File - Emma Esperon

Report
The Dark Side of Iron Gall Ink:
Corrosion and Conservation
Presentation by Emma Esperon
Library Studies 490
A Brief History
Middle Ages to the 1900s.
Predecessor: Carbon Ink
Successor: Synthetic Inks
Drafts of American Constitution
Leonardo da Vinci’s Notebooks
Ink Drawings Done by
Rembrandt and Van Gogh
Ingredients
Tannin from Galls on Trees (below)
Vitriol aka Iron Sulfate (left)
Gum Arabic, the binding agent (bottom left)
Water
Ink Corrosion Evolution
Model
Environment and Handling
1604
1807
Signs of Corrosion
Cracks Cause Holes in the Ink
Bleeding and Discoloration
Around the Ink
Change of Ink Color and Opacity
Risk Areas
Large Areas of Ink
Heavily Applied
Treatments:
Wash or Paper Simmering
Submersion in Near Boiling
Water
90°C Water for 15 minute
increments
Dissolves 50-100% of iron (II)
ions most of the acids
Consequences: paper shrinking,
bleeding
Treatments:
Deacidification
Aqueous Treatment
Magnesium carbonate, Calcium bicarbonate,
or Magnesium bicarbonate
Prevents Acid Hydrolysis (starch  sugar)
Alkaline Treatment neutralizes
the acids left by the Sulfate in
the Vitriol
The excess Iron remains in the
document to rust over time
Consequences:
Paper Yellowing,
Ink Bleeding
Treatments:
Phytate
Calcium-Phytate / Calcium-Bicarbonate
The Phytate chelates
Binds the iron (II) and iron (III) ions
Stops the Oxidation Process
The calcium-bicarbonate is a deacidifer
Neutralizes the acidic components of
the ink
Consequences: white powdered
precipitate that can be easily brushed
away
No Treatment
Original
Blotting
Sand
Remains
on Ink
(right)
Paper Simmering Consequences (below)
Before
Deacidification
After 
Treatment removes Original
Character of the record
Treatment fundamentally changes
the composition of the record
Cannot Prove History:
No Dating
Provenance
Authorship
Thoughts?
Preserve First!
Cool Environment
Low Moisture
Conservation
Calcium-Phytate /
Calcium-Bicarbonate
Method
Lesser Side Effects
No cracking, bleeding,
blotting, fading,
Stops the oxidation and
the acid hydrolysis
Works Cited
Banik, Gerhard, et al. The Iron Gall Ink Website. Ed. Birgit Reissland and Frank Ligterink. European Commission on
Preservation and Access, Bureau Metamorfoze, the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands, 13 Feb. 2011. Web. 16
Apr. 2012. <http://ink-corrosion.org/>.
Louisiana Binding Service, Inc. "LBS-A Unique Line of Solutions: Deacidification." Document Preservation Specialists. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2012. <http://www.louisianabindingservice.com/solutions.html>.
Morenus, Linda Stiber. “In Search of a Remedy: History of Treating Iron-Gall Ink at the
Library of Congress.” The Book and Paper Group Annual 22 (2003): 119-125. Web. 16 Apr. 2012 PDF File. <
http://cool.conservation-us.org/coolaic/sg/bpg/annual/v22/bp22-23.pdf>.
Pedersoli, Jose Luiz, Jr., and Birgit Reißland. "Risk Assessment." N.d. PDF File.
<www.viks.sk/chk/res_4_03_205_226.doc>.
Reißland, Birgit, and Suzan De Goot. "Ink Corrosion: Comparison of Currently Used Aqueous Treatments for Paper
Objects." N.d. PDF file. <cool.conservation-us.org/iada/ta99_121.pdf>.
Shamayim, Melechet. "Dyo Making." The STa"M Forum. Ed. Eli Gutnick. Blogger, 1 Mar. 2012. Web. 16 Apr. 2012.
<http://stamforum.blogspot.com/2012/03/dyo-making.html>.
Schell, Laura. "Process." Laura Schell Paper Conservator. N.p., 2009. Web. 16 Apr. 2012.
<http://www.paperconservationwny.com/process.htm>.
Tse, Season, et al. "The Effect of Simmering on the Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Paper." Restaurator and
Canadian Conservation Institute Newsletter 36 (Fall 2005): 14-35. Germany. Web. 16 Apr. 2012 PDF file.
<http://www.viks.sk/chk/res_1_05_14_35.doc>.

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