Vocabulary and Study Questions SSWH3: The student will examine the political, philosophical, and cultural interaction of Classical Mediterranean societies from 700 BCE to 400CE. A) Compare the origins and structure of the Greek polis, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire. B) Identify the ideas and impact of important individuals; include Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle and describe the diffusion of Greek culture by Aristotle’s pupil Alexander the Great and the impact of Julius and Augustus Caesar. C) Analyze the contributions of Hellenistic and Roman culture; include law, gender, and science. D) Describe polytheism in the Greek and Roman world and the origins and diffusion of Christianity in the Roman world. E) Analyze the factors that led to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. In this Chapter you will trace the rise and fall of the Roman Empire, and analyze its impact on culture, government, and religion. Can you name any ancient Romans? Julius Caesar Augustus Caesar Mark Antony Cleopatra The Chapter has three main ideas: *Power and Authority *Empire Building *Religious and Ethical Systems Rome began as a republic, a government in which elected officials represent the people. Eventually, absolute rulers called emperors seized power and expanded the empire. About how many miles did the Roman Empire stretch from east to west? The Roman Empire stretched about 3,500 miles from east to west. At its height, the Roman Empire touched three continents-Europe, Asia, and Africa. For several centuries, Rome brought peace and prosperity to its empire before its eventual collapse. Why was the Mediterranean Sea important to the Roman Empire? The Mediterranean Sea gave Rome access to the oceans for trade, conquest, and communication. Out of Judea rose a monotheistic, or single-god, religion known as Christianity. Based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, it soon spread throughout Rome and beyond. What geographic features might have helped or hindered the spread of Christianity throughout the Roman Empire? They had to control borders, protect distant territories, rule different cultures and peoples, and manage trade and commerce. The period of 500 BC to AD 500 saw the rise and fall of an entire empire. When did Rome become a Republic? Rome became a republic in 509 BC. How many years passed between the start of the first and second Punic Wars? 46 In what year was Italy invaded during the Punic Wars? Italy was invaded in 218 BC. What events happened in the world around the time of the Punic Wars? Empires were founded in India and China. Notice the longtime span between the second Punic War and Octavian’s defeat of Antony and Cleopatra. What might this quiet time suggest about events in Rome during the period? Rome was in a stable condition during this period. After Diocletian became emperor of Rome how long did the Western Roman Empire survive? It survived 192 years. According to legend, the city of Rome was founded in 753 BC by Romulus and Remus, twin sons of the god Mars and a Latin princess. It is said that the infant twins were abandoned on the Tiber River and raised by a she-wolf. The twins are said to have built a city in this site, Rome. In, reality men and not immortals built Rome in its highly strategic and fertile location. Rome was built on seven rolling hills at a curve on the Tiber River, near the center of the Italian peninsula. It was midway between the Alps and Italy’s southern tip. Rome was near the midpoint of the Mediterranean Sea. Three groups of people inhabited the region of Rome and eventually battled for control. Those groups were the Latins, Greeks, and the Etruscans. The Latins built the original settlement at Rome which was a cluster of wooden huts atop one of its seven hills, called Palatine Hill. Between 750 and 600 BC, the Greeks established colonies along southern Italy and Sicily. These cities became prosperous and commercially active. The Etruscans were native to northern Italy. They were skilled metalworkers and engineers. They strongly influenced the development of Roman civilization. They boasted a system of writing and influenced Rome’s architecture, especially the arch. Etruscans launched a building program that turned it into a city. The Romans adopted the toga and short cloak, the Etruscan dress. The organization of the Roman army was borrowed from the Etruscans. After Rome’s last harsh tyrant, the Romans declared they would never again be ruled by a king. After this they established a republic, which means “public affairs”. A republic is a form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders. One of the two groups in early Rome who struggled for power. One group were the Patricians. The Patricians were the wealthy landowners who held most of the power. This group usually inherits their power and social status. They claimed their ancestry gave them the authority to make laws for Rome. The other of the two groups in early Rome who struggled for power were the Plebeians. These people were common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up the majority of the population. The Plebeians were Roman citizens who had the right to vote, but they were barred by law from holding most important government positions. In time the Plebeians were allowed to form their own assembly and elect representatives. An assembly of representatives that were elected by the plebeians. The tribune was responsible for protecting the rights of the plebeians from unfair acts of patrician officials. The important victory for the plebeians was to force the creation of a written law code...without unwritten laws, the patricians often interpreted the laws for their advantage. In 451 BC a group of officials began writing down Rome’s laws, which became known as the Twelve Tables because the laws were carved on 12 stone tablets and hung in the Forum. Rome had achieved a balanced government by taking on features of a monarchy (king), aristocracy (nobles), and democracy (people). Rome had two officials called consuls who took the kingly role of commanding the army and directing the government, but they had limited power. They only served in office for one year and could not serve on the consul again for ten years. Of the two consuls, one could always overrule, or veto the other’s decisions. The Roman Republic government also had a senate which was the aristocratic branch of Rome’s government. It had the power to act in both a legislative and administrative function. It consisted of 300 members of the upper class Roman citizens (patricians). Plebeians were later allowed to join the senate. The senate exercised great influence over both foreign and domestic policy. In times of crisis, the Republic would appoint a dictator a leader who had absolute power to make laws and command the army. The dictator’s power lasted for only six months. Dictator’s were chosen by the consuls and elected by the senate. Military service was just as important for Romans as the government because in order to hold certain public offices there was a requirement of having to have served ten years of military service. Legions – Roman soldiers who were organized in large military groups usually consisting of about 5,000 heavily armed foot soldiers or an infantry. Each legion was supported by a calvary or group of soldiers on horseback. Rome conquered the Italian peninsula. They dominated both the Etruscans in the north and the Greeks in the south. Rome had different laws and treatment for different parts of it conquered territory. The Latins became full Roman citizens. Others who were conquered became full citizens with the exception of being able to vote. Still other groups simply became allies of Rome by supplying troops to the Roman army and did not make friends with other city-states. In 264 B.C. Rome and Carthage went to war. Carthage was a city-state located in Northern Africa. They fought for control of the Mediterranean Sea trade. The Punic Wars (3 wars) was a long struggle from 264 to 146 BC (118 yrs.) between Rome and Carthage. First War (264-241BC) was fought for control of Sicily and Western Mediterranean. (23 Yrs.) Carthage defeated. Second War began in 218 BC ended in 202 BC and was masterminded by Hannibal a 29 yr. old Carthaginian general who was a brilliant military strategist who wanted to avenge Carthage’s defeat. He did so by surprise attacking the Romans. Carthage heavily damaged the Romans, but did not capture the city. (Read bottom of pg. 158) The Romans finally found a military leader to match Hannibal’s boldness named Scipio who in 202 BC devised a military strategy to defeat Hannibal. Third War (149 – 146 BC) Rome laid siege to Carthage. Carthage was set afire and 50,000 of its residents were sold into slavery. Rome’s victories in the Punic Wars gave it dominance over the western Mediterranean. SSWH3b: Identify the ideas and impact of important people such as Julius and Augustus Caesar. Essential Questions: What kind of problems did the Roman Republic face? What events led to the creation of the Roman Empire? Describe the Roman Empire’s economy and government. After Rome started to enlarge its territory, its republican form of government grew increasingly unstable. Eventually the Republic gave way to the formation of a mighty dictatorruled empire that continued to spread Rome’s influence far and wide. The most serious problems were growing discontent among the lower classes and a breakdown in military order. Economic turmoil – the gap between the rich and poor grew wider. The wealthy were forcing the poor and enslaved to work their lands. Small farmers were forced to sale their farms and become homeless. Military upheaval – with the Republic’s instability, generals began seizing power by recruiting soldiers from the landless poor and promising them land for their service. Now soldiers were loyal to their generals rather than the republic. Civil War – conflict between groups of people within the same country. Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus attempted help Rome’s poor. They were both tribunes on the Plebeian assembly. They proposed such reforms as limiting the size of estates and giving land to the poor. The brothers made enemies of numerous senators, who felt threatened by their ideas. They both met violent deaths at the hands of their fellow assembly members. Tiberius was killed in 133 BC and his brother Gaius in 121 BC. Tiberius was elected to the assembly and killed in the same year. (133 BC) Gaius was elected to the assembly and killed two years later. (121 BC elected, 123 BC killed) Growing discontent among the poor class, economic turmoil and military upheavals led to the creation of the Roman Empire. The Republic was UNSTABLE! Military generals began to exert their power and take over the Republic. These military generals began to form triumvirates. A triumvirate was a group of three rulers. The first triumvirate was formed in 60 BC by Julius Caesar, Crassus and Pompey. Julius Caesar was elected as the consul of the first triumvirate. Ten years after the creation and rule of the first triumvirate, a second was formed which included Octavian, Mark Antony, and Lepidus. Second Triumvirate Julius Caesar – a strong leader and military genius. Caesar served just one year as his triumvirate’s consul and then declared himself governor of Gaul (present day France) and became a great military leader there. He would later in 46 BC turn on Rome and attack and defeat them and the same year the Senate appointed him dictator and in 44 BC he declared himself dictator for life. He was assassinated on March 15, 44 BC by a number of his fellow senators. Julius ruled as an absolute ruler or one who has absolute power. He granted Roman citizenship to many people in provinces that had been conquered. He expanded the senate, adding friends and supporters from Italy and other places. He helped the poor by creating jobs constructing public buildings. He started colonies where people without land could own property. He increased pay for soldiers. He was Julius Caesar’s grandnephew and adopted son. His name was Octavian before taking on the name Augustus. He was one of the three members of the Second Triumvirate. Just as his uncle, he forced one of the other two members of his triumvirate to retire and became rivals with Mark Antony. After Mark Antony and Cleopatra’s death, Octavian became the unchallenged ruler of Rome and accepted the name Augustus. His rule was from 27 BC to AD 180. During his rule and the rest of the 207 year period of peace reigned with the exception for some in tribe fighting. He was the most powerful ruler of the mightiest empire of the ancient world. Amid the pomp of Rome, he lived a simple and frugal life. His favorite meal consisted of coarse bread, a few sardines, and a piece of cheese-the usual food of a common laborer. Augustus was also a very religious and family-oriented man. He held to a strict moral code. He had one child, a daughter, Julia who was exiled from Rome for not being faithful in her marriage. After Augustus declared himself “the exalted one” he also kept the title imperator or supreme military commander which is the term that emperor is derived. Rome now became an empire, ruled by one man. His rule set the stage for a period of peace in Rome that lasted for 207 years. Rome was at the peak of its power from the beginning of Augustus’ rule in 27 BC to AD 180. For 207 years peace reigned throughout the empire. Pax Romana – the time period of peace and prosperity or Roman Peace. Rome under Augustus’ rule had an efficient government and after his rule there were Other able rulers, although Augustus was Rome’s most able ruler. He stabilized the frontier, glorified Rome with splendid public buildings and created a system of government that survived for centuries. He set up a civil service which had paid government workers. Nero, one of Augustus’ family members became too powerful and corrupt which brought about civil war which was followed by a set of 5 good emperors. After Augustus died in AD 14, the system of government that he established maintained the empire’s stability. This was due mainly to the effectiveness of the civil service in carrying out day-to-day operations. Agriculture was a very important industry in the empire. About 90 percent people were engaged in farming. Rome also had a vast trading network. Rome emphasized the values of discipline, strength, and loyalty. A person with these qualities was said to have the important virtue of gravitas. The Romans were practical people that honored strength more than beauty, power more than grace, and usefulness more that elegance. Slaves were a huge problem that was however a significant part of Roman life. Many poor people were slaves. These people were treated cruelly and worked hard labor all day long. Early Romans worshipped powerful spirits or divine forces, called numina, that they thought resided in everything around them. Roman government and religion were linked. Among the most important Roman gods and goddess were Jupiter, father of the gods. His wife was Juno whose job was to protect or look over the women. There was also a goddess named Minerva, the goddess of wisdom and the arts. Wealth and social status made huge differences in how people lived. The rich lived extravagantly and spent large sums of money on homes, gardens, slaves, and luxuries. On the other had the poor barely had the necessities to survive. These people were supported by daily rations of grain. Behind the temples and public buildings, these people lived in crowded, rickety, sprawling tenements called insulaes. These were poorly built multi-structured apartments that were always a fire threat. To distract and control the people of Rome, the government provided free games, races, mock battles and gladiator contests. SSWH3: The student will examine the political, philosophical, and cultural interaction of Classical Mediterranean societies from 700 BCE to 400CE. D) Describe polytheism in the Roman world and the origins and diffusion of Christianity in the Roman world. Jesus Apostle Paul Simon Peter Constantine Laity Clergy Bishop pope Theodosius the Great A Jewish teacher who was born in the town of Bethlehem in Judea, and raised in a village called Nazareth. As a young man he was a carpenter. At age 30 he began his public ministry by traveling and preaching throughout Judea and Galilee, doing good works and reportedly performing miracles. His teachings contained ideas from Jewish tradition such as monotheism and the Ten Commandments. He stressed the importance of people’s love for God, their neighbors, their enemies, and even themselves. He also taught that God would end wickedness in the world and establish an eternal kingdom after death for people who sincerely repented their sins. The main source of information about Jesus’ teachings are the Gospels, or the first four books of the New Testament of the Bible. Some of the Gospels are thought to have been written by one or more of Jesus’ disciples or followers/pupils. These 12 men later came to called apostles. Two of the twelve apostles. Paul had enormous influence on Christianity’s development. He was a Jew who had never met Jesus and at first was and enemy of Christianity. While traveling to Damascus in Syria, he reportedly had a vision of Christ. He spent the rest of his life spreading and interpreting Christ’s teachings. He wrote influential letters called Epistles and stressed that Jesus was the son of God who died for people’s sins. A Jewish fisherman who had become a follower of Jesus during Jesus’ lifetime. He was a rough man whose emotions often got him in trouble. He is said to have denied that he knew Jesus three different times while Jesus was being persecuted. Peter became the first bishop of Rome. Peter was referred to as “the rock” by Jesus. The word Christianity is derived from Christ. Christ means “messiah” or “savior”. Jesus was called Jesus Christ after his death by crucifixion, burial in a tomb for three days and reappearance descending into the heavens. For everyone who believes this, they are said to be Christians and practice the religion of Christianity. Those who were strengthened by the conviction that Jesus Christ had triumphed over death continued to spread his ideas. The Jewish Diaspora was a set of attempts by the Jewish people to break free from Roman rule. One break took place in AD 66 however the Romans crashed Jerusalem in AD 70 and destroyed the temple, leaving only a portion of the western wall, which is today the holiest shrine of the Jewish. ½ million Jews were killed. The Jews made another attempt to break from the Romans in A.D. 132. Another ½ million Jews were killed, but the Jewish religion survived. After this, most Jews were driven from their homeland into exile. This dispersal became known as the diaspora. The main reason was because they refused to worship Roman gods which was seen as opposition to Roman rule. Some Roman rulers also used Christians as scapegoats for political and economic problems. By the time Pax Romana began to crumble, the Romans exiled, imprisoned or exectued Christians for their refusal to worship Roman gods. The widespread appeal of Christianity was due to a variety of reasons. Christianity grew because it: *Embraced all people. *Appealed to those who were repelled by the extravagances of imperial Rome. *Gave hope to the powerless. *Offered a personal relationship with a loving God. *Promised eternal life after death. Constantine was the Roman emperor who in 312 BC was fighting three rivals for leadership of Rome. The night before a battle against his chief rival at the Tiber River Constantine prayed for divine help. He reported that he had saw an image of a cross which is the symbol of Christianity. He then ordered artisans to put the Christian symbol on the soldier’s shields. Constantine and his troops were victorious in battle and he credited the success to the help received from God. He became the first Christian emperor in the 4th Century. Ruled Rome from 306 to 337. His biggest project was the construction of a new capital city in the east, on the site of the Greek city of Byzantium on the shores of the Bosporus which was called Constantinople. (Currently Istanbul, Turkey) Political and military reforms enlarged the army and civil service. At the local level, a priest led each small group of Christians. A bishop, who also was a priest, supervised several local churches. Eventually every major city had its own bishop. Some bishops were heirs of Peter the apostle and felt that Peter was the first pope. A pope is considered as the father or head of the Christian church. As Christianity grew, disagreements about Christian belief developed. Early church leaders called any belief that appeared to contradict the basic teachings a heresy. In an attempt to end the conflicts, church leaders tried to set a single, official standard of belief. The New Testament was added to the Hebrew Bible and in AD 325, Constantine moved to solidify and further the teachings of Christianity. He called together the church leaders and they wrote the Nicene Creed which defined the basic beliefs of the Church. Roman emperor who ruled after Constantine from AD 378 to 395. Under his rule, the Romans adopted Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire. *Rome’s economy weakened due to several factors. *Agriculture faced serious problems such as overworked and overused soil which hurt harvests. Years of war destroyed farmland. Eventually food shortages and diseases spread which caused population to decline. *Rome’s military was in disarray. *Roman citizens’ loyalty eventually weakened. *Hostile rulers from outside of the empire and pirates on the Mediterranean Sea disrupted trade. *Romans lacked new sources of gold and silver. *The government raised taxes. *Stated minting coin money that contained less and less silver –which led to inflation. Inflation is a drastic drop in the value of money coupled with a rise in prices. Roman soldiers had become less disciplined and loyal. They gave their allegiance not to Rome but to their commanders, who fought among themselves for the throne. To defend against increasing threats to the empire, the government began to recruit mercenaries. Mercenaries were foreign soldiers who fought for money. They would accept lower pay than Romans and felt little sense of loyalty to Rome. Feelings of loyalty eventually weakened among average citizens. Romans cared so deeply about their republic that they willingly sacrificed their lives for it. Conditions of the empire caused citizens to lose their sense of patriotism and they became indifferent to the empire’s fate. Diocletian was a strong-willed army leader who in A.D. 284 became the new emperor of Rome. He ruled with an iron fist and severely limited personal freedoms. He restored order in the empire and increased its strength. He doubled the size of the Roman army and sought to control inflation by setting fixed prices for goods. To restore prestige to the emperor’s position, he claimed descent from the ancient Roman gods and created elaborate ceremonies to present himself as a god. He divided the Roman Empire because he felt it had grown too large into an Eastern (Greekspeaking) half and Western (Latin-speaking) half. Yes to a certain extent and especially for the Eastern half which he maintained control of because the great trade cities were there. He became the first Christian emperor in the 4th Century. Ruled Rome from 306 to 337. His biggest project was the construction of a new capital city in the east, on the site of the Greek city of Byzantium on the shores of the Bosporus which was called Constantinople. (Currently Istanbul, Turkey) Political and military reforms enlarged the army and civil service. Constantine gained control of the Western part of the Roman Empire in A.D. 312 and continued many of the social and economic policies of Diocletian. *After Diocletian’s death, Constantine also secured control of the Eastern Roman Empire. (Single ruler) *In A.D. 330, Constantine moved the capital from Rome to the Greek city of Byzantium (Constantinople). With the capital moved, the center of power shifted from Rome to the east. After Constantine’s death, the empire again was divided. *The East would survive, the West would fall. Diocletian believed that the empire had grown too large and too complex for one ruler. His most significant reform was dividing the empire. Eastern Roman Empire –spoke Greek and consisted of the areas of Greece, Anatolia, Syria, and Egypt. Western Roman Empire – spoke Latin and consisted of the areas of Italy, Gaul, Britain, and Spain. The decline took place over many years. Its final collapse was the result of worsening internal problems, the separation of the Western Empire from the wealthier Eastern part, and outside invasions. In A.D. 370 a fierce group of Mongol nomads from central Asia, the Huns, moved into the region and began destroying all in their path. In 444, the Huns united under a powerful chieftain named Attila. Attila took 100,000 soldiers and terrorized both halves of the empire. In the East he attacked and plundered 70 cities (all except Constantinople). In the West they advanced against Rome, however bouts of famine and disease kept them from conquering the city. The last Roman Emperor, a 14j yr. old, named Romulus Augustulus was ousted by German forces in 476 BC. By the 2nd Century B.C. the Romans had conquered Greece and greatly admire their culture. Educated Romans learned the Greek language. The mixing of elements of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman culture produced a new culture called Greco-Roman culture. This is often called classical civilization. Roman artists, philosophers, and writers did not merely copy their Greek and Hellenistic models, they adapted them for their own purposes and created a style of their own. Romans learned the art of sculpture from the Greeks. They created realistic portraits in stone. Much Roman art was practical in purpose and meant to be used in a educational setting. During Augustus’ reign, the Romans developed a type of sculpture called basrelief. In bas or low relief images were projected from a flat background. This type of sculpture was used to tell stories and represent people, soldiers in battle and landscapes. Roman artists were particularly skilled in creating mosaics which were pictures or designs made by setting small pieces of glass, stone, or tile onto a surface. Romans also excelled at the art of painting. Most wealthy Romans had bright, large murals called frescoes, which were painted directly on walls. The Romans excelled in architecture, a highly practiced art. Although they continued to use Greek styles such as colonnades and rectangular buildings, the Romans also used curved forms, the arches, the vault, and the dome. The Romans were the first people to use concrete on a massive scale. The best examples of Roman painting are found in Pompeii and date from as early as the 2nd Century B.C. Virgil Horace Livy Tacitus Virgil Horace Most distinguished poet of the Augustan Age. Wrote the masterpiece Aeneid in honor of Rome. This work was meant to rival the work of Homer. The poem was also meant to express that Rome’s gift was the art of ruling. He was Virgil’s friend. He was a sophisticated writer who enjoyed pointing out some of the “follies and vices of his age.” He mostly laughs at the weaknesses of humans in his works. In his work Satires, he directs attacks against job dissatisfaction and greed. His histories are considered important because they reveal Roman values. There are not reliable sources from Livy because he was not always factually accurate. Livy wrote The Early History of Rome a 142 book collection of which only 35 survive today in which he traced Roman history to 9 B.C. Tacitus is notable among Roman historians because he presented facts factually. He was also concerned about the Romans’ lack of morality. In his work Annals and Histories, he wrote about the good and bad of imperial Rome. Rome’s legacy is its languages, institutions and thoughts of the Western World. *Latin remained the language of learning in Rome long after the empire’s fall. It was the official language of the Roman Catholic Church into the 20th Century. *The Roman’s were master builders. The arch, dome, and concrete were combined to build spectacular structures, such as the Colosseum. Arches also supported bridges and aqueducts. Arches also supported bridges and aqueducts. Aqueducts were designed by Roman engineers to bring water into cities and towns. *Rome’s most lasting and widespread contribution was its law. Some of Rome’s most important principles were: Some of Rome’s most important principles were: All persons had the right to equal treatment under the law. A person was considered innocent until proven guilty. The burden of proof rested with the accuser rather than the accused. A person should be punished only for actions, not thoughts. Any law that seemed unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside. Greeks *Sons received formal educations and they started receiving it at about age 7. *When sons got older they went into the military. *Most Greek girls did not go to school, but learned from their mothers at home. *Girls also learned how to manage a household (bear children, cook, be good wives). Romans *The fathers provided education for their children (boys and girls). *Roman boys learned the read and write. They also learned morals, family values, the law and physical training. *Some girls went to primary school only, to learn very basic reading and writing. Roman girls married at a young age (12-14). Greek Women *Women had male guardians. *They could take part in religious ceremonies with male guardians, but were otherwise excluded from public life. *Primary job was to bare children. *Women could not own property and always had a male guardian. Roman Women *Women did have male guardians, but as time lapsed they were no longer required. *Fathers arranged their daughters marriages. *Females legal age for marriage was 12-14. *Upper class women had freedom and independence. *They could own, sell and inherit property. *They could attend public events without male escorts. No people in the ancient world had more slaves than the Romans. The Roman conquests in the Mediterranean brought about a change in the use of slaves. Greek slaves were in much demand for jobs such as tutors, musicians, doctors, and artists. Some were assistant shopkeepers or craftspeople. They were all used as household workers such as cooks, waiters, cleaners and gardeners. Slaves were also used as farm laborers and used by contractors to build aqueducts. Leader of the most famous slave revolt in Italy in 73 B.C. He was a gladiator. (Swordsman) Revolt involved 70,000 slaves He was put to death by the Romans by crucifixion (being nailed to a cross) There were many temples, markets, baths, theaters, governmental buildings, and amphitheaters. There was a difference in the lifestyles of the rich and the poor. Rome was overcrowded and noisy. Overcrowding limited cart and wagon transport and the noise made sleep at night difficult. Rome was dangerous at night. Rome was filth ridden. The rich lived in villas (lavish homes) while the poor lived in apartment blocks called insulae. Insulaes could be as high as 6 stories high, made of concrete, with wooden beam floors. They were very poorly built and often collapsed. Fire was a constant threat. Fire of A.D. 64 destroyed a large portion of Rome. Rent was high, forcing entire families to live in one room. Insulaes had no central heat or plumbing. Many poor Romans spent most of their time outdoors on the streets.