum Skill Sets for a Junior Process Engineer:
 Undergraduate degree in Chemical Engineering, Mechanical
Engineering, or Chemistry-related academic programs.
 Basic knowledge of Fluid Statics/Dynamics, Thermodynamics,
Heat Transfer, and Chemical Unit Operations.
 Supplemental knowledge in Process Equipment Design,
Distillation Theory, Stoichiometry, and Chemical Reactions.
PROCESS ENGINEERING
CHEMCAD Process Simulation, Screen Images
PROCESS ENGINEERING
Heat and Mass Balance (HMB) Study, Selexol Process
PROCESS ENGINEERING
Early concept of an oil refinery
PROCESS ENGINEERING
Example of Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
PROCESS ENGINEERING
Example of Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)
PROCESS ENGINEERING
Process Engineering and Beyond:
 Next-Generation Process Simulators…..higher processing
speeds, capable of more simultaneous calculations,
broader chemical database.
 Multi-Physics Tools to the Mainstream……these software
can now be fully integrated with existing Process
Simulators.
 Intelligent 2D Diagrams……embedded data on PFDs and
P&IDs will pop up once a particular element is clicked or
highlighted on the drawing.
PIPING ENGINEERING
PIPING ENGINEERING
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Screen shots of CAEPIPE, a widely-used pipe stress
analysis software, showing the Input Geometry:
Piping layout
imported from
CAD 3D Model, or
manually re-created
PIPING ENGINEERING
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Stress Output…….watch for the “Reds”!
RED areas have
higher calculated
stresses
(needs re-work)
PIPING ENGINEERING
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Animation features…...it moves!
Shows areas of
excessive movement,
direction of thermal
growth, lift-off at
support points, etc.
PIPING ENGINEERING
If not analysed properly, pipes may…..
…deform and collapse
….or lift-off from supports
PIPING ENGINEERING
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PIPING ENGINEERING - a Mechanical sub-discipline mainly to
validate Piping Design’s pipe-fittings layout, inside enclosed
industrial areas, by computational analysis or technical reasoning.
Such activities follow right after critical and major piping are
completely laid out and supported.
PIPE - a closed cylindrical conduit for moving fluid (liquid, gas,
solid particles) from one location to another, either by gravity or
applied pressure.
FITTINGS - are transition elements for connecting pipes into an
assembly or conduit network. Elbows, tees, flanges, reducers, and
couplings are examples.
PIPING - logical assembly of pipes, fittings, valves, and supports.
PIPING ENGINEERING
Important Deliverables:
 Static & Dynamic Pipe Stress Analysis, Reports - computeraided, hand calculations, and “by-inspection” judgement.
 Finite Element Analysis (FEA) - on equipment nozzles, header
branches, and support attachments.
 General Pressure Calculations – wall thickness, branch
reinforcement, leak-strength testing, and hot-tap calculations.
 Sizing of Engineered Restraints - for spring supports, rollers,
sway braces, sway struts, seismic snubbers, etc.
 Detailing of Special Pipe Supports - as required by stress
analysis results or vendor special requests.
PIPING ENGINEERING
Plant Piping
3D layout of piping
and pressure vessels
Offshore platform piping
and equipment
PIPING ENGINEERING
Usual entry-level positions:
 Piping Design Engineer
 Pipe Stress Engineer
 Piping Materials Engineer
Minimum Skill Sets for a Junior Piping Engineer:
 Undergraduate degree in Mechanical Engineering, Chemical
Engineering, or related sub-discipline.
 Basic knowledge of Structural Mechanics, Strength of Materials,
Fluid Dynamics, Machine Elements Design, Materials Science,
and Welding Technology.
 Supplemental knowledge in Chemical Processes, Heat Transfer,
Thermodynamics, and Stationary/Rotating Mechanical
Equipment.
PIPING ENGINEERING
Examples of Engineered Restraints
Variable spring hangers
Constant spring can
Sway strut assembly
Seismic
snubber
Sway brace assembly
PIPING ENGINEERING
Example of Custom-Ordered Supports
Rigid hanger clamp,
for pre-insulated line
Support clamp with
fabric lining, for
vibrating lines
Pipe clamp and shoe, for
pre-insulated cold line
PIPING ENGINEERING
Piping Engineering and Beyond:
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Full Integration of computational Analysis Software with
3D CAD Model……seamless and bi-directional
compatibility of both CAD and CAE activities, thus
substantial savings of time and resources.
FEA/CFD Multi-Physics to the Mainstream……complex
analysis and engineering calculations can now be
simultaneously performed e.g. structural mechanics, fluid
flow, vibration, and heat transfer.
Opportunities in Oilfield Frontier Areas…….more
complex piping needs for fixed offshore platforms,
floating FPSOs, marine tanker, and Arctic process
modules.
PIPING ENGINEERING
FEA & Multi-Physics Analysis Tools
FEA of stab-in
branch
FEA of
crimped pipe
Multi-Physics Analysis
(thermal + structural)
of vessel
PIPING ENGINEERING
CFD & Multi-Physics Analysis Tools
ABAQUS 2D Multi-Physics
(fluid flow + thermal)
ANSYS 3D Multi-Physics (wind +
thermal + struct.) around reactors
COMSOL 3D Multi-Physics (fluid
flow + thermal) through elbow
PIPELINE ENGINEERING
PIPELINE ENGINEERING
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PIPELINE ENGINEERING - a Mechanical sub-discipline mainly to validate Pipeline
Design’s overland or seafloor routing, by computational analysis or technical
reasoning, outside the fenced industrial area.
Such activities usually start after initial project development, geodetic (land) or
bathymetric (ocean) surveys, and preliminary right-of-way routing.
Pipelines are generally classified into:
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Land Pipelines, Underground (Buried)
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Land Pipelines, Aboveground
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Underwater Pipelines
Important Deliverables/Involvement:
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Hydraulic Analysis, Steady-State and/or Transient (Surge)
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Pipeline Stress Analysis
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HDD (Horizontal Directional Drilling) and Crossing Studies
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Lateral and Upheaval Buckling Analysis
PIPELINE ENGINEERING
Usual entry-level positions:
 Pipeline Design Engineer
 Pipeline Stress Engineer
 Pipeline Hydraulics Engineer
Minimum Skill Sets for a Junior Pipeline Engineer:
 Undergraduate degree in Mechanical or Civil Engineering.
 Basic knowledge of Engineering Surveying, Structural
Mechanics, Strength of Materials, Fluid Dynamics, Machine
Elements Design, Materials Science, and Welding Technology.
 Supplemental knowledge of Heat Transfer, Thermodynamics,
and Stationary-Rotating Mechanical Equipment.
PIPELINE ENGINEERING
Land Pipeline Routing
Natural gas pipeline
right-of-way Routing Study
taken from terrain survey
Plan-and-Profile Drawing,
with data from routing study
and terrain survey
PIPELINE ENGINEERING
Pipeline Analysis
Seismic analysis….and mitigation
measures for Trans-Alaska Pipeline
while crossing the Denali fault line
River crossing…..suspension
bridge and cable stay details
for Trans-Alaska Pipeline
PIPELINE ENGINEERING
Engineered Pipeline Supports
Detail of H-Support
and side bumpers
Trans-Alaska Pipeline ammonia-filled
H-Support, with cooling fins, pile
driven through permafrost
PIPELINE ENGINEERING
Underwater Pipelines
Underwater gas pipeline
on uneven seafloor, with
free-spanned sections
Underwater pipelines, for oiland-gas production gathering
PIPELINE ENGINEERING
Seafloor Routing Study of underwater oil pipeline
PIPELINE ENGINEERING
Pipeline Stability Analysis & FEA
Overstress at seabed touchdown
area, due to excessive bending
from pipelay surface vessel
PIPELINE ENGINEERING
Pipeline Engineering and Beyond:
 Integration of Pipeline Surveys with Routing
Selection……in intelligent 3D format, these related
activities will be fully synchronized for accuracy and
cost savings.
 Pipeline 3D Models Imported Into Multi-Physics
Simulation…..like stress analysis, hydraulic surge, flow
assurance, global buckling, or ice gouging hazards.
 Deeper, Colder……in search for oil and gas, the
industry is pushing the limits of pipeline technology
beyond the world’s Continental Shelf and in harsher
Arctic environments.
PIPELINE ENGINEERING
Arctic Pipelines, Ice Gouge Hazard Analysis & FEA
Burial depth is
critical, to prevent
pipeline damage
Berg gouging
Gouged seafloor imaging
Sea ice gouging
PIPELINE ENGINEERING
CFD & Multi-Physics Analysis Tools (ANSYS)
3D CFD (fluid flow +
structural) through valve
3D CFD (fluid flow
only) through blades
3D CFD (fluid flow +
thermal) at junction
Trivia Question:
What’s the difference between
“PIPING” and “PIPELINES”?
Other than spelling, of course.
Answers:
PIPING
 Inside the enclosed industrial area or fenced plot limits.
 Physical configuration can be very complex.
 Mostly of short length, specified in feet or meters.
 Uses lower grade steel, thus pipe wall is thicker.
 Can operate at very high temperatures and pressures, or
conversely at cryogenic temperatures and partial vacuum.
PIPELINES
 Outside the enclosed industrial area or fenced plot limits.
 Physical configuration is usually simple, from point A to point B.
 Almost always very long, specified in miles or kilometres.
 Uses higher grade steel, thus pipe wall is thinner.
 Usually operates at moderate temperatures and high pressures.

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