type tests

Report
Mr. Harethe El Ouadhane
IEC member for IEC62271-200 MT14.
|Infrastructure Business | Germany | Test Engineer & Expert
(Internal Arc, Making, Breaking & STC) / Network & Pressure
Calculation
IEC 62271-100
High-voltage alternating-current circuit-breakers
Taiwan-European HVAC apparatuses
Accreditation and Certification forum
Harethe El Ouadhane
IEC Expert: Member of MT14 of IEC62271-200
Testing, design & calculation / MVSG & MVCB
Expert for internal arc, making, breaking and STC
Content
1.
Introduction
2.
Type Tests
3.
ISO 17025
4.
Routine Tests
5.
ISO 9001
6.
Extension of the validity of test results and derivations
7.
Safety
8.
Conclusion
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1. Introduction
History of the IEC 62271-100
 First and second Edition of IEC 56 in 1937 and 1954, dealing only with rules for shortcircuit conditions
 Third Edition of 1971 split in 6 parts. Part No. 4 dealing with Type Tests and Routine
Tests.
First specification of mechanical tests, tests on insulation properties, tests on auxiliary
and control circuits and temperature rise tests
 Edition 4 of 1987 including, among others, out-of-phase specifications, restriking
performance for capacitive current switching tests and increasing of mechanical
operations from 1000 to 2000.
The common requirements for HV switching equipment (CB, disconnector, earthing
switch, switchgear, etc.) were published as separate standard in 1980 in IEC 694
(Nowadays IEC 62271-1).
Only specific requirements for HV a.c. CB remained in IEC 56.
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1. Introduction
 Next revision, published as IEC 62271-100 in 2001, including among others:

Classification of mechanical, electrical endurance and restrike behavior at
capacitive switching

Limitation on number of test specimen for type tests

Critical current tests, single-phase and double-earth fault tests
 Second valid Edition of IEC 62271-100 in 2008 with the major changes of
harmonization between IEC and IEEE on TRV wave shapes 100kV and above,
distinction between cable and line systems with the specific TRVs below 100kV.
 Currently valid Edition 2.1 of 2012 consolidating with Amendment 1
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1. Introduction
 Scope of IEC 62271-100
This part of IEC 62271 is applicable to a.c. circuit-breakers designed for indoor or
outdoor installation and for operation at frequencies of 50 Hz and
60 Hz on systems having voltages above 1000 V.




Normal and special service conditions
Definition
Ratings: Rated characteristics to be given for all circuit-breakers / on request
Design and construction
 Type tests
 Routine tests
 Guide to the selection of circuit-breakers for service
 Information to be given with enquiries, tenders and orders
 Rules for transport, storage, installation, operation and maintenance
 Safety
 Influence of the product on the environment
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2. Type tests
 Purpose
Type tests are for the purpose of proving the ratings and characteristics of switchgear
and controlgear, their operating devices and their auxiliary equipment.
A High level of safety and reliability are proved by type tests and additional tests
performed under worst case test parameters and arrangements according the
standards.
 Mandatory Tests
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3. ISO 17025
 Purpose
The purpose of this accreditation standard is to ensure a highest level of testing Labs in
terms of test and measurement systems, testing personnel, procedures and test
documentation. This standard do not deal with safety issues
 Type tests or generally tests performed according the IEC standards in Test labs with
ISO17025 accreditation have a highest level of reliability and accuracy
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4. Routine tests
 Purpose
The routine tests are for the purpose of revealing faults in material or construction. They
do not impair the properties and reliability of a test object. The routine tests shall be
made wherever reasonably practicable at the manufacturer's works on each apparatus
manufactured, to ensure that the product is in accordance with the equipment on which
the type tests have been passed.
 By agreement, any routine test may be made on site.
 The routine tests given in this standard comprise
a) dielectric test on the main circuit in accordance with 7.1;
b) tests on auxiliary and control circuits in accordance with 7.2;
c) measurement of the resistance of the main circuit in accordance with 7.3;
d) tightness test in accordance with 7.4;
e) design and visual checks in accordance with 7.5.
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5. ISO 9001
 Purpose
The purpose of this accreditation standard is to ensure a highest level of factory testing
results in terms of procedures and processes. This standard do not deal with safety
issues or measurement accuracy. The calibration requirements are defined in the
ISO17025
 Routine tests or generally customized tests performed according the IEC standards in
factories with ISO9001 accreditation ensure a highest level of quality and accordance to
the type tested samples.
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6. Extension of the validity of test results
and derivations
 Circuit-breakers which have satisfactorily completed type tests for a combination of
rated values (i.e. voltage, normal current, making and/or breaking current) are suitable
for any lower rated values (with the exception of rated frequency) without further
testing.
 When circuit-breakers rated 50 Hz are tested at 60 Hz and vice versa, care should be
exercised in the interpretation of the test results, taking into account all significant facts
such as the type of circuit-breaker and the type of test performed.
For some test duties Tests done with 50Hz can be extended to 60Hz (e.g. breaking or
Temperature rise under given performances) and vice versa some test duties
performed with 60Hz can be extended to 50Hz (e.g. STC, Making, Temperature rise)
 The informativ guide IEC 62271-307 which will appear on August 2014 will better
define the main rules how to extend test results and derivate news between similar
designs.
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7. Safety
 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear can be considered safe when installed in
accordance with the relevant installation rules including those provided by the
manufacturers and used and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's
instructions
 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear is normally only accessible by instructed
persons. It shall be operated and maintained by skilled persons. When unrestricted
access is available to distribution switchgear and controlgear, additional safety features
may be required.
 High-voltage switchgear in accordance with IEC offers a high level of safety
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8. Conclusion
The design and technology of high-voltage circuit-breakers is continuously
developing and will continue also in the future.
The required type tests demonstrate the circuit-breaker capability for installation
and operation under various network conditions while the routine tests ensure
that the manufactured product is in accordance with the equipment on which the
type tests have been passed.
These conditions are based on the past and present experience of utilities and
industries, and so conform to their needs and specifications.
Most of the failures are due to inappropriate human behaviors either during the
project management phase (wrong product definition) or during operations
(installation, operation, maintenance, etc.)
Thus, considering additional regulation should not bring more safety
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8. Conclusion
IEC 62271-306:
“Standards should be written fit for purpose, i.e. they should reflect general
system requirements to ensure that the installed equipment works properly.
Although it is recognized that not 100% of all conditions occurring in service can
be covered, long term experience with high-voltage switchgear standards shows
that system conditions are generally covered adequately.”
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