By Martin Mwongela Kavua,
M.A. Special and Inclusive Education.
Reasons for the UNCRPD.
ICT in Education for Persons with disabilities (PWDs).
Developments in ICT for PWDs in Kenya.
Challenges in Accessing ICT for PWD.
Proposed Theoretical Framework.
Conclusion and Recommendations.
When does a car stop being a car?
The aim of Inclusive education is an Inclusive society
However, communication has been a key cause of exclusion
Information Communication Technology (ICT) may bridge
this gap and minimise exclusion towards inclusion.
The ability to utilise similar technologies may lead to less
stigma for persons with disabilities. Enabling Persons with
disability (PWD) access ICT may create equity and
possibly less stigma.
Why the Convention on the Rights of Persons
with Disabilities (CRPD)?
Existing treaties and conventions failed to specifically
protect the rights of persons with disabilities.
It therefore necessary to have a convention which would
specifically address the vacuity of action which existed.
It contextualized human rights to persons with disabilities
Governments had failed to honor precious agreements
with regard to persons with disabilities.
ICT for Education for Persons with Disabilities
in Kenya
ICT can facilitate early intervention and inclusion for
persons with disabilities (PWD) (UNESCO, 2006).
 To
facilitate this in Kenya, the laptop project should be
implemented from nursery school.
Assistive technology for PWD:
Input devices for PWD
ICT for PWD con’t
should include ALL persons
 Output devices for PWD e.g.
 Magnifying
devices and refreshable Braille devices including the
Braille Hanson - Korean.
ICT for Persons With Disabilities in Kenya
ICT for PWDs in Kenya Cont...
Radio excluded learners with Hearing loss and Deafblindness.
Television may exclude persons with Visual Impairment and
the Deaf where no Interpreters are engaged.
The new technologies are more suitable for learners with
specific disabilities.
One size fits all? No!
ICT for PWDs in Kenya Cont...
The internet
 Suitability:
Reaches a wider variety of persons with disabilities
as envisioned in article 9 of the UNCRPD (UNESCO, 2006).
 Variety of modes e.g. Visual and oral information can be
 Challenges
 May
not reach learners with multiple disabilities and
 Lack of well developed online platforms for learning.
ICT for PWDs in Kenya Cont...
 Laptops
being procured for learners in public primary schools.
 The laptops will have software already installed for learning.
 The Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) is
developing digital content.
 An online teacher competency course has been developed.
 An online learning platform for teacher has been developed
by the Government in collaboration with UNESCO i.e. The
UNESCO-GoK ICT CFT OER for teachers.
 The first batch of teacher trainees is being chosen.
ICT for PWDs in Kenya Cont...
Institutions for higher learning in Kenya seem to have
embrace ICT for Education
 e.g.
Kenyatta University has a fully pledged online course;
Strathmore University has collaborated with private companies
to support research and innovation in ICT.
Phones are being used for education e.g. The Eneza
education programme, whereby students can text a
number and interact with educational material for a week.
Cost is reasonable. (Eneza means spread.) and The
Tangerine application programme for literacy.
Challenges in accessing ICT for Education
Underdeveloped ICT infrastructure e.g. Limited fibre optic
cable coverage.
Limited electricity connection for public schools.
Lack of an established learning platforms for learners.
Availability of digital content.
Fiscal constraints.
Litigation delaying roll out of the laptop project.
Cost of computers.
Challenges Cont...
Cost of adapted technologies.
Limited adapted technologies in the country.
Proposed Theoretical Framework
Framework for Evaluating the suitability of ICTs for PWDs
(The 4As) (Tomasevski, 2004; UNESCO, 2006)
 Availability
 Affordability
 Adaptability
 Accessibility
Conclusion and Recommendations
Clear policy guidelines for all countries.
 Kenya
had policies in place even before ratifying the UNCRPD.
E.g. The persons with disabilities Act (2003)
Countries and institutions should collaborate in research for
ICT integration in education for PWD.
Support for research and innovation in ICT for Education.
Complete the connection of all public schools to the
electricity grid.
Improved security.
Minimise the cost of adapted technology (WHO, 2011).
Recommendations and Conclusion Cont...
Assessment of the state of accessibility of ICT for PWDs in
 Such
a study is yet to be done.
Nothing for us without us.
 Consultation
and representation of persons with disabilities in
matters regarding development of ICT for them.
Access to ICT in Education for PWD may improve access to
education for all.
Education For All persons with
disabilities = Education For All
Persons = an Inclusive Society.

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