Ancient Rome and Early Christianity 500BC *AD 500

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Vocabulary and Study Questions
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SSWH3: The student will examine the
political, philosophical, and cultural
interaction of Classical Mediterranean
societies from 700 BCE to 400CE.
A) Compare the origins and structure of the Greek
polis, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire.
B) Identify the ideas and impact of important
individuals; include Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
and describe the diffusion of Greek culture by
Aristotle’s pupil Alexander the Great and the
impact of Julius and Augustus Caesar.
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C) Analyze the contributions of Hellenistic
and Roman culture; include law, gender, and
science.
D) Describe polytheism in the Greek and
Roman world and the origins and diffusion of
Christianity in the Roman world.
E) Analyze the factors that led to the collapse
of the Western Roman Empire.
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In this Chapter you will trace the rise and fall
of the Roman Empire, and analyze its impact
on culture, government, and religion.
Can you name any ancient Romans?
Julius Caesar
Augustus Caesar
Mark Antony
Cleopatra
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Chapter has three main
ideas:
 *Power
and Authority
 *Empire Building
 *Religious and Ethical Systems
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Rome began as a republic, a government in
which elected officials represent the people.
Eventually, absolute rulers called emperors
seized power and expanded the empire.
About how many miles did the Roman Empire
stretch from east to west?
The Roman Empire stretched about 3,500
miles from east to west.
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At its height, the Roman Empire touched three
continents-Europe, Asia, and Africa. For several
centuries, Rome brought peace and prosperity to
its empire before its eventual collapse.
Why was the Mediterranean Sea important to the
Roman Empire?
The Mediterranean Sea gave Rome access to the
oceans for trade, conquest, and communication.
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Out of Judea rose a monotheistic, or single-god,
religion known as Christianity. Based on the
teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, it soon spread
throughout Rome and beyond.
What geographic features might have helped or
hindered the spread of Christianity throughout the
Roman Empire?
They had to control borders, protect distant
territories, rule different cultures and peoples, and
manage trade and commerce.
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The period of 500 BC to AD 500 saw the rise
and fall of an entire empire.
When did Rome become a Republic?
Rome became a republic in 509 BC.
How many years passed between the start of
the first and second Punic Wars?
46
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In what year was Italy invaded during the
Punic Wars?
Italy was invaded in 218 BC.
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What events happened in the world around
the time of the Punic Wars?
Empires were founded in India and China.
Notice the longtime span between the second
Punic War and Octavian’s defeat of Antony
and Cleopatra. What might this quiet time
suggest about events in Rome during the
period?
Rome was in a stable condition during this
period.
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After Diocletian became emperor of Rome
how long did the Western Roman Empire
survive?
It survived 192 years.
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According to legend, the city of Rome was
founded in 753 BC by Romulus and Remus,
twin sons of the god Mars and a Latin
princess. It is said that the infant twins were
abandoned on the Tiber River and raised by a
she-wolf. The twins are said to have built a
city in this site, Rome.
In, reality men and not immortals built Rome
in its highly strategic and fertile location.
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Rome was built on seven rolling hills
at a curve on the Tiber River, near the
center of the Italian peninsula. It was
midway between the Alps and Italy’s
southern tip. Rome was near the
midpoint of the Mediterranean Sea.
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Three groups of people inhabited the region
of Rome and eventually battled for control.
Those groups were the Latins, Greeks, and
the Etruscans.
The Latins built the original settlement at
Rome which was a cluster of wooden huts
atop one of its seven hills, called Palatine Hill.
Between 750 and 600 BC, the Greeks
established colonies along southern Italy and
Sicily. These cities became prosperous and
commercially active.
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The Etruscans were native to northern Italy.
They were skilled metalworkers and
engineers. They strongly influenced the
development of Roman civilization. They
boasted a system of writing and influenced
Rome’s architecture, especially the arch.
Etruscans launched a building
program that turned it into a city.
 The Romans adopted the toga
and short cloak, the Etruscan
dress.
 The organization of the Roman
army was borrowed from the
Etruscans.
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After Rome’s last harsh tyrant, the Romans
declared they would never again be ruled by a
king.
After this they established a republic, which
means “public affairs”. A republic is a form of
government in which power rests with
citizens who have the right to vote for their
leaders.
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One of the two groups in early Rome who
struggled for power. One group were the
Patricians.
The Patricians were the wealthy landowners
who held most of the power.
This group usually inherits their power and
social status. They claimed their ancestry
gave them the authority to make laws for
Rome.
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The other of the two groups in early Rome
who struggled for power were the Plebeians.
These people were common farmers,
artisans, and merchants who made up the
majority of the population.
The Plebeians were Roman citizens who had
the right to vote, but they were barred by law
from holding most important government
positions.
In time the Plebeians were allowed to form
their own assembly and elect representatives.
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An assembly of representatives that were
elected by the plebeians.
The tribune was responsible for protecting
the rights of the plebeians from unfair acts of
patrician officials.
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The important victory for the plebeians was
to force the creation of a written law
code...without unwritten laws, the patricians
often interpreted the laws for their
advantage.
In 451 BC a group of officials began writing
down Rome’s laws, which became known as
the Twelve Tables because the laws were
carved on 12 stone tablets and hung in the
Forum.
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Rome had achieved a balanced government
by taking on features of a monarchy (king),
aristocracy (nobles), and democracy (people).
Rome had two officials called consuls who
took the kingly role of commanding the army
and directing the government, but they had
limited power. They only served in office for
one year and could not serve on the consul
again for ten years.
Of the two consuls, one could always
overrule, or veto the other’s decisions.
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The Roman Republic government also had a
senate which was the aristocratic branch of
Rome’s government.
It had the power to act in both a legislative
and administrative function.
It consisted of 300 members of the upper
class Roman citizens (patricians). Plebeians
were later allowed to join the senate.
The senate exercised great influence over
both foreign and domestic policy.
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In times of crisis, the Republic would appoint
a dictator a leader who had absolute power
to make laws and command the army.
The dictator’s power lasted for only six
months.
Dictator’s were chosen by the consuls and
elected by the senate.
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Military service was just as important for
Romans as the government because in order
to hold certain public offices there was a
requirement of having to have served ten
years of military service.
Legions – Roman soldiers who were
organized in large military groups usually
consisting of about 5,000 heavily armed foot
soldiers or an infantry. Each legion was
supported by a calvary or group of soldiers
on horseback.
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Rome conquered the Italian peninsula. They
dominated both the Etruscans in the north
and the Greeks in the south.
Rome had different laws and treatment for
different parts of it conquered territory. The
Latins became full Roman citizens. Others
who were conquered became full citizens
with the exception of being able to vote. Still
other groups simply became allies of Rome
by supplying troops to the Roman army and
did not make friends with other city-states.
In 264 B.C. Rome and Carthage went
to war. Carthage was a city-state
located in Northern Africa. They
fought for control of the
Mediterranean Sea trade.
 The Punic Wars (3 wars) was a long
struggle from 264 to 146 BC (118
yrs.) between Rome and Carthage.
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First War (264-241BC) was fought for control
of Sicily and Western Mediterranean. (23 Yrs.)
Carthage defeated.
Second War began in 218 BC ended in 202 BC
and was masterminded by Hannibal a 29 yr.
old Carthaginian general who was a brilliant
military strategist who wanted to avenge
Carthage’s defeat. He did so by surprise
attacking the Romans. Carthage heavily
damaged the Romans, but did not capture the
city. (Read bottom of pg. 158)
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The Romans finally found a military leader to
match Hannibal’s boldness named Scipio who
in 202 BC devised a military strategy to
defeat Hannibal.
Third War (149 – 146 BC) Rome laid siege to
Carthage. Carthage was set afire and 50,000
of its residents were sold into slavery.
Rome’s victories in the Punic Wars gave it
dominance over the western Mediterranean.
SSWH3b: Identify the ideas and impact
of important people such as Julius and
Augustus Caesar.
 Essential Questions:
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What kind of problems did the Roman Republic
face?
What events led to the creation of the Roman
Empire?
Describe the Roman Empire’s economy and
government.
After Rome started to enlarge its
territory, its republican form of
government grew increasingly
unstable.
 Eventually the Republic gave way to
the formation of a mighty dictatorruled empire that continued to spread
Rome’s influence far and wide.
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The most serious problems were growing
discontent among the lower classes and a
breakdown in military order.
Economic turmoil – the gap between
the rich and poor grew wider. The
wealthy were forcing the poor and
enslaved to work their lands. Small
farmers were forced to sale their
farms and become homeless.
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Military upheaval – with the Republic’s
instability, generals began seizing
power by recruiting soldiers from the
landless poor and promising them
land for their service. Now soldiers
were loyal to their generals rather
than the republic.
Civil War – conflict between groups of people
within the same country.
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Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus attempted help
Rome’s poor. They were both tribunes on the
Plebeian assembly.
They proposed such reforms as limiting the
size of estates and giving land to the poor.
The brothers made enemies of numerous
senators, who felt threatened by their ideas.
They both met violent deaths at the hands of
their fellow assembly members.
Tiberius was killed in 133 BC and his brother
Gaius in 121 BC.
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Tiberius was elected to the assembly and
killed in the same year. (133 BC)
Gaius was elected to the assembly and killed
two years later. (121 BC elected, 123 BC
killed)
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Growing discontent among the poor class,
economic turmoil and military upheavals led
to the creation of the Roman Empire.
The Republic was UNSTABLE!
Military generals began to exert their power
and take over the Republic. These military
generals began to form triumvirates.
A triumvirate was a group of three rulers.
The first triumvirate was formed in 60 BC by
Julius Caesar, Crassus and Pompey.
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Julius Caesar was elected as the consul of the
first triumvirate.
Ten years after the creation and rule of the
first triumvirate, a second was formed which
included Octavian, Mark Antony, and Lepidus.
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Second Triumvirate
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Julius Caesar – a strong leader and military
genius. Caesar served just one year as his
triumvirate’s consul and then declared
himself governor of Gaul (present day France)
and became a great military leader there. He
would later in 46 BC turn on Rome and attack
and defeat them and the same year the
Senate appointed him dictator and in 44 BC
he declared himself dictator for life. He was
assassinated on March 15, 44 BC by a
number of his fellow senators.
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Julius ruled as an absolute ruler or one who
has absolute power.
He granted Roman citizenship to many
people in provinces that had been conquered.
He expanded the senate, adding friends and
supporters from Italy and other places.
He helped the poor by creating jobs
constructing public buildings.
He started colonies where people without
land could own property.
He increased pay for soldiers.
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He was Julius Caesar’s grandnephew and
adopted son. His name was Octavian before
taking on the name Augustus.
He was one of the three members of the
Second Triumvirate.
Just as his uncle, he forced one of the other
two members of his triumvirate to retire and
became rivals with Mark Antony.
After Mark Antony and Cleopatra’s death,
Octavian became the unchallenged ruler of
Rome and accepted the name Augustus.
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His rule was from 27 BC to AD 180.
During his rule and the rest of the 207 year
period of peace reigned with the exception
for some in tribe fighting.
He was the most powerful ruler of the
mightiest empire of the ancient world.
Amid the pomp of Rome, he lived a simple
and frugal life. His favorite meal consisted of
coarse bread, a few sardines, and a piece of
cheese-the usual food of a common laborer.
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Augustus was also a very religious and
family-oriented man. He held to a strict
moral code.
He had one child, a daughter, Julia who was
exiled from Rome for not being faithful in her
marriage.
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After Augustus declared himself “the exalted
one” he also kept the title imperator or
supreme military commander which is the
term that emperor is derived.
Rome now became an empire, ruled by one
man.
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His rule set the stage for a period of peace in
Rome that lasted for 207 years.
Rome was at the peak of its power from the
beginning of Augustus’ rule in 27 BC to AD
180.
For 207 years peace reigned throughout the
empire.
Pax Romana – the time period of peace and
prosperity or Roman Peace.
Rome under Augustus’ rule had an efficient
government and after his rule there were
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Other able rulers, although Augustus was
Rome’s most able ruler.
He stabilized the frontier, glorified Rome with
splendid public buildings and created a
system of government that survived for
centuries. He set up a civil service which had
paid government workers.
Nero, one of Augustus’ family members
became too powerful and corrupt which
brought about civil war which was followed
by a set of 5 good emperors.
After Augustus died in AD 14, the system of
government that he established maintained the
empire’s stability.
This was due mainly to the effectiveness of the
civil service in carrying out day-to-day
operations.
Agriculture was a very important industry in
the empire. About 90 percent people were
engaged in farming.
Rome also had a vast trading network.
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Rome emphasized the values of discipline,
strength, and loyalty. A person with these
qualities was said to have the important
virtue of gravitas.
The Romans were practical people that
honored strength more than beauty, power
more than grace, and usefulness more that
elegance.
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Slaves were a huge problem that was however
a significant part of Roman life.
Many poor people were slaves. These people
were treated cruelly and worked hard labor all
day long.
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Early Romans worshipped powerful spirits or
divine forces, called numina, that they
thought resided in everything around them.
Roman government and religion were linked.
Among the most important Roman gods and
goddess were Jupiter, father of the gods. His
wife was Juno whose job was to protect or
look over the women. There was also a
goddess named Minerva, the goddess of
wisdom and the arts.
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Wealth and social status made huge differences in
how people lived. The rich lived extravagantly and
spent large sums of money on homes, gardens,
slaves, and luxuries.
On the other had the poor barely had the
necessities to survive. These people were
supported by daily rations of grain. Behind the
temples and public buildings, these people lived in
crowded, rickety, sprawling tenements called
insulaes. These were poorly built multi-structured
apartments that were always a fire threat.
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To distract and control the people of Rome,
the government provided free games, races,
mock battles and gladiator contests.
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SSWH3: The student will examine the
political, philosophical, and cultural
interaction of Classical Mediterranean
societies from 700 BCE to 400CE.
D) Describe polytheism in the Roman world
and the origins and diffusion of Christianity
in the Roman world.
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Jesus
Apostle
Paul
Simon Peter
Constantine
Laity
Clergy
Bishop
pope
Theodosius the Great
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A Jewish teacher who was born in the town of
Bethlehem in Judea, and raised in a village
called Nazareth.
As a young man he was a carpenter.
At age 30 he began his public ministry by
traveling and preaching throughout Judea and
Galilee, doing good works and reportedly
performing miracles.
His teachings contained ideas from Jewish
tradition such as monotheism and the Ten
Commandments.
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He stressed the importance of people’s love
for God, their neighbors, their enemies, and
even themselves.
He also taught that God would end
wickedness in the world and establish an
eternal kingdom after death for people who
sincerely repented their sins.
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The main source of information about Jesus’
teachings are the Gospels, or the first four
books of the New Testament of the Bible.
Some of the Gospels are thought to have
been written by one or more of Jesus’
disciples or followers/pupils.
These 12 men later came to called apostles.
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Two of the twelve apostles.
Paul had enormous influence on Christianity’s
development.
He was a Jew who had never met Jesus and at
first was and enemy of Christianity. While
traveling to Damascus in Syria, he reportedly
had a vision of Christ. He spent the rest of
his life spreading and interpreting Christ’s
teachings.
He wrote influential letters called Epistles and
stressed that Jesus was the son of God who
died for people’s sins.
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A Jewish fisherman who had become a
follower of Jesus during Jesus’ lifetime.
He was a rough man whose emotions often
got him in trouble.
He is said to have denied that he knew Jesus
three different times while Jesus was being
persecuted. Peter became the first bishop of
Rome. Peter was referred
to as “the rock” by Jesus.
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The word Christianity is derived from Christ.
Christ means “messiah” or “savior”. Jesus was
called Jesus Christ after his death by
crucifixion, burial in a tomb for three days
and reappearance descending into the
heavens.
For everyone who believes this, they are said
to be Christians and practice the religion of
Christianity.
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Those who were strengthened by the
conviction that Jesus Christ had triumphed
over death continued to spread his ideas.
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The Jewish Diaspora was a set of attempts by
the Jewish people to break free from Roman
rule.
One break took place in AD 66 however the
Romans crashed Jerusalem in AD 70 and
destroyed the temple, leaving only a portion
of the western wall, which is today the holiest
shrine of the Jewish. ½ million Jews were
killed.
The Jews made another attempt to break
from the Romans in A.D. 132.
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Another ½ million Jews were killed, but the
Jewish religion survived. After this, most Jews
were driven from their homeland into exile.
This dispersal became known as the diaspora.
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The main reason was because they refused to
worship Roman gods which was seen as
opposition to Roman rule.
Some Roman rulers also used Christians as
scapegoats for political and economic
problems.
By the time Pax Romana began to crumble,
the Romans exiled, imprisoned or exectued
Christians for their refusal to worship Roman
gods.
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The widespread appeal of Christianity was
due to a variety of reasons. Christianity grew
because it:
*Embraced all people.
*Appealed to those who were repelled by the
extravagances of imperial Rome.
*Gave hope to the powerless.
*Offered a personal relationship with a loving
God.
*Promised eternal life after death.
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Constantine was the Roman emperor who in
312 BC was fighting three rivals for
leadership of Rome.
The night before a battle against his chief
rival at the Tiber River Constantine prayed for
divine help. He reported that he had saw an
image of a cross which is the symbol of
Christianity. He then ordered artisans to put
the Christian symbol on the soldier’s shields.
Constantine and his troops were victorious in
battle and he credited the success to the
help received from God.
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He became the first Christian emperor in the
4th Century.
Ruled Rome from 306 to 337.
His biggest project was the construction of a
new capital city in the east, on the site of the
Greek city of Byzantium on the shores of the
Bosporus which was called Constantinople.
(Currently Istanbul, Turkey)
Political and military reforms enlarged the
army and civil service.
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At the local level, a priest led each small
group of Christians.
A bishop, who also was a priest, supervised
several local churches. Eventually every major
city had its own bishop. Some bishops were
heirs of Peter the apostle and felt that Peter
was the first pope.
A pope is considered as the father or head of
the Christian church.
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As Christianity grew, disagreements about
Christian belief developed. Early church
leaders called any belief that appeared to
contradict the basic teachings a heresy.
In an attempt to end the conflicts, church
leaders tried to set a single, official standard
of belief. The New Testament was added to
the Hebrew Bible and in AD 325, Constantine
moved to solidify and further the teachings of
Christianity. He called together the church
leaders and they wrote the Nicene Creed
which defined the basic beliefs of the Church.
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Roman emperor who ruled after Constantine
from AD 378 to 395. Under his rule, the
Romans adopted Christianity as the official
religion of the Roman Empire.
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*Rome’s economy weakened due to several
factors.
*Agriculture faced serious problems such as
overworked and overused soil which hurt
harvests. Years of war destroyed farmland.
Eventually food shortages and diseases
spread which caused population to decline.
*Rome’s military was in disarray.
*Roman citizens’ loyalty eventually weakened.
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*Hostile rulers from outside of the empire
and pirates on the Mediterranean Sea
disrupted trade.
*Romans lacked new sources of gold and
silver.
*The government raised taxes.
*Stated minting coin money that contained
less and less silver –which led to inflation.
Inflation is a drastic drop in the value of
money coupled with a rise in prices.
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Roman soldiers had become less disciplined
and loyal. They gave their allegiance not to
Rome but to their commanders, who fought
among themselves for the throne.
To defend against increasing threats to the
empire, the government began to recruit
mercenaries.
Mercenaries were foreign soldiers who fought
for money. They would accept lower pay than
Romans and felt little sense of loyalty to
Rome.
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Feelings of loyalty eventually weakened
among average citizens. Romans cared so
deeply about their republic that they willingly
sacrificed their lives for it. Conditions of the
empire caused citizens to lose their sense of
patriotism and they became indifferent to the
empire’s fate.
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Diocletian was a strong-willed army leader who in
A.D. 284 became the new emperor of Rome. He
ruled with an iron fist and severely limited personal
freedoms.
He restored order in the empire and increased its
strength.
He doubled the size of the Roman army and sought
to control inflation by setting fixed prices for
goods. To restore prestige to the emperor’s
position, he claimed descent from the ancient
Roman gods and created elaborate ceremonies to
present himself as a god.
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He divided the Roman Empire because he felt it
had grown too large into an Eastern (Greekspeaking) half and Western (Latin-speaking) half.
Yes to a certain extent and especially for the
Eastern half which he maintained control of
because the great trade cities were there.
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He became the first Christian emperor in the
4th Century.
Ruled Rome from 306 to 337.
His biggest project was the construction of a
new capital city in the east, on the site of the
Greek city of Byzantium on the shores of the
Bosporus which was called Constantinople.
(Currently Istanbul, Turkey)
Political and military reforms enlarged the
army and civil service.
Constantine gained control of the Western part of
the Roman Empire in A.D. 312 and continued many
of the social and economic policies of Diocletian.
*After Diocletian’s death, Constantine also secured
control of the Eastern Roman Empire. (Single ruler)
*In A.D. 330, Constantine moved the capital from
Rome to the Greek city of Byzantium
(Constantinople). With the capital moved, the center
of power shifted from Rome to the east. After
Constantine’s death, the empire again was divided.
*The East would survive, the West would fall.
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Diocletian believed that the empire had
grown too large and too complex for one
ruler. His most significant reform was
dividing the empire.
Eastern Roman Empire –spoke Greek and
consisted of the areas of Greece, Anatolia,
Syria, and Egypt.
Western Roman Empire – spoke Latin and
consisted of the areas of Italy, Gaul, Britain,
and Spain.
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The decline took place over many years. Its
final collapse was the result of worsening
internal problems, the separation of the
Western Empire from the wealthier Eastern
part, and outside invasions.
In A.D. 370 a fierce group of Mongol nomads
from central Asia, the Huns, moved into the
region and began destroying all in their path.
In 444, the Huns united under a powerful
chieftain named Attila.
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Attila took 100,000 soldiers and terrorized
both halves of the empire.
In the East he attacked and plundered 70
cities (all except Constantinople).
In the West they advanced against Rome,
however bouts of famine and disease kept
them from conquering the city.
The last Roman Emperor, a 14j yr. old, named
Romulus Augustulus was ousted by German
forces in 476 BC.
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By the 2nd Century B.C. the Romans had
conquered Greece and greatly admire their
culture.
Educated Romans learned the Greek
language.
The mixing of elements of Greek, Hellenistic,
and Roman culture produced a new culture
called Greco-Roman culture.
This is often called classical civilization.
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Roman artists, philosophers, and writers did
not merely copy their Greek and Hellenistic
models, they adapted them for their own
purposes and created a style of their own.
Romans learned the art of sculpture from the
Greeks. They created realistic portraits in
stone. Much Roman art was practical in
purpose and meant to be used in a
educational setting.
During Augustus’ reign, the Romans
developed a type of sculpture called basrelief.
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In bas or low relief images were projected
from a flat background. This type of
sculpture was used to tell stories and
represent people, soldiers in battle and
landscapes.
Roman artists were particularly skilled in
creating mosaics which were pictures or
designs made by setting small pieces of
glass, stone, or tile onto a surface.
Romans also excelled at the art of painting.
Most wealthy Romans had bright, large murals
called frescoes, which were painted directly on
walls.
 The Romans excelled in architecture, a highly
practiced art. Although they continued to use
Greek styles such as colonnades and
rectangular buildings, the Romans also used
curved forms, the arches, the vault, and the
dome.
 The Romans were the first people to use
concrete on a massive scale.
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The best examples of Roman painting are
found in Pompeii and date from as early as
the 2nd Century B.C.
 Virgil
 Horace
 Livy
 Tacitus
 Virgil
 Horace
Most distinguished poet of the
Augustan Age.
 Wrote the masterpiece Aeneid in
honor of Rome. This work was meant
to rival the work of Homer.
 The poem was also meant to express
that Rome’s gift was the art of ruling.
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He was Virgil’s friend.
 He was a sophisticated writer who
enjoyed pointing out some of the
“follies and vices of his age.”
 He mostly laughs at the weaknesses of
humans in his works.
 In his work Satires, he directs attacks
against job dissatisfaction and greed.
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His histories are considered important
because they reveal Roman values.
There are not reliable sources from Livy
because he was not always factually
accurate.
Livy wrote The Early History of Rome a
142 book collection of which only 35
survive today in which he traced Roman
history to 9 B.C.
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Tacitus is notable among Roman historians
because he presented facts factually.
He was also concerned about the Romans’
lack of morality.
In his work Annals and Histories, he wrote
about the good and bad of imperial Rome.
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Rome’s legacy is its languages, institutions
and thoughts of the Western World.
*Latin remained the language of learning in
Rome long after the empire’s fall. It was the
official language of the Roman Catholic
Church into the 20th Century.
*The Roman’s were master builders. The
arch, dome, and concrete were combined to
build spectacular structures, such as the
Colosseum. Arches also supported bridges
and aqueducts.
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Arches also supported bridges and aqueducts.
Aqueducts were designed by Roman engineers to
bring water into cities and towns.
*Rome’s most lasting and widespread
contribution was its law. Some of Rome’s most
important principles were:
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Some of Rome’s most important principles
were:
All persons had the right to equal treatment under
the law.
A person was considered innocent until proven
guilty.
The burden of proof rested with the accuser rather
than the accused.
A person should be punished only for actions, not
thoughts.
Any law that seemed unreasonable or grossly
unfair could be set aside.
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Greeks
*Sons received formal
educations and they started
receiving it at about age 7.
*When sons got older they
went into the military.
*Most Greek girls did not go to
school, but learned from their
mothers at home.
*Girls also learned how to
manage a household (bear
children, cook, be good wives).
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Romans
*The fathers provided
education for their children
(boys and girls).
*Roman boys learned the read
and write. They also learned
morals, family values, the law
and physical training.
*Some girls went to primary
school only, to learn very basic
reading and writing.
Roman girls married at a
young age (12-14).
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Greek Women
*Women had male guardians.
*They could take part in
religious ceremonies with male
guardians, but were otherwise
excluded from public life.
*Primary job was to bare
children.
*Women could not own
property and always had a
male guardian.
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Roman Women
*Women did have male
guardians, but as time lapsed
they were no longer required.
*Fathers arranged their
daughters marriages.
*Females legal age for
marriage was 12-14.
*Upper class women had
freedom and independence.
*They could own, sell and
inherit property.
*They could attend public
events without male escorts.
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No people in the ancient world had more slaves
than the Romans.
The Roman conquests in the Mediterranean
brought about a change in the use of slaves.
Greek slaves were in much demand for jobs such
as tutors, musicians, doctors, and artists.
Some were assistant shopkeepers or craftspeople.
They were all used as household workers such as
cooks, waiters, cleaners and gardeners.
Slaves were also used as farm laborers and used
by contractors to build aqueducts.
Leader of the most famous slave
revolt in Italy in 73 B.C.
 He was a gladiator. (Swordsman)
 Revolt involved 70,000 slaves
 He was put to death by the Romans by
crucifixion (being nailed to a cross)
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There were many temples, markets, baths,
theaters, governmental buildings, and
amphitheaters.
There was a difference in the lifestyles of the rich
and the poor.
Rome was overcrowded and noisy. Overcrowding
limited cart and wagon transport and the noise
made sleep at night difficult.
Rome was dangerous at night.
Rome was filth ridden.
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The rich lived in villas (lavish homes) while
the poor lived in apartment blocks called
insulae.
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Insulaes could be as high as 6 stories high,
made of concrete, with wooden beam floors.
They were very poorly built and often
collapsed.
Fire was a constant threat. Fire of A.D. 64
destroyed a large portion of Rome.
Rent was high, forcing entire families to live
in one room.
Insulaes had no central heat or plumbing.
Many poor Romans spent most of their time
outdoors on the streets.

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