Nutrition and Cancer Prevention P RESENTED BY J AMES S METANIUK, R D , C D E REGISTERED DIETITIAN ALLAN BLAIR CANCER CENTRE Quick Look • CANCER PREVENTION BASICS • WHAT CAN WE CONTROL • WHAT ROLE DOES FOOD PLAY IN PREVENTION • NUTRITION AFTER DIAGNOSIS Cancer Prevention About 1/3 of all cancers can be prevented by lifestyle choices There is no one food to eat There is no one exercise to do It’s overall lifestyle choices Cancer Prevention Adapted from the American Institute for Cancer Reasearch Weight Cancer Prevention Diet Physical Activity Recommendations for Cancer Prevention Do not smoke or chew tobacco Be sun smart Recommendations for Cancer Prevention Be as lean as possible 30 mins physical activity everyday. Recommendations for Cancer Prevention Avoid sugary drinks and energy dense foods. Eat a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grains and legumes Limit red meats and avoid processed meats Recommendations for Cancer Prevention Limit alcohol 2 drinks/day for men, 1 drink/day for women Limit salt and processed foods Recommendations for Cancer Prevention Don’t use supplements to protect against cancer Breastfeed exclusively to 6 months After treatment, same guidelines apply to cancer survivors. Foods Can Fight Cancer…. Directly Individual vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals have anticancer effects Synergy of compounds in overall diet that have the biggest protective effect Indirectly Excess body fat increases the risk of seven cancers Vegetables and fruits are low in calories Whole grain and beans are rich in fibre and moderate in calories Fill 2/3 of you plate with vegetables, fruits, whole grains and beans Cancer Prevention and Diet ADD Cancer protective foods SUBTRACT foods that increase risk REPLACE large portions of calorie dense foods Phytochemicals – the Cancer Fighters in our Foods Phytochemicals – naturally occurring plant chemicals Provide colour, flavour, odour Influence chemical processes in the body Thousands have been identified Phytochemicals can…. Stimulate immune system Block carcinogens Reduce inflammation Prevent DNA damage and help repair Reduce oxidative cell damage Slow the growth of cancer cells Trigger death of damaged cells Regulate hormones Phytochemical Plant Source Possible benefits Carotenoids (beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin) Red, orange and green fruits and vegetables May inhibit cancer cell growth, improve immune response and work as antioxidants Flavonoids (anthocyanins and quercetin) Apples, citrus, onions, soybeans, coffee, tea May inhibit inflammation and tumor growth, aid immunity and boost detoxifying enzyme production Indoles and Glucosinolates (sulforaphane) Cruciferous vegetables May induce detox of carcinogens, limit cancer-related hormone production, block carcinogens, prevent tumor growth Inositol (phytic acid) Bran from corn, oats, rice, rye and wheat, nuts, soybeans May slow cell growth and work as antioxidant Isoflavones (daidzein and genistein) Soybeans and soy products May inhibit tumor growth, cancer related hormone production and work as an antioxidant Isothiocyanates Cruciferous vegetables May detox carcinogens, block tumor growth and work as antioxidants Polyphenols (ellagic acid and resveratrol) Green tea, grapes, wine, berries, citrus fruit, apples, whole grains and peanuts May prevent cancer formation, prevent inflammation and work as an antioxidant Terpenes (perilly alcohol, limonene, carnosol) Cherries, citrus fruit peel, rosemary May protect cells from becoming cancerous, slow cell growth, strength immune system, fight viruses, antioxidant Foods that Fight Apples Blueberries Broccoli and cruciferous veg Cherries Coffee Cranberries Flaxseed Grapefruit Legumes (dry beans, peas, lentils) Foods that Fight Soy Squash (winter) Walnuts Whole grains Berries Dark leafy greens Garlic Grapes and grape juice Green Tea Tomatoes Foods that Fight Herbs, Spices and Tea Turmeric Ginger Saffron Tea What Does it Mean? Eat a variety of vegetables and fruits, whole grains and beans Brightly coloured and strongly flavoured vegetables and fruits are best source of phytochemicals STICK TO FOOD SOURCES Nutrition After Diagnosis WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? Incidence of Malnutrition Up to 80% of cancer patients experience malnutrition during their illness Why? Increase in energy expenditure Changes in carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism Decreased intake due to treatment side effects Effects of Malnutrition treatment complications and delays hospitalizations response to treatment quality of life survival rates Benefits of Eating Well Improve immune function to help fight infections Promote healing and recovery after treatment Prevent muscle wasting and maintain strength Provide energy to combat fatigue Nutrition Goals During Treatment Maintain or improve nutritional status Maintain or increase current weight Manage symptoms related to cancer and/or treatment Nutrition Recommendations Most Common Side Effects Decreased appetite Weight loss Dry mouth Sore mouth and throat Taste changes Nausea/vomiting Diarrhea Constipation Fatigue QUESTIONS? References American Institute for Cancer Research: Cancer Prevention – Putting it Together http://www.aicr.org/reduce-your-cancer-risk/cancerprevention/ American Institute for Cancer Research: Diet – What We Eat http://www.aicr.org/reduce-your-cancer-risk/diet/ Canadian Cancer Society: Nutrition and Fitness http://www.cancer.ca/en/prevention-and-screening/livewell/nutrition-and-fitness/?region=sk LaMantia, J.(2012). The Essentials Cancer Treatment Nutrition Guide and Cookbook. Toronto: Robert Rose.