Gaps NAFMFP - NAFMNP Farmer`s Market Association

Report
GAPs:
Purpose, Requirements, Implementation
and Certification Process
Juan Anciso, Ph.D.,
Associate Professor and Extension Vegetable Specialist
Texas AgriLife Extension Service
[email protected]
956-968-5581
What does GAPs mean?
GAPs is an acronym for
Good Agricultural Practices
Purpose
Good Agricultural Practices or GAPs are basic
environmental, health and sanitary practices that aid in
the production of safe fruits and vegetables.
GAPs Facts
Prevention is Key!
• 100% control of microorganisms is
impossible
• Strategy is to reduce the risk
• System of accountability
• Most of the practices are common
sense
• Main change will be Farm Safety
Plan/Manual and record keeping
Recent Issues
2011, Listeria monocytogenes on cantaloupe
-- unknown, facility with environmental samples
2008, Salmonella St. Paul on Peppers
-- contaminated irrigation water
2006, E. coli 0157:H7 on Spinach
-- spinach crop contaminated by wild hogs or
cattle feces
Why do we need GAPs?
Every year, about 76
million cases of
foodborne illnesses
result in an estimated:
•325,000
hospitalizations
•3,000 needless deaths
•Economic losses
between $10-83 billion
Why do we need GAPs in
produce?
According to the FDA, from 1996 to 2007 there were
72 reported outbreaks of foodborne illness associated
with 20 fresh produce commodities.
5 Commodities = 76% Of
Outbreaks from 1998 to 2008
All Lettuce
26%
Tomato
19%
Cantaloupe
16%
Herbs (parsley)
11%
Green Onions
4%
Note: The above table may not account for all outbreaks from 1998 to
2008. Total of 72 outbreaks were reported.
Are GAPs required by law?
•Not mandatory by law today
•Will become legally binding once FDA comes
out with a rule since the Food Safety
Modernization Act.
•Exemption of selling at least 50% through
direct marketing and making less than
$500,000
•Mandatory by most large retailers
Requirements
• Have a Food Safety Plan/Manual
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Have a Designated Food Safety Person
Standard Operating Procedures in place
Employee Trainings on Hygiene once a year
Documents
Records (logs)
Microbial Water Testing
3rd Party Audit
Implementation (easy)
Develop a Food Safety Plan/Manual.
-- we can develop one for you
-- or go online and develop one
yourself (www.onfarmfoodsafety.org)
Designate a person in charge of Food Safety
-- either yourself or someone
-- display the Name and Phone number
.
Implementation (hard)
Most of these things are probably already being
done but not written.
The main part of implementation will be keeping logs
and records of everything you do for food safety.
In addition to having routine trainings with
employees to keep them up to date.
Passing the 3rd Party GAPs certification audit.
Certification/Audit
Process
Before you attempt a 3rd party audit:
• Go through a training (online –
agrilifefoodsafety.tamu.edu $40)
• Go through a check list to make sure all
necessary processes are in place and all
required documentation is available
• Have at least 3 months of records
• Will want to come during production time
Third Party
GAPs Auditors
USDA
http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/GAPGHPAuditVerificationProgram
NSF-Davis Fresh
http://www.nsf.org/business/global_food_safety_standards/globalgap
Primus
http://www.primuslabs.com/services/audits.aspx?menuID=2
SQF – Safe Quality Food Institute
http://www.sqfi.com/suppliers/certification-steps/
Food Safety Net Services
http://www.food-safetynet.com/auditing.html
SCS – Scientific Certification Systems
http://www.scscertified.com/fff/food_safety_auditing.php#gap
Third Party
GAPs Audit Success
Do not need a perfect score to pass the audit.
Passing the audit is good for one year standing.
Texas Department of Agriculture has a program for
those successfully passing the audit and attending
an approved TDA training the applicants
can get upto $750 reimbursement.
Food Safety Modernization Act
‘‘SEC. 419. STANDARDS FOR PRODUCE SAFETY.
‘‘(a) PROPOSED RULEMAKING.‘‘(1) IN GENERAL.—
‘‘(A) RULEMAKING.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of the FDA Food
Safety Modernization Act, ……..shall publish a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish
science-based minimum standards for the safe production and harvesting of those types of
fruits and vegetables, …….that are raw agricultural commodities for which the Secretary has
determined that such standards minimize the risk of serious adverse health consequences
or death.
‘‘(B) include, with respect to growing, harvesting, sorting, packing, and storage operations,
science-based minimum standards related to soil amendments, hygiene, packaging,
temperature controls, animals in the growing area, and water;
Food Safety Modernization Act
The amendment includes the following requirements for exemption:
1. Producers must have annual gross sales less than $500,000. This includes all
subsidiaries and affiliates of a business.
2. Producers must sell more than half their products directly to consumers (including
at farmers markets) or to local restaurants and retailers that in turn sell directly to
consumers.
3. FDA has authority to withdraw an exemption from a farm or facility associated with
a foodborne illness outbreak.
4. The distance from a facility or farm that is eligible to be a “qualified end-user” was
reduced to 275 miles.
Texas Senate Bill 81
A BILL TO BE ENTITLED AN ACT
relating to food safety.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF TEXAS:
SECTION 1. Section 431.2211(a), Health and Safety Code, is
amended to read as follows:
(a) A person is not required to hold a license under this
subchapter if the person is:
(1) a person, firm, or corporation that only harvests, packages,
or washes[, or ships] raw fruits or vegetables for shipment at the
location of harvest;
Do You Need to be GAP Certified
on your Produce Operation?
•Exemption of selling at least 50%
through direct marketing and making less
than $500,000
•FDA comes out with the Rules –
Probably audits will not be mandatory but
Food Safety Plans will be.
•Education, Education, Education will
probably be Mandatory.
Official Food Safety Plans
Guidelines
8 Main Areas:
• Water
• Manure and
Municipal Biosolids
• Worker Health and
Hygiene
• Sanitary Facilities
• Field Sanitation
• Packing Facility
Sanitation
• Transportation
Principle # 1
Prevention of microbial
contamination of fresh
produce is favored over
reliance on corrective
action once contamination
has occurred.
Don’t use a Band-Aid,
prevent problems
instead!!
Principle # 2
To minimize microbial food
safety hazards in fresh
produce, growers, packers,
and shippers should start
and use GAPs and GMPs in
those areas that they have
control over.
Principle #3
•Fresh produce
can become
microbiologically
contaminated at
any point along
the farm-to-table
food chain.
•The major source
of microbial
contamination with
fresh produce is
associated with
human or animal
feces.
Principle #4
•Whenever water
comes in contact with
produce, its quality
dictates the potential
for contamination.
•Minimize the potential
for microbial
contamination from
water used with fresh
produce.
Principle #5
•Practices using animal manure
or municipal bio-solid wastes
should be managed closely to
minimize the potential for
microbial contamination of fresh
produce.
Principle #6
Worker hygiene and
sanitation practices during
production, harvesting,
sorting, packing, and
transport play a critical role
in minimizing the potential
for microbial contamination
of fresh produce.
Principle #7
• Follow all applicable local, state, and
federal laws and regulations
• Follow corresponding laws, regulations,
or standards for operators outside the
U.S. for agricultural practices
Principle #8
Traceback, recordkeeping, documentation
• Accountability at all levels (farm, packing,
distribution center and transport operation is
the key to a successful food safety program.
• Qualified personnel and effective monitoring
ensures program functions correctly.
Major Points of GAPs Food Safety
(common sense)
•Prevention (animal and human fecal matter)
•Sanitation
•Worker hygiene
•KEEP RECORDS of worker training and
GAPs practices employed
•Anything WATER comes into contact
with can become contaminated
Water Concerns
Water must be potable (<2 generic E. coli/100mls,
drinking quality) for all post-harvest uses:
– Hygiene of workers
– Washing produce
– Transporting
– Cooling
– Processing
Temperature Difference
- Not greater than 10 degree F
Why Rinsing and Sanitizers do not clean produce or
eliminate the risk of a microbial contamination?
• Clean Greens Study - Looked at microbiological quality
of produce (arugula, cilantro, parsley, spinach, mustard
greens, collards, dill, and cantaloupe) from field to
loading on truck. Johnston et. al 2005. Journal of Food Protection 68:1840-47
•Various researchers looking at washing produce with
200 ppm chlorine
•Texas A&M study looking at various sanitizers
Water and Produce Sampling Scheme
Field
Field Crop
Crop
Wash Tank
Produce
manually
removed
from field
bins
Distribution
Produce packed into
boxes and top-iced
Packaging
Produce sample collected
Water sample collected
Conveyor belt
Rinse
Produce rinsed
with water (Antimicrobial agent
may be added)
10
Total Aerobic Bacteria
Total Enterococcus
7
6
8
Log CFU/g
5
Log CFU/g
6
4
4
3
2
2
1
0
0
Field
Wash
Rinse
Box
Field
Sample Location
Rinse
Box
Sample Location
Coliforms Levels from Field to Box
Parsley
Total Coliforms
8
Wash
E. coli Levels from Field to Box
E. coli
6
5
6
Log CFU/g
Log CFU/g
4
4
3
2
2
1
0
0
Field
Wash
Rinse
Sample Location
Box
Field
Wash
Rinse
Sample Location
Box
10
Total Aerobic Bacteria
Total Enterococcus
7
6
8
Log10 CFU/g
Log10 CFU/g
5
6
4
4
3
2
2
1
0
0
Field
Wash/Rinse Conveyor Belt
Box
Field
Wash/Rinse Conveyor Belt
Box
Sample Location
Sample Location
Cantaloupe
Total Coliforms
E. coli
6
5
5
4
4
Log10 CFU/g
Log10 CFU/g
6
3
3
2
2
1
1
0
0
Field
Wash/Rinse Conveyor Belt
Sample Location
Box
Field
Wash/Rinse Conveyor Belt
Sample Location
Box
Other Studies using 200 PPM Chlorine vs.
Water Rinse
Log reduction
Commodity
Pathogen
Water
200 ppm
chlorine
Cilantro
E. coli O157:H7
1.1
1.2
Cantaloupe
Salmonella
0.5
1.9
Cantaloupe
E. coli O157:H7
0.0
0.5
Cantaloupe
Salmonella
0.7
1.8
Brussels
sprouts
Listeria
monocytogenes
2.3
1.3
Tomatoes
Salmonella
0.0
1.2
Texas A&M Spinach Study
Treatment
Log Reduction
E. Coli O157:H7
Salmonella
0.7de
0.7de
0.6cde
1.0cde
Chlorine dioxide gas
30 min.
0.7e
0.3e
Chlorine dioxide gas
1 hr.
0.7de
0.6de
1.1c
0.9c
1.0cde
0.7cde
Peroxyacetic Acid
1.1cd
0.8cd
Lactic Acid
2.7a
2.3a
Water Wash
Ozonated Water
30 min.
Ozonated Water
15 min.
Calcium Hypochlorite
200ppm, free chlorine
Take Home Message on
Disinfectants and Washing
1. A reduction of 0.5 log to a 2 log of pathogens on produce
surface. About a 50% to 99% reduction. A kill step is often
defined as a 5 log reduction or 99.999% reduction.
2. Disinfection does have antimicrobial effects and are
important to prevent the wash water to remain sanitized.
3. Prevention of a contamination event is the first line of
defense rather than trying to clean-up or remove these
pathogens with aqueous sanitizers.
Helpful Links
GAPs information and for-sale items
www.gaps.cornell.edu
AgriLife Food Safety
Family Farm food safety and GAPs Plans
www.onfarmfoodsafety.org
Resources and Events
>
Pathogens
>
Hygiene and Handwashing
>
Produce Safety
>
Meat Safety
>
Poultry Safety
>
Texas GAPs online training
https://agriliferegister.tamu.edu/events/details.
cfm?id=797
Texas AgriLife Food Safety Website
http://agrilifefoodsafety.tamu.edu
AgriLife Food Safety App
Apple App Store
Texas GAPs and GHPs Food Safety Training
Curriculum Extension Publication B-6244 ($10)
http://agrilifebookstore.org

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