Nutrition and Diabetes

Report
Carbohydrate Counting and Basic Nutrition
An education program for the person with diabetes
Presented by:
Lisa Cogbill, RD LD CDE
Objectives:
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Meal Planning
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What is a Carbohydrate
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Food Choices
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Label Reading
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Importance of Nutrition
Keeping the Body Healthy
Nutrition Management of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Healthy nutrition provides enough energy (or calories) for growth and
development and allows for normal activities of daily living and exercise.
Meal planning is part of your everyday life.
The key to success is balancing:
Food
Insulin
Exercise
Healthy choices with heart healthy meals are good for all individuals with
and without diabetes.
The needs will vary with age, sex, weight, and activity level.
THE 3 FOOD GROUPS
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats
Meal planning for type 1 diabetes is based on carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates raise blood sugar. In people with type 1 diabetes, we give
insulin based on the carbohydrates that are eaten.
The total amount of carbohydrates, protein, and fat in the meal plan will vary for
individuals.
Protein
Protein is a part of every cell in the body. Protein is needed for growth
and repair of the body. Important enzymes and hormones are also proteins.
Good sources of protein are:
Meats
Cheeses
Nut Butters
Both the amount and quality of the protein are important. Fortunately,
most individuals in the United States eat enough protein.
All individuals need to include carbohydrate, fat, and protein in their diet.
For the person with type 1 diabetes, we focus on carbohydrates and knowing
how many grams of carbohydrate we eat at meals and snacks.
Fats
Fats have an important role in a healthy meal plan.
For example, vitamins A, D, E, K and carotenoids are fat-soluble.
This means that fat is required for their digestion and absorption.
Fats provide energy, which is important for individuals to grow
appropriately.
Fats keep the brain and nervous system functioning normally and
help maintain healthy skin.
There are many different types of fat that have different effects on
cholesterol and cardiovascular health.
Saturated Fat –They are found mainly in animal-based foods
such as meat, poultry, butter, whole milk and whole milk
products, and from coconut, palm and palm kernel oils.
Monounsaturated Fat – Canola oil, olive oil, avocado oil and nuts
Polyunsaturated Fats- Corn, safflower, soybean, sesame, sunflower, peanut,
walnut, fish, and flaxseed oils
Eat Right
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Carbohydrates are the primary foods that affect
glucose levels.
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Foods with Carbohydrates
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Breads, crackers and cereals
Pasta, rice and grains
Starchy vegetables, such as potatoes, corn and peas
Non-starchy vegetables such as broccoli, salad greens and
carrots
◦ Milk and yogurt
◦ Fruits and juices
◦ Sweets and desserts
Straight to your blood stream
CARBOHYDRATE COUNTING
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Carbohydrate counting is important for meal planning when you
have diabetes.
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Knowing how much carbohydrate you eat helps you determine
how much insulin you will need.

Counting the total grams of carbohydrate in meals and snacks helps
you eat about the same amount of food.

Eating the same amount of carbohydrate, but from different foods,
have an effect on blood sugar.
MASTERING THE SYSTEM

After you know what type of foods
contain carbohydrates you need to know
exactly how much it contains.

Food labels, nutrient analysis apps and
books, and learning portion sizes are all
tools that can help you become accurate.
Tools and tips
Tools and Tips
Source: Adapted from Warshaw, H.S., Bolderman,K.M.: American Diabetes Association Practical Carbohydrate Counting:
A How-To-Teach Guide for Health Professionals., Alexandria, Va., Copyright © 2001 American Diabetes Association.
Counting carbs: Check the label

Serving Size: The portion
for which nutritional
facts are calculated.

Total Carbohydrates:
Includes grams of sugar,
sugar alcohol, starch,
dietary fiber.
Calculate a snack
How many carbs are in
4 crackers?
4 crackers = 2
servings
2 servings x 10 grams
per serving =
20 grams of carbs
Your turn …
How much is one
serving?
 How many grams of
carbs are in one
serving?
 If you eat one cup,
how many carb
exchanges is that?
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YOUR TURN

How many grams of carbs in a 6 inch turkey sub?

How many carbs in 60 fries?
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How many carbs in 1 cup of cooked green beans?
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How many carbs in 1 cup raw broccoli?

How many carbs in 1 piece of bubble gum?
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How many carbs in Moms homemade Chicken Pot Pie?
Chicken Pot Pie Recipe
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recipe makes 1 - 9 inch pie
1 pound skinless, boneless chicken breast
halves
1 cup sliced carrots
1 cup frozen green peas
1/2 cup sliced celery
1/3 cup butter
1/3 cup chopped onion
1/3 cup all-purpose flour
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/4 teaspoon black pepper
1/4 teaspoon celery seed
1 3/4 cups chicken broth
2/3 cup milk
1 (9 inch) unbaked pie crusts

Carb content in recipe
1 cup carrots – 5g
1cup peas – 30 g
celery and onion– 5 grams
1/3 cup flour -30 grams
2/3 cup milk – 8 grams
1 pie crust -96 grams
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Total Carbs = 174

Total serving in pie = 8
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Total for 1 serving= 174/8=21.75
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22 grams Carbs
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You are what you eat.
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The freedom of carb
counting can increase
the temptation to
overeat—which
inevitably leads to
weight gain.
Remember to eat at
least 3-5 servings of
vegetables and 2-3
servings of fruit.
RD Visits
It is recommended that all people with type 1 diabetes mellitus
see a registered dietitian at least once a year.
A dietitian can provide specific details on calorie, carbohydrate,
and fat needs.
They will also provide nutrition counseling to help manage blood
sugars and to promote health and wellness
Knowledge is power
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Any questions?
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Thank you!!!!

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