### Woodford`s Power point slide

```Grade School Triangles
Written by: Jack S. Calcut
Presented by: Ben Woodford
(pay attention: there Will be a test at the end)
Definitions
• An angle is rational provided it is commensurable with
a straight angle; equivalently, its degree measure is
rational or its radian measure is a rational multiple of
π.
• A quadratic irrational is a number of the form
r + s  where r and s are rational, s = 0, and
∉
{0, 1} is a squarefree integer
(i.e.,
2 ∤  for all primes p ∈ Z).
• A line segment is rational or quadratic irrational
provided its length is rational or quadratic irrational
respectively.
More Facts
• Fact 1. The only rational values of the circular
trigonometric functions at rational multiples
of π are the obvious ones.
• Namely 0, ±1/2, and ±1 for cosine and sine, 0
and ±1 for tangent and cotangent, and ±1 and
±2 for secant and cosecant.
• Corollary 1. The acute angles in each
Pythagorean triple triangle are irrational.
Fact 2. The acute angles in each Pythagorean triple
triangle have transcendental radian measures and
transcendental degree measures.
Proof- Not very Enlightening.
Example- Take the commonly seen 3-4-5
Triangle. Together with the law of cosines
We can evaluate for the interior angles
Here 2 =  2 +  2 − 2 cos
2 − 2 −  2 )
(
⇒ α = cos −1
−2
Thus, α =
2 −52 −42 )
(3
cos −1
(−2∙5∙4)
=
−1 9
cos
10
= 0.4510268 …
Main GST Theorem.
The right triangles with rational angles and with
rational or quadratic irrational sides are…?
The (properly scaled) 45–45–90, 30–60–90, and
15–75–90 triangles.
REDUCTION TO FINITELY MANY
SIMILARITY TYPES.
Suppose ΔABC is a right triangle whose acute
angles are rational and whose sides are each
rational or quadratic irrational as in Figure 4.
Lemma 1. Each of the numbers cos α
and cos β has degree 1, 2, or 4 over ℚ.
Proof- As cos α = b/c ∈ ℚ(b, c),
we have the tower of fields
ℚ ⊆ ℚ(cos α) ⊆ ℚ(b, c).
The degrees of these extensions satisfy
[ℚ(b, c) : ℚ] = [ℚ(cos α) : ℚ] · [ℚ(b, c) : ℚ(cos α)]
where [ℚ(b, c) : ℚ] equals 1, 2, or 4 since b and
c each have degree 1 or 2 over ℚ.
Lemma 2. If n > 2 and gcd(k, n) = 1,
then
2
ℚ cos

()
=
2
Proof- Take (n) as the number of integers j
such that 1 ≤ j ≤ n and gcd( j, n) = 1.
So if ζ =cos(2kπ/n) + i sin(2kπ/n) is a primitive
nth root of unity, then ℚ ℚ(ζ ) = (n) and
ℚ(cos(2kπ/n)) = ℚ(ζ + ζ’) is the fixed field in ℚ(ζ )
of complex conjugation.
Apparently, fact 1 follows from Lemma 2 with a
bit of work.
Recall: If p > 1 is prime and a ∈ N, then ϕ( ) =  − −1
by direct inspection. Also, ϕ is multiplicative:
if gcd(m, n) = 1, then ϕ(mn) = ϕ(m)ϕ(n)
Lemma 3. ϕ(n) ≥ /2.
The result is clear for n = 1,
so let n =2 1 1 …  be a prime factorization
of n where a ≥ 0, the  ’s are distinct positive
odd primes, and  ≥ 1 for each j .
For  ≥ 3,  ∈ ℤ+ ,
For the prime
then
Lemma 3. ϕ(n) ≥√(/2).
2, we have ϕ(20 ) = 1

In either case, we have (2 )≥ (2
and if a ≥ 1,

2
)/ 2.
Since  is multiplicative we combine to obtain
Lemma 4. The radian measures α and β both lie in the set
Proof- By Lemma 1, cos α has degree 1, 2, or 4 over Q.
Let α = 2kπ/n where gcd(k, n) = 1, k ∈ N, and n > 2
(since α < π/2).
By Lemmas 2 and 3, we need only consider the cases
3 ≤ n ≤ 128.

2
By using a CAS we compute
for these values of n
and find that n lies in the set {3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15,
16, 20, 24, 30}.
For each of these values of n, one simply produces the
corresponding values of k with gcd(k, n) = 1 and
0 < α = 2kπ/n < π/2.
As α and β are complementary and lie in S, we
obtain our desired reduction to a finite set of
possible similarity types.
REDUCTION TO FINITELY MANY SIMILARITY TYPES.
Proposition 1. The multiset {α, β} lies in the set T.
EXPLICIT TRIANGLES
Next we produce four explicit right triangles
with algebraic side lengths.
For each m ∈ N, define  (x) = tan(m arctan x).
These are the tangent analogues of the
Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind for
cosine. Let θ = arctan x; then
The last equality defines the polynomials
(x), (x)∈ ℤ[x].
Thus, each  (x) is a rational function with
integer coefficients.
If tan(kπ/n) exists (i.e., k ≡ n/2 mod n),
then tan(kπ/n) is a root of  (x) and of  (x).
In other words, the minimal polynomial of
tan(kπ/n) may be obtained by factoring  (x)
over ℤ[x] using a CAS and then choosing the
correct irreducible factor. (let’s see an example)
Let n = 10. Then
10 (x) = 10 9 − 120 7 + 252 5 − 120 3 + 10x
factors over ℤ[x] into
10 (x) = 2x( 4 − 10 2 + 5)(5 4 − 10 2 + 1).
Calculation shows that tan(π/10) ≠ 0 is not a
root of ( 4 − 10 2 + 5) so it must be
a root of ψ(x) = (5 4 − 10 2 + 1), why?

Therefore tan =
10
ΔABC we have  =
5−2 5
.
5
Recalling the set T and
5 − 2 5,  = 5, and by
Pythagoras’ theorem  =
10 − 2 5.
Repeating this process for π/12, π/8, and π/5, we
obtain the four triangles I–IV described in Table 2.
Table 2. Data for right triangles I–IV, namely the
radian measure α of an acute angle, the minimal
polynomial ψ(x) of tan α over ℚ, tanα in radical
form, and the side lengths a, b, c as in Figure 4.
Each triangle I–IV appears to contain at least
one side whose length has degree 4 over ℚ.
But looks can be deceiving…
Observe, 6 − 2 5= ( 5 − 1)2 = 5 − 1
This suggests we need extra machinery to
distinguish between the squares and
nonsquares among the irrational side lengths.
ALGEBRAIC TOOLS
Recall: a number field is a subfield of C whose
dimension as a vector space over ℚ is finite.
Being a subfield of C, each number field is
an integral domain.
A quadratic number field K is a number field
with [K : ℚ] = 2. So K = ℚ( ) for some
squarefree d ∈ ℤ\{0,1}.
i.e.
If K is a number field, then the ring of integers of
K is by definition:
i.e.
Where,
ℤ[ ] = { +   | ,  ∈ ℤ } and
1
ℤ[
2
+
1
2
] = { +

2

+
2
| , ,  ∈ ℤ }
Define the norm of μ by:
N(μ) = μμ’ =  2 −  2 d ∈ ℚ.
The norm is multiplicative:
N(μν) = N(μ)N(ν) for every μ, ν ∈ K.
In particular, the restriction of N to  is
multiplicative and, takes integer values:
N :  → ℤ.
Using these tools we obtain our sufficient condition
to recognize nonsquares in  .
Proposition 2
Let K be a quadratic number field and let μ ∈  . If
N(μ) is not a square in ℤ, then μ is not a square in
.
Proposition 3
Let K be a number field and R =  .
If α, β, γ ∈ R − { } and αβ2 = γ2 , then α is a square
in R.
Proof - If α, β, γ ∈ R − { } and αβ2 = γ2 ,
then  2 − α ∈ R[x] has γ/β as a root.
Since  is integrally closed γ/β ∈ R,
thus, α = (γ /β)2 is a square in R.
More Lemmas w/o Proof.
Our Old example: 6 − 2 5= ( 5 − 1)2 = 5 − 1
Example: Consider D={1, 2, 3} which has elements that
are linearly independent since
1 ≠ a 2 ≠  3   ,  ∈ ℚ
COMPLETION OF THE GST THEOREM
The right triangles with rational angles and with
rational or quadratic irrational sides are The
(properly scaled) 45–45–90, 30–60–90, and 15–
75–90 triangles.
In this section, we determine whether there
exist triangles of the last four similarity types in
T with rational or quadratic irrational sides.
We begin with the last similarity type 36–54–90,
which is represented by triangle IV with side lengths
=
5 − 2 5,  = 5,  =
10 − 2 5.
Let K = ℚ( 5) and recall
=
1
ℤ[
2
+
1
2
5] ⊇ ℤ[ 5]
N(5-2 5) = 5 is not a square in ℤ, so 5-2 5 is not
a square in  by prop 2. Therefore
ℚ  = 4, By Lemma 6, and thus triangle IV
is ruled out.
It remains to rule out all triangles similar to
triangle IV.
Suppose, by way of contradiction, that a
triangle, called IV’, is similar to triangle IV and
satisfies the conditions in the theorem.
All variables (except possibly λ) are rational
integers and , 1, 2 > 1 are all squarefree.
By (1), x and y are not both zero, further y ≠ 0.
Otherwise (3) has degree 4 over ℚ.
We suspect that equations (1)–(3) imply that
d = 2 = 5. But squaring equation (3) yields
( +  5 )2 5 − 2 5 = ( + ℎ 5)2
This equation implies that 5 − 2 5 is a square in
, but this is false, by prop 2.
Thus, triangle IV does not exist.
It remains to show that d = 2 = 5.
Claim 1. d = 5.
By eq. (2) we have
(4)
− +  5 +  5 −   =  +  1 .
Since  ≠ 0, if 5 ∤ , then (4) contradicts the
linear independence of roots (Lemma 7).
Therefore  = 50 , with 5 ∤ 0 since  is
squarefree and we have,
(5) − +  5 + 5 0 −  50 =  +  1 .
If 0 > 1, then eq. (5) contradicts Lemma 7.
Thus, 0 = 1   = 5.
Claim 2.  ≠ 0.
Proof- Otherwise y > 0 (since λ > 0) and
Since L.H.S. has degree 1 or 2 over ℚ, lemma 6
implies 25 2 − 10 2 5 is a square in ℤ[ 5].
But the norm is 53  4 and this is not a square
over ℤ, a contradiction to prop 2.
(Remember prop 2 associates a square over Z
with it’s norm.)
Claim 3. 2 = 5.
Proof. Otherwise, square both sides of (3) and
conclude, by Lemma 7, that the coefficient
−2  2 + 5 2 + 10 of 5 must equal zero.
Setting this coefficient equal to zero and solving
the resulting quadratic in x we obtain,
5 ±  5
=
2
This is a contradiction since x ∈ ℤ and y ≠ 0.
Thus, no triangle similar to IV has rational or
In an attempt to follow this argument for
triangle 1 we find that we cannot reach any
Therefore we have our third similarity type of
the Main Theorem.
Who cares?
Example- If ,  are standard values on the unit
circle and ,  ∈ ℚ,
then cos( − ) = a + b .
Proof- By GST theorem there are only three such
triangles down to similarity that cos( − )
assumes values for. Since each is quadratic
irrational so is cos(−).
Q.E.D.
Alternate Proof- By the identity,
cos( − ) = cos  cos  +sin  sin
Since the R.H.S. is the sum and product of rational
or quadratic irrational values, so is the L.H.S.
```