### MODFLOW - Aquaveo

```CE EN 547 – BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY
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River
Stream-Aquifer Interaction
Horizontal Flow Barrier
Gaining River
Losing River
Disconnected River
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Assigned to individual cells
If head is above river stage, flow is from
aquifer to river
If head is below river stage, flow is from
river to aquifer
Required parameters
 Conductance
 Bottom elevation
 Stage
HRIV
Hijk
CRIV
RBOT
QRIV
HRIV = Stage in river
CRIV = Conductance of river bottom sediments
RBOT = Elevation of bottom of sediments
QRIV = Flow between aquifer and river
HRIV
CRIV
RBOT
QRIV
QRIV = CRIV * (HRIV - Hijk)
(-Q signifies flow out of cell)
Hijk
HRIV
CRIV
RBOT
QRIV
QRIV = CRIV * (HRIV - Hijk)
Hijk
HRIV
CRIV
RBOT
QRIV
QRIV = CRIV * (HRIV - RBOT)
Hijk
Length of
reach in
each river
cell is
computed
River Network
River Cells
L = length of
reach
M=
Thickness of
River Bed
Direction of
Flow
K = Hydraulic Conductivity of
River Bed Material
W = Width of River
K * (area of flow) KLW
Cond 

(length of flow)
M
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Not part of original MODFLOW packages.
Like the River Package, water can flow
from aquifer to stream or vice versa.
Unlike the River Package, stage is not
specified. Rather, flow is routed using
simple channel hydraulics and a stage is
computed using Manning’s equation.
u
2/3
1/ 2
Q  AR h S o
n
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
Canal
1
1
1
2
Segment
3
2
3
2
3
2
2
3
4
4
3
1
4
4
6
2
4
3
5
5
1
4
1
5
6
2
3
6
7
2
1
1
5
2
4
5
6
Reach
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Segments
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Incoming flow (for top segments and diversions)
Width
Slope
Manning’s roughness coefficient
Reaches
 Conductance
 Elevation of the bottom of the streambed
 Elevation of the top of the streambed
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Assigned to individual cells
Often used to simulate lakes, reservoirs
Required parameters
 Conductance
Hsource
Hijk
Q
Cgh
Q = Cgh * (Hsource - Hijk)
Gaining
Lake/Reservoir
Losing
Lake/Reservoir
Flow Direction
A = Cell Area
M = Thickness
Cell
Lake Bottom
Sediments
Ccell
KA

M
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Original method for defining specified heads
 IBOUND
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CHD later added to allow for transient
Assigned to individual cells
Can be used for steady-state case also
Not part of original MODFLOW packages
Used to simulate low permeability barriers
such as sheet pile walls or slurry trenches.
 Assigned to cell boundaries (pairs of cells)
 Each instance is assigned a hydraulic
characteristic = K/thickness
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Plan View
Fault
HFB
A = Area
T=Thickness
Cell Face
HC 
K
T
Q  HC  A  H
Q
KA
 H
T
```