Presented by James Smetaniuk, RD, CDE Registered

Report
Nutrition and Cancer
Prevention
P RESENTED BY J AMES S METANIUK, R D , C D E
REGISTERED DIETITIAN
ALLAN BLAIR CANCER CENTRE
Quick Look
• CANCER PREVENTION BASICS
• WHAT CAN WE CONTROL
• WHAT ROLE DOES FOOD PLAY IN
PREVENTION
• NUTRITION AFTER DIAGNOSIS
Cancer Prevention
 About 1/3 of all cancers can be prevented by lifestyle
choices


There is no one food to eat
There is no one exercise to do
 It’s overall lifestyle choices
Cancer Prevention
Adapted from the American Institute
for Cancer Reasearch
Weight
Cancer
Prevention
Diet
Physical
Activity
Recommendations for Cancer Prevention
 Do not smoke or chew tobacco
 Be sun smart
Recommendations for Cancer Prevention
 Be as lean as possible
 30 mins physical activity everyday.
Recommendations for Cancer Prevention
 Avoid sugary drinks and energy dense foods.
 Eat a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grains and
legumes
 Limit red meats and avoid processed meats
Recommendations for Cancer Prevention
 Limit alcohol
2
drinks/day for men, 1 drink/day for women
 Limit salt and processed foods
Recommendations for Cancer Prevention
 Don’t use supplements to protect against cancer
 Breastfeed exclusively to 6 months
 After treatment, same guidelines apply to cancer
survivors.
Foods Can Fight Cancer….
 Directly
 Individual vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals have anticancer effects
 Synergy of compounds in overall diet that have the biggest
protective effect
 Indirectly
 Excess body fat increases the risk of seven cancers
 Vegetables and fruits are low in calories
 Whole grain and beans are rich in fibre and moderate in
calories
 Fill 2/3 of you plate with vegetables, fruits, whole
grains and beans
Cancer Prevention and Diet
ADD Cancer protective foods
SUBTRACT foods that increase risk
REPLACE large portions of calorie dense foods
Phytochemicals – the Cancer Fighters in our
Foods
 Phytochemicals – naturally occurring plant
chemicals
 Provide colour, flavour, odour
 Influence chemical processes in the body
 Thousands have been identified
Phytochemicals can….
 Stimulate immune system
 Block carcinogens
 Reduce inflammation
 Prevent DNA damage and help repair
 Reduce oxidative cell damage
 Slow the growth of cancer cells
 Trigger death of damaged cells
 Regulate hormones
Phytochemical
Plant Source
Possible benefits
Carotenoids
(beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein,
zeaxanthin)
Red, orange and green fruits and
vegetables
May inhibit cancer cell growth,
improve immune response and
work as antioxidants
Flavonoids (anthocyanins and
quercetin)
Apples, citrus, onions, soybeans,
coffee, tea
May inhibit inflammation and
tumor growth, aid immunity and
boost detoxifying enzyme
production
Indoles and Glucosinolates
(sulforaphane)
Cruciferous vegetables
May induce detox of carcinogens,
limit cancer-related hormone
production, block carcinogens,
prevent tumor growth
Inositol (phytic acid)
Bran from corn, oats, rice, rye
and wheat, nuts, soybeans
May slow cell growth and work as
antioxidant
Isoflavones (daidzein and
genistein)
Soybeans and soy products
May inhibit tumor growth, cancer
related hormone production and
work as an antioxidant
Isothiocyanates
Cruciferous vegetables
May detox carcinogens, block
tumor growth and work as
antioxidants
Polyphenols (ellagic acid and
resveratrol)
Green tea, grapes, wine, berries,
citrus fruit, apples, whole grains
and peanuts
May prevent cancer formation,
prevent inflammation and work
as an antioxidant
Terpenes (perilly alcohol,
limonene, carnosol)
Cherries, citrus fruit peel,
rosemary
May protect cells from becoming
cancerous, slow cell growth,
strength immune system, fight
viruses, antioxidant
Foods that Fight
 Apples
 Blueberries
 Broccoli and cruciferous veg
 Cherries
 Coffee
 Cranberries
 Flaxseed
 Grapefruit
 Legumes (dry beans, peas, lentils)
Foods that Fight
 Soy
 Squash (winter)
 Walnuts
 Whole grains
 Berries
 Dark leafy greens
 Garlic
 Grapes and grape juice
 Green Tea
 Tomatoes
Foods that Fight
 Herbs, Spices and Tea
 Turmeric
 Ginger
 Saffron
 Tea
What Does it Mean?
 Eat a variety of vegetables and fruits, whole grains
and beans
 Brightly coloured and strongly flavoured vegetables
and fruits are best source of phytochemicals
 STICK TO FOOD SOURCES
Nutrition After Diagnosis
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?
Incidence of Malnutrition
 Up to 80% of cancer patients experience
malnutrition during their illness
 Why?
 Increase in energy expenditure
 Changes in carbohydrate, protein and
lipid metabolism
 Decreased intake due to treatment side
effects
Effects of Malnutrition
  treatment complications and delays
  hospitalizations
  response to treatment
  quality of life
  survival rates
Benefits of Eating Well
 Improve immune function to help fight
infections
 Promote healing and recovery after
treatment
 Prevent muscle wasting and maintain
strength
 Provide energy to combat fatigue
Nutrition Goals During Treatment
 Maintain or improve nutritional status
 Maintain or increase current weight
 Manage symptoms related to cancer
and/or treatment
Nutrition Recommendations
Most Common Side Effects
 Decreased appetite
 Weight loss
 Dry mouth
 Sore mouth and throat
 Taste changes
 Nausea/vomiting
 Diarrhea
 Constipation
 Fatigue
QUESTIONS?
References
American Institute for Cancer Research: Cancer Prevention
– Putting it Together
http://www.aicr.org/reduce-your-cancer-risk/cancerprevention/
American Institute for Cancer Research: Diet – What We
Eat
http://www.aicr.org/reduce-your-cancer-risk/diet/
Canadian Cancer Society: Nutrition and Fitness
http://www.cancer.ca/en/prevention-and-screening/livewell/nutrition-and-fitness/?region=sk
LaMantia, J.(2012). The Essentials Cancer Treatment
Nutrition Guide and Cookbook. Toronto: Robert Rose.

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