Chapter 13 European Middle Ages 500 * 1200 A.D.

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Chapter 13
European Middle Ages
500 – 1200 A.D.
Section 1: Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms
13.1 Vocabulary
• Middle Ages • Franks -
Era in European history following the fall of the Roman
Empire, lasting from about 500 to 1500—also called the
medieval period.
People who settled in the Roman province of Gaul (roughly the area
now occupied by France) and established a great empire during the
Middle Ages.
Religious community of men (called monks) who have given up
their possessions to devote themselves to a life of prayer and
• monastery • secular -
worship.
concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters.
• Carolingian Dynasty • Charlemagne-
a dynasty of Frankish rulers, lasting
from A.D. 751 to 987
Charles the Great, Emperor of the Frankish
kingdom from 771 to 814
Fall of Roman Empire

Roman Empire divides into East and West in year
395

East becomes Byzantium


Justinian becomes Emperor in 527
Byzantine Empire collapses around 1100 A.D.
Middle Ages

500 – 1500 A.D.

Three Roots of Medieval
Culture

Classical heritage of Rome

Beliefs of Roman Catholic
Church

Customs of Germanic Tribes
What are the effects of multiple
invasions?
Invasions of Western
Europe

Effects of Invasions:

Disruption of Trade

Downfall of Cities

Population changes

Decline of Learning

Loss of Common Language
Germanic Kingdoms
Emerge

The Roman catholic church survives invasions

The concept of government changes

Family more important

Smaller communities

Unwritten rules

Personal relationships important

Warriors lived with Kings

It was a disgrace to outlive him
Clovis Rules the Franks

Clovis brought Christianity in year 496

Battle convinced him to convert


Asked for God’s help
United Franks into one kingdom
Germans Adopt
Christianity

Church and Franks worked together to spread
Christianity


Many moved back into Rome
Church built religious communities : Monasteries

Monks and Nuns lived there
Monasteries
An Empire Evolves

After death of Clovis in 511, Charles Martel takes
control

(Charles the Hammer)

He was not Emperor

Gained more power than the King

Extended the kingdom

Defeated Muslims

Became Christian Hero
An Empire Evolves

Charles Martel passed power to son Pepin the Short

Gained title “King by Grace of God”

Began Carolingian Dynasty in 751 A.D.
Charlemagne Becomes
Emperor

Pepin died in 768

Frankish kingdom VERY strong

Charlemagne took over after Pepin’s son Carloman
mysteriously died 771
Charlemagne Becomes
Emperor

Charlemagne extends empire

After helping the pope in Rome, he was crowned
Roman Emperor

He was not from Rome!
Charlemagne Leads
Revival

Charlemagne managed his Empire very well

Encouraged learning

Opened schools

Encouraged monasteries to open schools for future
monks

Charlemagne dies in 814

Names only son Louis the Pious (The Fair) as Emperor


Not very good
Louis the Pious’ sons fought for power

Divided empire into 3 parts

Authority broke down
Quiz Next Class
13.1 Vocabulary
• Middle Ages • Franks -
Era in European history following the fall of the Roman
Empire, lasting from about 500 to 1500—also called the
medieval period.
People who settled in the Roman province of Gaul (roughly the area
now occupied by France) and established a great empire during the
Middle Ages.
Religious community of men (called monks) who have given up
their possessions to devote themselves to a life of prayer and
• monastery • secular -
worship.
concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters.
• Carolingian Dynasty • Charlemagne-
a dynasty of Frankish rulers, lasting
from A.D. 751 to 987
Charles the Great, Emperor of the Frankish
kingdom from 771 to 814
Chapter 13
European Middle Ages
500 – 1200 A.D.
Section 2: Feudalism in Europe
13.2 Vocabulary
in feudal Europe, a person who controlled land and could
therefore grant estates to vassals.
 fief- an estate granted to a vassal by a lord under the feudal
system in medieval Europe.
 vassal- in feudal Europe, a person who received a grant of land
from a lord in exchange for a pledge of loyalty and services.

lord-

knight- in medieval Europe, an armored warrior who fought on

serf-

manor- a lord’s estate in feudal Europe.

tithe- a family’s payment of one-tenth of its income to a church.
horseback.
a medieval peasant legally bound to live on a lord’s estate.
Invaders Attack Western
Europe

Many invaders came from year 800-1000

Vikings invade from the North

Also called Northmen or Norsemen

Worshipped war like gods

Nicknames like Eric Bloodaxe and
Thorfinn Skullsplitter
Invaders Attack Western
Europe

Vikings used swords and heavy
wooden shields


Arrived on huge ships, attack
and leave

Ships were huge

Could travel in 3 feet of
water
Vikings stopped attacking after
they accepted Christianity


warmer weather made
farming easier
Viking Leif Ericson reached
North America around year
500
Invaders Attack Western
Europe

Magyars were a nomadic people

attacked from East

Rode horses

Did not settle


Took captives to sell as slaves
Muslims attacked from South

Conquered different areas
Invaders Attack Western
Europe

Effects of invasions

A lot of disorder and suffering

Lived in constant fear and danger

Kings could not effectively defend

Local rulers gained strength for defeating invaders
New Social Order:
Feudalism
=Vassal
= Serf

Feudalism:

A political and economic system of
Europe based on the holding of all land
in fief or fee … and characterized by
homage, legal and military service of
tenants, and penalty

In exchange for military protection a lord
(land owner) granted land called fief.

The Person receiving fief was a vassal
New Social Order:
Feudalism
=Vassal
= Serf

Social classes were well defined

You were born into your social class

Serfs were not slaves

Could not leave the land

Could not be bought or sold

Everything they produced belonged to lord
Manors: The Economic
Side of Feudalism

Manor = Lord’s Estate

Manor System:

Lord provided serfs with housing, farm
land, and protection

Serfs tended to land, cared for lords
animals, and maintained the estate

All peasants owed the lord duties

Certain days of labor or amount of
grain
Manors: The Economic
Side of Feudalism

Manors were only a few square miles

20-30 families lived there

Self sufficient community

Manor life was hard

Peasants paid many taxes

Including tithe – church tax 10% of income

A lot of working

Life expectancy = 35 years old
Chapter 13
European Middle Ages
500 – 1200 A.D.
Section 3: The Age of Chivalry
13.2 Vocabulary
•
chivalry
1
•
tournament
2
•
troubadour
3
Knights: Warriors on
Horseback

Charles Martel organized armored
horsemen called Knights

Technology: Saddle and stirrups


Allowed soldiers to fight on horses
Warrior’s trained all year

Were given land
Knighthood and Code of
Chivalry

Chivalry – Complex code of ideals


A knight must fight bravely for 3 masters

Feudal lord

Heavenly lord

His lady
Knights must be loyal, brave and courteous
A Knight’s Training

Boys learned the code of chivalry early in life

Age 7, sent off to another castle to learn fighting
skills

Age 14, became a squire, or servant to a knight

Age 21, a squire became a knight

A young knight traveled for 2 years in search of wars
and tournaments
Do not Copy
Medieval Europe Feudalism
Design of Castle
Brutal Reality of Warfare

War was brutal

Hot oil, water or lead was poured on soldiers

Archers shot arrows to defend castle
Literature of Chivalry

Many stories glorified castle life

Epic poetry – poems that retold stories, adventures

They wrote love poems and songs

Troubadours were traveling musicians
Women’s Role in Feudal
Society


Noblewoman –

Could own little land

Could send knights to war

Threw rocks and fire arrows at attackers
Peasant Woman –

A lot of labor in home and fields

Child care

Young women learned house duties
Chapter 13
European Middle Ages
500 – 1200 A.D.
Section 4: The Power of Church
13.4 Vocabulary

• clergy

• sacrament

• canon law

• Holy Roman Empire

• lay investiture
The Far Reaching
Authority of the Church

Church and European rulers competed
for power

Church had its own organization

Pope

Clergy

Bishop

Priests

Feudalism divided many people

Religion unified them


Being part of religious community
Law of the Church


Canon Law

Marriage

Religious practices
Consequences

Excommunication

Interdict - religious services would not be
performed
The Church and the Holy
Roman Empire

Otto the Great was king of Germany in
936

Built up his power by forming alliance
with church

Limited the power of nobles

Later invaded Italy on Pope’s behalf and
was named emperor

German-Italian Empire became Holy
Roman Empire

Caused many problems
The Emperor Clashes with
the Pope

Church not happy that the Emperor
controlled the clergy

Lay investiture – kings and nobles appoint
clergy


1075, Pope banned lay invesiture
German Emperor Henry IV was upset

Tried to force the pope to resign

Emperor was excommunicated

Begged Pope for forgiveness to save
throne


Showdown at Canossa

King Henry went to meet the Pope

The Pope forced Henry to wait outside for 3 days
in the snow

The Pope was forced to forgive
Successors to Pope and Emperor met

Established Concordat of Worms

Treaty:

Church could appoint Bishops

Emperor could veto
Disorder in the Empire

King Fredrick is elected in 1152

Barabarossa

Aggressively invaded rich cities in Italy

Pope and Italian merchants formed alliance
called Lombard League

Lombard league soldiers defeated King Fredrick


Used crossbows against knights
Fredrick was forced to make peace
Chapter Test

Monday!

Study Chapter 13

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