matter2012october - John Bowne High School

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Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition
Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.;
and Bruce E. Bursten
Chapter 1
Introduction:
Matter and Measurement
John D. Bookstaver
St. Charles Community College
St. Peters, MO
 2006, Prentice Hall
Matter
And
Measurement
Matter:
Anything that has
mass and takes up
space.
Matter
And
Measurement
Properties and
Changes of
Matter
Matter
And
Measurement
Properties of Matter
• Physical Properties:
□ Can be observed without changing a
substance into another substance.
• Boiling point, density, mass, volume, etc.
• Chemical Properties:
□ Can only be observed when a substance is
changed into another substance.
• Flammability, corrosiveness, reactivity with
acid, etc.
Matter
And
Measurement
Properties of Matter
• Intensive Properties:
□ Independent of the amount of the
substance that is present.
• Density, boiling point, color, etc.
• Extensive Properties:
□ Dependent upon the amount of the
substance present.
• Mass, volume, energy, etc.
Matter
And
Measurement
Changes of Matter
• Physical Changes:
□ Changes in matter that do not change the
composition of a substance.
• Changes of state, temperature, volume, etc.
• Chemical Changes:
□ Changes that result in new substances.
• Combustion, oxidation, decomposition, etc.
Matter
And
Measurement
Chemical Reactions
In the course of a chemical reaction, the
reacting substances are converted to new
substances.
Matter
And
Measurement
Units of
Measurement
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And
Measurement
SI Units
• There are two types of units:
– fundamental (or base) units;
– derived units.
• There are 7 base units in the SI system.
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And
Measurement
SI Units
• Système International d’Unités
• Uses a different base unit for each quantity
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Measurement
Metric System
Prefixes convert the base units into units that
are appropriate for the item being measured.
Matter
And
Measurement
Volume
• The units for
volume are given
by (units of
length)3.
– SI unit for volume is 1
m 3.
• We usually use 1
mL = 1 cm3.
• Other volume units:
– 1 L = 1 dm3 = 1000 cm3
= 1000 mL.
Matter
And
Measurement
Uncertainty in Measurements
Different measuring devices have different
uses and different degrees of accuracy.
Matter
And
Measurement
Density:
Physical property of a substance
m
d=
V
Matter
And
Measurement
Do now: A graduated cylinder is filled with 15.0
mL of water. An object with a mass of 29.66 g
causes the total volume to increase to 23.4 mL.
What is the density of the sample?
Matter
And
Measurement
Vocabulary review
• Mass : amount of matter in an object.
• It is measured with a balance.
• Unit in the SI system: grams g
• Weight: a measure of the pull that the
gravity exerts over an object.
• If we stay in the same planet (same
Matter
And
gravity) is used like the mass.
Measurement
Volume
• The space that an object occupies.
• Unit of volume in SI Liter = L
Matter
And
Measurement
What is density?
• Density is a comparison of how much
matter there is in a certain amount of
space.
• IT IS AN INTENSIVE PHYSICAL
PROPERTY. It is used to identify a
substance.
Matter
And
Measurement
DENSITY OF WATER
• 1g/ml
• That means that a gram of water has a
volume of 1 milliliter or 1 cubic
centimeter.
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Measurement
Which one is more dense?
• Now which one is more dense?
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And
Measurement
What is density?
• Density = mass
volume
or
• mass ÷ volume.
Units for density: g
cm3
• Why are these the units for density?
ALWAYS
REMEMBER
UNITS!
.
Matter
And
Measurement
Let’s try a density problem
together
• Find the density of a yellow rock has a
mass of 8 g and a volume of 4 cm3.
• Use your table S to determine what
element it could be!
Matter
And
Measurement
IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS
• If you pour together liquids that don’t
mix and have different densities, they
will form liquid layers.
• Liquids that don’t mix are said to be
IMMISCIBLE
• The liquid with the highest density will
be on the bottom.
• The liquid with the lowest density will be
on the top.
Matter
And
Measurement
Liquid Layers
• . Which layer has the highest
density?
• Which layer has the lowest
density?
• Imagine that the liquids have the
following densities:
– 10g/cm3.
– 6g/cm3.
3g/cm3.
5g/cm3.
• Which number would go with
which layer?
• Is any of the liquids water?
Matter
And
Measurement
To measure the volume of an
object
• If is a regular
object measure
the dimensions
needed and use
the formula
• cube= LxWxH
• Cylinder = p h r2
• For an irregular
object use the
water
displacement
method.
Matter
And
Measurement
Liquid Layers – Try with your neighbor
• Which liquid has the
highest density?
• Which liquid has the
lowest density?
• Which liquid has the
middle density?
Matter
And
Measurement
Liquid Layers – Try on your
own!
• Imagine that the
liquids on the right
have the following
densities:
– 15g/cm3
– 3g/cm3
– 7g/cm3
10g/cm3
9g/cm3
12g/cm3
• Match the colors to
the correct
densities.
3g/cm3
7g/cm3
9g/cm3
10g/cm3
12g/cm3
15g/c
Matter
m3 And
Measurement
Review
• What is the formula for density?
• What happens if you pour together
liquids that have different densities?
• Will the liquid on the top have the
highest or lowest density?
• Will the liquid on the bottom have the
highest or lowest density?
Matter
And
Measurement
Density worksheet answers
•
•
•
•
•
•
1=1
2=2
3=2 D of Na 0.971 g/mL
4=4 D of Mg 1.738 g/cm3
5=2
6 20g/24.4L = 0.82 g/L
Matter
And
Measurement
• HOMOGENEOUS : SAME
PROPERTIES THROUGHOUT THE
SAMPLE
• HETEROGENEOUS :
• DIFFERENT PROPERTIES IN
DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE SAMPLE
Matter
And
Measurement
PURE SUBSTANCES
have a constant composition
• ELEMENTS – Made up of same kind of
atoms. Could not be decomposed.
• COMPOUNDS – Made up of different
kind of atoms CHEMICALLY
COMBINED. Can be decomposed.
• Recognizable by formulas!
Matter
And
Measurement
Mixtures and Compounds
Matter
And
Measurement
Compounds
Compounds can be
broken down into
more elemental
particles.
Matter
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Measurement
Matter
• Atoms are the building blocks of matter.
Matter
And
Measurement
Matter
• Atoms are the building blocks of matter.
• Each element is made of the same kind of atom.
Matter
And
Measurement
Matter
• Atoms are the building blocks of matter.
• Each element is made of the same kind of atom.
• A compound is made of two or more different kinds of
Matter
elements.
And
Measurement
SEPTEMBER 21
• ELEMENT , COMPOUNDS AND
MIXTURES
• REVIEW FOR TEST
• PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL
PROPERTIES
• PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL
CHANGES
• DENSITY
Matter
And
Measurement
MIXTURES
• Combination of two or more pure
substances. Can be separated by
physical means. They do not have a
fixed composition.
• Can be homogeneous or
heterogeneous.
• SOLUTIONS ARE HOMOGENEOUS
MIXTURES.
Matter
And
Measurement
AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
The solution is prepared using water as
the solvent
(aq) means DISSOLVED IN WATER!!!
Na Cl (s) is a compound
Na Cl (aq) is a mixture!!!!
Matter
And
Measurement
Pure
Substances
and Mixtures
Matter
And
Measurement
•
•
•
•
•
Pure Substances and Mixtures
If matter is not uniform throughout, then it is a
heterogeneous mixture.
If matter is uniform throughout, it is
homogeneous.
If homogeneous matter can be separated by
physical means, then the matter is a mixture.
If homogeneous matter cannot be separated
by physical means, then the matter is a pure
substance.
If a pure substance can be decomposed into
something else, then the substance is a Matter
And
Measurement
compound.
Elements
• If a pure substance cannot be decomposed into
something else, then the substance is an element.
• There are 114 elements known.
• Each element is given a unique chemical symbol
(one or two letters).
• Elements are building blocks of matter.
• The earth’s crust consists of 5 main elements. (O,
Si, Al, Fe, Ca)
• The human body consists mostly of 3 main Matter
And
Measurement
elements. (O, C, H)
Elements
Matter
And
Measurement
Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids
Matter
And
Measurement
Symbols
• First letter of element in CAPITAL letter
• Second or third letter in lower case.
• Some elements have symbols different
from the english name
• SODIUM
Na
• POTASSIUM
K
• CUPPER
Cu
• LEAD
Pb
Matter
And
Measurement
•
•
•
•
•
IRON
MERCURY
GOLD
SILVER
TIN
Fe
Hg
Au
Ag
Sn
Matter
And
Measurement
Symbols from Latin Names
Element
Copper
Gold
Lead
Mercury
Potassium
Silver
Sodium
Tin
Symbol
Cu
Au
Pb
Hg
K
Ag
Na
Sn
Latin name
cuprum
aurum
plumbum
hydrargyrum
kalium
argentum
natrium
stannum
Matter
And
Measurement
DIATOMIC ELEMENTS
•H2O2F2Br2I2N2Cl2
Matter
And
Measurement
Matter
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Measurement
Classification of Matter
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Measurement
Classification of Matter
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Measurement
Classification of Matter
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Measurement
Classification of Matter
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Measurement
Classification of Matter
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Measurement
Classification of Matter
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Measurement
Classification of Matter
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And
Measurement
Classification of Matter
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Measurement
Classification of Matter
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Measurement
Classification of Matter
Matter
And
Measurement
MC ANSWERS
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1.A
2.A
3. A
4. D
5. A
6. B
7. C
8. D
9. D
Matter
And
Measurement
Chemical Reactions
Matter
And
Measurement
Electrolysis of Water
Matter
And
Measurement
Separation of
Mixtures
Matter
And
Measurement
Distillation:
Separates
homogeneous
mixture on the basis
of differences in
boiling point.
Matter
And
Measurement
Distillation
Matter
And
Measurement
Filtration:
Separates solid
substances from
liquids and solutions.
Matter
And
Measurement
Chromatography:
Separates substances on the basis of
differences in solubility in a solvent.
Matter
And
Measurement
Uncertainty in
Measurement
Matter
And
Measurement
Significant Figures
• The term significant figures refers to
digits that were measured.
• When rounding calculated numbers, we
pay attention to significant figures so we
do not overstate the accuracy of our
answers.
Matter
And
Measurement
•
•
•
•
Uncertainty in Measurement
All scientific measures are subject to error.
These errors are reflected in the number of
figures reported for the measurement.
Precision and Accuracy
Measurements that are close to the “correct”
value are accurate.
Measurements that are close to each other
are precise.
Matter
And
Measurement
• ACCURACY
DEALS WITH THE
EXACTESNESS OF
THE
MEASUREMENT,
HOW CLOSE IT IS
TO THE , TRUE,
ACCEPTED OR
STANDARD
VALUE
• PRECISSION
DEALS WITH
REPRODUCIBILITY
OF A
MEASUREMENT.
• IF SEVERAL
MEASUREMENTS
GIVE A SIMILAR
RESULT IT IS SAID
THAT THE
MEASUREMENT IS Matter
And
PRECISE
Measurement
Accuracy versus Precision
• Accuracy refers to the proximity of
a measurement to the true value
of a quantity.
• Precision refers to the proximity of
several measurements to each
other.
Matter
And
Measurement
October 5
• UNCERTAINTY IN MEASUREMENT
• SIGNIFICANT FIGURES – Rules and
examples
• DO NOW
• Calculate the density of an object that
has a mass of 10.0 g and a volume of
3.0 mL.
Matter
And
Measurement
Measuring Volume by water
displacement
Matter
And
Measurement
Significant Figures
• The number of digits reported in a
measurement reflect the accuracy of the
measurement and the precision of the
measuring device.
• All the figures known with certainty plus one
extra figure (estimated digit) are called
significant figures.
Matter
And
Measurement
Sig fig in calculations
• In any calculation, the results are
reported to the fewest significant figures
(for multiplication and division) or fewest
decimal places (addition and
subtraction).
Matter
And
Measurement
Significant Figures
1. All nonzero digits are significant.
2. Zeroes between two significant figures
are themselves significant.
3. Zeroes at the beginning of a number
are never significant.
4. Zeroes at the end of a number are
significant if a decimal point is written
in the number or if they are to the right
Matter
of a decimal point.
And
Measurement
0.0030 has 2 sf
400.
Has 3 sf
700.00 has 5 sf
Matter
And
Measurement
EXAMPLE FOR ADDITION
• Copy and perform the following
operation indicating the right number of
sig fig
12
1.2
0.2
--------------------Matter
And
Measurement
MULTIPLICATION AND
DIVISION
5 x 100 =
0.00022 x 745 =
3469/ 5799=
Matter
And
Measurement
Examples: How many significant figures are in
each of the following?
1. 52300 m
2. 0.000487 kg
3. 29.0400 s
4. 507 people
5. 230,050 cm
6. 45.600 A
Matter
And
Measurement
Tell the number of significant digits in each of the following
measurements.
1. 48 cm __________
2. 306.2 g __________
3. 0.329 m __________
4. 83.9520 °C __________
5. 3700 mm __________
6. 400. cm3__________
7. 71.60 g __________
8. 0.00432 mm __________
9. 10.0 kg __________
10. 3.60 × 1015 sec __________
11. 6.24 × 10-4 m __________
12. 82.000 g __________
Matter
And
Measurement
Tell the number of significant digits in each of the following
measurements.
1. 48 cm __________
2. 306.2 g __________
3. 0.329 m __________
4. 83.9520 °C __________
5. 3700 mm __________
6. 400. cm3__________
7. 71.60 g __________
8. 0.00432 mm __________
9. 10.0 kg __________
10. 3.60 × 1015 sec __________
11. 6.24 × 10-4 m __________
12. 82.000 g __________
Matter
And
Measurement
• How do scientist express the accuracy
of a measurement?
• DO NOW : Observe the two instruments
in my desk to measure volume,
determine which would determine the
volume of an Al cylinder with greater
accuracy and explain in your notebook
why.
Matter
And
Measurement
Percent Error
• To determine the accuracy of a measurement. It tells
us how far our measured stands from an accepted or
known value.
% error = I measured value – accepted value I X 100
___________________________________________
accepted value
Matter
And
Measurement
Example
• Calculate the percent error of the
measurement for a student that
determined that the density for Al is 2.5
g/mL. Hint use table T to determine the
accepted value!
Matter
And
Measurement
1) 3.482 cm + 8.51 cm + 16.324 cm ____________________
2) 48.0032 g + 9.17 g + 65.4321 g ____________________
3) 80.4 cm - 16.532 cm ____________________
4) 106.5mL - 30. mL ____________________
5) 48.2 cm × 1.6 cm × 2.12 cm ____________________
6) 8.3 m × 4.0 m × 0.9823 m
Matter
And
Measurement
7) 64.34 cm3 ÷ 8.149 cm ____________________
8) 4.93 mm2 ÷ 18.71 mm ____________________
9) 0 57 mL x 760 mm/740 mm x 273K/250 K
10) 5 13 g x 44 962amu/15 874 a m u
Matter
And
Measurement
Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
28.32 cm
122.61 g
63.9 cm
76 mL
160 cm3
33 m3
7.895 cm2
0.263 mm
Matter
And
Measurement
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
3
2
3
2
1
1
4
1
Matter
And
Measurement
• 1. According to an accepted chemistry
reference. the heat of vaporization of water is
540. calories per gram. A student determined
in the laboratory that the heat of vaporization
of water was 620. calories per gram. The
student's results had a percent error of (1)
12.9, (2) 80.0, (3) 14.8, (4) 87.1
• 2. Which measurement contains a total of
three significant figures?
• (1) 0.01 g (2) 0.0100 g (3) 0.010 g (4)
Matter
And
0.01000 g
Measurement
3. In an experiment the gram atomic mass of magnesium
was determined to be 24.7. Compared to the accepted value
24.3, the percent error for this determination was (1) 0. 400,
(2) 24.7, (3) 1.65, (4) 98.4
4. A student determined the melting point of a substance to
be 55.2°C. If the accepted value is 50. 1°C the percent
error in her determination is (1) 5.10, (2) 10.2, (3) 9.24, (4)
12.0
5. Using the rules for significant figures, the sum of 0. 027
gram and 0. 0023 gram should be expressed as (1) 0. 029
gram, (2) 0.03 gram, (3) 0.0293 gram, (4) 0.030 gram
Matter
And
Measurement
6. Which milligram quantity contains a total of four significant
figures? (1) 0.3010 mg (2) 3100 mg (2) 3010 mg (4) 30001 mg
Matter
And
Measurement
Scientific Notation
•Numbers written in scientific notation include a
numeral with one digit before the decimal point,
multiplied by some power of ten (6.022 x 1023)
•In scientific notation, all digits are significant.
•You should be able to convert from non-scientific
notation to scientific and vice-versa.
Matter
And
Measurement
•
•
•
•
Temperature
Definition
Instrument
Scales
Matter
And
Measurement
TEMPERATURE
• Is associated with heat but it is NOT
HEAT. IT IS NOT A FORM OF
ENERGY!!!! ( Heat is)
• Review: What is KINETIC ENERGY?
Matter
And
Measurement
KINETIC ENERGY (KE)
• Is associated with movement.
• If an object is moving fast has high KE
• If an object is moving slowly it has low KE
Matter
And
Measurement
Temperature
• In scientific
measurements, the
Celsius and Kelvin
scales are most often
used.
• The Celsius scale is
based on the
properties of water.
□ 0C is the freezing point
of water.
□ 100C is the boiling
point of water.
Matter
And
Measurement
Temperature:
A measure of the average
kinetic energy of the particles
in a sample.
If an object is at HIGH temperature its particles
are moving FAST
At LOW temperature particles move SLOWLY
Matter
And
Measurement
Instrument to measure
temperature
THERMOMETER
Matter
And
Measurement
FIXED POINTS OF A
THERMOMETER
• BOILING POINT OF WATER
• FREEZING POINT OF WATER
Matter
And
Measurement
Temperature
• The Kelvin is the SI
unit of temperature.
• It is based on the
properties of gases.
• There are no
negative Kelvin
temperatures.
• K = C + 273.15
Matter
And
Measurement
Temperature
• The Fahrenheit
scale is not used in
scientific
measurements.
• F = 9/5(C) + 32
• C = 5/9(F − 32)
Matter
And
Measurement
Examples:
1. What is 35ºC in Kelvin? In ºF?
2. What is 183 K in ºC? In ºF?
Matter
And
Measurement

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