Vocabulary Instruction for EL*s

Report
Vocabulary Instruction
for EL’s
By Carla Carrizosa M. Ed.
National Board Certified Teacher
Anita Archer Explicit Instruction Trainer
Tier III Project G.L.A.D. Trainer
Carla Carrizosa 2013
Purpose of Session
Participants will be able to:
• Understand how the brain learns -by Dr. David
Sousa
• Understand how the ELL brain learns specifically
in regards to vocabulary- by Dr. David Sousa
• Learn Margarita Calderon Strategies for
Vocabulary Instruction
• Learn Anita Archer Strategies for Vocabulary
Instruction
• No handouts. Imprinting.
Carla Carrizosa 2013
Writing
• Research by Jean-Luc Velay and Anne Mangen at the
University of Stavanger’s Reading Centre in Norway
– The act of handwriting activates the brain regions that
help boost recall.- Emanuel Medical Center-Health Day,
2011
– Different parts of the brain are activated when we read
letters we have learned by handwriting.
– When writing by hand, the movements involved leave a
motor memory in the sensorimotor part of the brain,
which helps us recognize letters.
• http://www.uis.no/research-and-phd-studies/researchareas/school-and-learning/learning-environment/better-learningthrough-handwriting-article29782-8869.html
Jean-Luc Velay & Anne Mangen, Health Day
How the Brain Learns by Dr. David A.
Sousa
• Learning is emotional = Long
term memory (examples)
• An individual will remember
curriculum content in which they
have made an emotional
investment.
David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learns,
Chapter 3, 2006
Brain Research
Emotions
The Learning Environment
(Classroom)
Positive climate lends to
endorphins in blood, which
give a feeling of euphoria
and stimulate frontal lobes
(planning, high level thinking
and focus occur)
Negative climate leads to
Cortisol in blood, which
raises anxiety level and
refocuses frontal lobe to
flight or fight
David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learns,
Chapter 3, 2006
Learning Content
Instructional activities which
get students emotionally
connected to the content of
the learning
Brain Research
• Learning and retention are different we can
learn something for just a few minutes and
then lose it forever.
• Practice/Rehearsal is critical for long term
storage.
David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learns,
Chapter 3, 2006
Brain Research
Teach New Material First
Degree of Retention
Prime Time 1
Prime Time 2
Practice
Down time
New Information
0 min 5 min
10
min
15
20
25
min
min
min
Time in Minutes
Closure
30
min
David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learns,
Chapter 3, 2006
35
min
40
min
Brain Research
• Optimal Learning occurs between 7 a.m. to
around 12 p.m. for pre/postadolescents and 8
a.m. to 1 p.m. for adolescents.
• Time when teaching and learning require
more effort 12 p.m. to 2 p.m. for
pre/postadolescents and 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. for
adolescents.
David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learn,
Chapter 3, 2006
Brain Research
• Past Learning Helps in Present Learning
– Link something from the learner’s past that helps add
sense and meaning to the new learning.
– Select an experience which is clear, unambiguous, and
closely relevant not just related to the learning.
(Romeo & Juliet/West Side Story-US Civil
War/Vietnam War)
– Sousa suggests journal writing as a closure strategy
because process helps Ss make connections to
previous knowledge and organize concepts for long
term storage.
David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learn,
Chapter 4, 2006
Brain Research
• Readers must possess a word in their mental
dictionary to recognize the print.
• Children learn vocabulary words when they
are explicitly taught individual words and
word-learning strategies.
• Direct instruction is effective for teaching
difficult words representing complex concepts
which are not part of the child’s everyday
experience
David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learns,
Chapter 5, 2006
Brain Research
• Thinking Skills and Learning
– Model Thinking Skills in the Classroom
– Positive Learning Climate
•
•
•
•
•
Exhibit genuine interest
Analyze own thinking process
Change position if evidence warrants
Admit mistakes
Allow students to set rules, make decisions related to
learning and assessment.
• Encourage students to follow their own thinking not repeat
teacher’s view
• Prepare lessons that require higher order thinking to achieve
learning objectives
David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learn,
Chapter 7, 2006
Brain Research
• Putting it All Together
– Learning engages the entire person (cognitive,
affective, and psychological)
– Human brains seek patterns
– Emotions affect all learning, retention, and recall
– Past experience affect new learning
– Brain’s working memory is limited
– Lecture = lowest degree of retention
– Brain is unique
– Practice does not make perfect
David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learn,
Chapter 8, 2006
Quote
“Learning, as a language based activity, is
fundamentally and profoundly dependent on
vocabulary knowledge. Learners must have
access to the meanings of words that
teachers, or their surrogates use (to learn
something new).”
Baker, Simmons, & Kame’enui
Baker, Simmons, & Kame’enui
Brain Research
• What did you learn about the brain?
David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learn, 2006
ELL Brain Research
• Left Hemisphere– Broca’s area reponsible for processing vocabulary,
syntax, rules of grammar
– Wernicke’s areas processes the sense and
meaning of language
• Right Hemisphere
– Emotional meaning of language
Cerebellum = control and movement, now known to
be responsible for language.
David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learn,
Chapter 1, 2006
How the ELL Brain Learns- by Dr. David
A Sousa
English Vocabulary Size at Three Years of
Age in Various Economic Groups
Social Economic Group
Average Number of Words in Vocabulary
Upper
1,116
Middle-Lower
749
Welfare
525
David A. Sousa, How the ELL Brain Learns,
Chapter 1, 2011
The ELL Brain
• Lexicon – The lexicon of a
person is all the words they
commonly use
David A. Sousa, How the ELL Brain Learns,
Chapter 1, 2011
The ELL Brain
• Size of mental lexicon will be determined by
the richness and breadth of the exposure to
vocabulary word in their native language.
– The most reliable predictor of how well
youngsters will learn to read is the size of their
mental lexicons.
• Impacting how well they learn English
because their brain will attempt to match a
new English word with its counterpart stored
in the child’s native language lexicon.
David A. Sousa, How the ELL Brain Learns,
Chapter 1, 2011
ELL Brain Research
• Acquiring vocabulary is not enough
– EL’s must also know what the words means.
– English is a contextual language - a word can have
a different meaning depending on context (Ex. run
has a 120 definitions context is critical to the
definition)-Knowing the word in context in which
it is used is critical to full understanding
David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learns,
Chapter 3, 2006
The ELL Brain
• Tool and Guidance. Students need guidance
about which vocabulary items to learn as well
as help developing effective learning
techniques.
• Lists. Use frequency lists adapted for age level
David A. Sousa, How the ELL Brain Learns,
Chapter 3, 2011
The ELL Brain
– Use cognates to explain the meaning of English
words as an effective strategy.
– Using the L1 to facilitate the English form-to
meaning linkage allows more of the brain’s
cognitive resources to be focused on the English
form itself free-up the brain to focus on learning
the more contextualized types of word
knowledge.
David A. Sousa, How the ELL Brain Learns,
Chapter 3, 2011
The ELL Brain
• Research done by Carlo et al. 2004
– 10-12 vocabulary words a week for 15 weeks
• In the context of a thematic unit
• Teachers used:
– Word association tasks
– Analysis of word roots
– Cloze –Ss provided words omitted using contextual cues
demonstrating knowledge and comprehension of text.
David A. Sousa, How the ELL Brain Learns,
Chapter 5, 2011
The ELL Brain
• Research (Jimenez, 1997;Jimenez & Gamez,
1996)
– showed that when students are taught how to
deal with unknown vocabulary to recognize
Spanish cognates in English and to use their
background knowledge and to ask questions
• Students developed more awareness of their own
cognitive behavior (metacognitive) as well as a positive
attitude (emotional) towards reading both of which are
characteristics of skilled readers.
David A. Sousa, How the ELL Brain Learns,
Chapter 5, 2011
The ELL Brain
• Himmele and Himmele (2009)
– Mind-Set. Make an intentional effort to speak using academic
language
– Synonymous Tags. Use academic language and make the meaning of
words clear by using non-content-specific words- Tier II words
– Meaningful Contexts. Use academic language whereby the meaning of
the words are obvious to the ELLs due to the context.
– Visual Cues-select important words in the passage write them down
on board or wall and rehearse them. Seeing the words repeatedly
adds visual information in addition to saying them aloud.
– Emotions. Create language rich lessons in which ELLs can hear the
language in contexts that are comprehensible and engage their
emotions through activities that are relevant and authentic. Ss can
celebrate their emotional attachment to the learning.
David A. Sousa, How the ELL Brain Learn,
Chapter 5, Teaching Tip 5.2, 2011
The ELL Brain
• Metacognition-Wang, Spencer, & Xing, 2009
– Critical for learning another language
• Skill used by highly proficient readers of any language
• Skills include
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Prereading
Prewriting
Word Analysis
Methods for monitoring their reading comprehension
David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learn,
Chapter 5, 2006
ELL Brain Research
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Choral reading. In grades 1-6
Key words and pictures to help make connections
Examples and non-examples. Enhances understanding
Easily Pronounced Words. Initially select words which are easy for EL’s to
pronounce correctly.
Cognates. Use cognates to help students see the connections between
their language and English through the roots, prefixes, and suffixes.
Affective Filter -Safe environment to practice without criticism
Tools. Teach comprehension monitoring so students can recognize when
they do not understand and are able to ask for help.
Model (5.1, 5.3)
– Think-out-Louds- Teacher or Student
– Metacognition Strategies
• Pair-share- Reciprocal peer teaching (5.4)
David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learns, 2006
Quote
• “Words are labels for our knowledge
packets; the more words we have,
the more packets of knowledge, the
more background knowledge.”
Marzano 2004
Marzano, 2004
The ELL Brain
• Discuss 3 facts about how the ELL brain
learners that are new to you?
David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learn, 2006
Margarita Calderon
• In order to comprehend text a student needs to
understand 80-90 percent of the words in a
sentence, paragraph, or test question.
• Levels of word knowledge
1. No knowledge
2. General sense of the word (fastidious vs. fastidioso)
3. Narrow, context-bound knowledge.
4. Forgetting the word- knows the word but cannot
recall, cannot apply in a meaningful way.
5. Depth of word knowledge- knows it means two
different things in other languages, use of idioms
Margarita Calderon, Teaching Reading &
Comprehension to English Learners, K-5,
Chapter 6, 2011
Margarita Calderon
• Preteaching Vocabulary through Explicit Instruction
– Seven steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Teacher says, Ss repeat 3xs –Helps with pronunciation and introduces the
print version
Teacher reads and models word in a sentence (context) from text. Ss is able
to remember the word in context.
Teacher gives dictionary/glossary meaning-SS is exposed to formal English
Teacher explains meaning with student friendly definition gives examples
that students can relate to. Teacher uses pictures, props, movement, or
gestures to help students comprehend multiple meanings.
Teacher highlights aspect which may cause difficulty, spelling, polysemous,
synonyms, antonyms, homophones, grammatical variations. Ss do more in
depth word study.
Pair-share- all student involved orally- EL’s need to produce the word 10-12
times.
Teacher assigns peer reading with oral and written summarization using
new vocabulary.
Margarita Calderon, Teaching Reading &
Comprehension to English Learners, K-5,
Chapter 6, 2011
Margarita Calderon
• Teaching Tier I, II, and III words
– Tier I
• Basic words needed to communicate, read, and write
– Tier II
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•
•
•
Information processing words
Complex words
Longer phrases
Polysemous words –words with multiple meanings, use meaning in the
text –(trunk)
• Transition words,
• Connectors
• Sophisticated words used for specificity in descriptions and rich
discussions.
– Tier III
• Subject specific, content based,
Margarita Calderon, Teaching Reading &
Comprehension to English Learners, K-5,
Chapter 5 & 6, 2011
Margarita Calderon
• Tier II Words
– Teaching Long Phrases
• Idioms – break a leg –get your head out of the cloudshe is in heaven- let’s get crack’n-In your dreams
• (Noun) phrases – odd looking- act out – cut off
get rid of
• Prepositional phrases
Taught as a whole or in chunks
Margarita Calderon, Teaching Reading &
Comprehension to English Learners, K-5,
Chapter 6, 2011
Margarita Calderon
Tier II Words
Polysemous words (homonyms or homographs) across academic content areas
•
•
•
•
•
•
Solution
Table
Round
Divide
Prime
Round
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Trunk
State
Power
Cell
Right
Radical
Leg
Margarita Calderon, Teaching Reading &
Comprehension to English Learners, K-5,
Chapter 5 & 6, 2011
Margarita Calderon
• Tier II Words
– Sophisticated words and Specificity
• Long term EL’s use the same simple words over and
over because they have been allowed to get by with
such vocabularies
• Providing them with increased vocabularies
interventions will move EL’s from one level to another
Scrutiny, wholesome, and shuddered
Margarita Calderon, Teaching Reading &
Comprehension to English Learners, K-5,
Chapter 6, 2011
Margarita Calderon
• Tier II Words
– Cognates
•
•
•
•
Literature=literatura
Context = contexto
Irony = ironia
Osmosis = osmosis
– False Cognates
• Library not Libreria/bookstore
• Story not historia/history
• Exit not exito/success
Using Suffix patterns and Afffixes (ex. alphabeto/ alfabetico
alphabetizar/alphabet/alphabetic/alphabetize)
Margarita Calderon, Teaching Reading &
Comprehension to English Learners, K-5
2011
Margarita Calderon
• Tier II Words
– Homophones
Sum
Cell
Weather
Blew
Whole
Some
Sell
Whether
Blue
Hole (Imagine a whole cake)
Margarita Calderon, Teaching Reading &
Comprehension to English Learners, K-5
2011
Margarita Calderon
• Difficulties for EL’s with simple words
– Spelling
– Pronunciation
– Background knowledge
– Unfamiliar word, not previously taught
– False cognates
Margarita Calderon, Teaching Reading &
Comprehension to English Learners, K-5,
Chapter 6, 2011
Margarita Calderon
• Which Margarita Calderon strategies will you
use?
Carla Carrizosa 2013
Quote
“The limits of my language mean
the limits of my world”
Ludwig Wittgenstein
Ludwig Wittgenstein
Anita Archer
• Characteristics of Effective Vocabulary
Instruction
1. Instruction is clear and unambiguous
2. Instruction involves presentation of word
meaning and contextual examples
3. Multiple exposures to the word are provided
4. Sufficient instructional time is devoted to
vocabulary instruction
5. Students are actively engaged in vocabulary
instruction.
Anita L. Archer & Charles Hughes, Chapter
3, 2011
Anita Archer
1. Select words for explicit instruction
2. Develop or adopt student-friendly
explanations
3. Develop examples and non-examples for
introducing word or for checking
understanding
Anita L. Archer & Charles Hughes, Chapter
3, 2011
Anita Archer
• Select a limited number of words for robust,
explicit vocabulary instruction
• Three to ten words per story, portion of story,
or section of a chapter
• Briefly tell students the meaning of other
words needed for comprehension
Anita L. Archer & Charles Hughes, Chapter
3, 2011
Anita Archer
• Select words that are unknown
• Select words that are critical to passage
understanding
• Select words that students will encounter in
future
– Focus on Tier Two words
– Academic Vocabulary
Select words that are more difficult to obtain
Words having abstract versus concrete references
Words with unknown concept
Words not adequately explained within the text
Anita L. Archer & Charles Hughes, Chapter
3, 2011
Anita Archer
• Tier I –Basic words
• Tier II – Words in general use, but not
common- General Academic Vocabulary
• Tier III – Rare words limited to specific domain
Background Vocabulary
Anita L. Archer & Charles Hughes, Chapter
3, 2011
Anita Archer
• Student Friendly Definition
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Use known words
Easy to understand
Tell students the explanation or
Have them read the explanation with you
Don’t know the pronunciation go to
www.howjsay.com
– www.Collinslanguage.com
– Dictionary for English Language Learner
• (Collins COBUILD School Dictionary of American English)
Anita L. Archer & Charles Hughes, Chapter
3, 2011
Anita Archer
• Illustrate the word with examples
– Visual Examples
– Concrete examples
• Object
• Act out
http://explicitinstruction.org/?page_id=96
• Examples and Non-Exampleshttp://explicitinstruction.org/?page_id=104
• Check student understand using examples
Anita L. Archer & Charles Hughes 2011
Anita Archer
1. Introduce the part of speech
2. Introduce synonyms (same) antonyms
(opposite). Homographs (same spellingdifferent meaning)
3. Tell students when and where the words is
often used
4. Introduce the etymology (history and/or
orgin) of the word
Anita L. Archer & Charles Hughes 2011
Anita Archer
• Archerism
I do it
1. Introduce word
2. Present a student-friendly explanation
3. Illustrate the word with examples
We do it (rehearsal)
4. Guide students in analyzing examples and nonexamples using critical attributes
You do it
5. Check students’ understanding
Anita L. Archer & Charles Hughes 2011
Review
Participants you can:
• Understand how the brain learns according to Dr. David
Sousa
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Emotional
Optimal Engagement Times
Background Knowledge
Direct and explicit instruction
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Choral Reading
Examples and Non-Examples
Cognates
Affective Filter
Tools for Comprehending Text
Carla Carrizosa 2013
Review
• Understand how the ELL brain learns according to
Dr. David Sousa
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Lexicon dependent on Ss rich vocabulary in L1
Cognates
Tool and Guidance
Frequency Lists
10-12 Vocabulary List a Week
Meaningful Contexts-Obvious
Visual Cues
Authentic and Relevant Activities –Emotional
Cloze
Carla Carrizosa 2013
Review
• Understand Margarita Calderon’s strategies for
Vocabulary Instruction
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State the word in context from the text
Say the word and asks students to repeat the word 3xs
Provide student friendly definition
Highlight grammar, spelling, polysemy
Engage Ss in activities to develop word/concept
knowledge
– Remind students how/when to use the word
Carla Carrizosa 2013
Review
• Understand Anita Archer’s strategies for
Vocabulary Instruction
– Explicit instruction is critical for vocabulary
instruction.
– I do it, we do it, you do it.
– Cognates
– Tier I, II and III words
Carla Carrizosa 2013

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