Chapter 7 Advertising and Promotion Research

Advertising &
1. Purpose/Methods of Ad Research
2. Secondary Data Sources (Yahoogle?!)
3. Purpose/Methods of Copy Research
Key Definitions
1. Advertising & Promotion Research:
Any research that helps in the development, execution or
evaluation of advertising & promotion.
2. Account Planning
A broader view than traditional research that introduces data
earlier in the development process & relies on a wider variety of
research techniques.
Advertising & Promotion Research
• Used to assist in determining market segments
• Plays a key role in helping creatives understand the
• Used to make go/no go ad decisions & when to pull
• Used to evaluate agency performance
Key Issues in Advertising &
Promotion Research
1. Reliability: The research method produces
consistent findings over time
2. Validity: The information generated is relevant
to the research questions being investigated
3. Trustworthiness: Usually applied to qualitative
data; does the data seem to make sense?
4. Meaningfulness: An assessment of limitations of
the data
Purposes of Developmental
Advertising Research
• Idea Generation. An agency often invents new,
meaningful ways of presenting a brand to a target
• Concept Testing seeks feedback designed to screen
quality of new ideas or concepts
• Audience Definition. Once a target segment have been
identified, planning proceeds with developing a
meaningful message
• Audience Profiling. Creatives need to know as much as
they can about the people to whom their ads will speak
Developmental Advertising
Research Methods
Focus Groups
• Brainstorming session with 6 to 12 customers
• May involve projective techniques
– Allow consumers to project thoughts & feelings
onto neutral stimuli
• May also use association tests
– Ask consumers to express thoughts or feelings after
hearing a brand or seeing a logo
An Interesting Focus Group
I like the Green
Bottle- it speaks to
me. It’s not easy
being green.
I think the bottle
should be more
Developmental Advertising
Research Methods
Other methods include
Projective Techniques
Association Tests
Dialogue Balloons
Story Construction
Sentence & picture completion
Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique
Developmental Advertising
Research Methods (con’t)
More methods include
• Field Work
– Embedded consumption: Learn from the experiences
of the consumer through direct observation
– Creative brief: outline of essential creative ideas
– “Cool Hunts”
• On the prowl for what is cool
Developmental Advertising
Research Methods (con’t)
• Internal company sources
• Government data sources
• Commercial sources
• Professional publications
• The Internet
Copy Research
• Research on the actual ads
• Used to judge the ads against a
• Sometimes a source of agency
Motives & Expectations in Copy
• Account team wants assurance that the ad does what it is
supposed to do
• The client wants to see how well an ad scores against average
commercial of its type
• Creatives don’t like message testing because it creates a
report card & “artists” resent getting report cards from people
in suits (Who wouldn’t?)
• Despite the politics involved, message-testing research is a
good idea most of the time--it can yield important data that
management can use to determine the suitability of an ad
Check your Spelling. Twice.
Evaluative Criteria in Copy
• “Getting It”
– Do consumers understand the ad?
• Knowledge
– Tests of recall & recognition
• Attitude change
– Determine where a brand stands
• Feelings & emotions
• Physiological changes
– Changes in eye movements or respiration
• Behavioral intent
– Do people say they will buy the product
• Actual Behavior
– Did people buy the product?
What sort of “feelings &
emotions” do you think
research would uncover
for this ad?
Copy Research Methods
• Communication Tests
– Are consumers getting the message?
• Resonance Tests
– To what extent does the ad ring true?
• Thought Listings
– Determine the thoughts that occur during exposure
• Recall Tests
– How much does the viewer remember from the message?
Copy Research Methods
• Recognition Tests
– Do people remember seeing an ad or sponsor?
• Attitude Change Studies
– Measure attitudes before & after exposure
• Frame by Frame tests
– Tracks emotional responses within an ad
• Physiological Tests
– Eye tracking, psychogalvanometer, voice response analysis
Copy Research Methods
• Pilot Testing
– Split cable, split run, split list
• Direct Response
– Track consumer inquiries or direct responses
• Single Source Data
– Use UPC product codes to track behavior from the TV to the
checkout counter
Account Planning versus
Advertising Research
Planning differs from traditional research in 3 ways:
Account Planner
Ad Researcher
An account planner works
with an account executive
Research handled by the ad
research department
Researchers put in more
prominent role
Researchers involved when
Emphasize qualitative &
naturalistic research
Emphasize quantitative
Another thought on testing
• No single method is perfect
• Researchers are employing more naturalistic
methods to understand how people use
media (& products)
What we need
• Ad research could do with some changes
• West coast agencies & British agencies
have embraced qualitative methods
• Ads are now often viewed as complex
social texts rather than equivalent of high
school debates
Audience definition is an important part
of the advertising/promotion research
process. Any ideas on the audience for
this ad?
1. Purpose/Methods of Ad Research
2. Secondary Data Sources
3. Purpose/Methods of Copy

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