### Presentation (pptx - 12 MB) - Physics

```PianoTuning
For Physicists & Engineers
Piano Tuning
using your
Laptop, Microphone, and Hammer
by
Bruce Vogelaar
313 Robeson Hall
Virginia Tech
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at
3:00 pm Room 130 Hahn North
March 17, 2012
1
Piano Tuning
2
What our \$50 piano sounded like when delivered.
So far: cleaned, fixed four keys, raised pitch a halfstep to set A4 at 440 Hz, and did a rough tuning…
Piano Tuning
3
education’ to work on that
ancient piano!
Tune: to what? why? how?
Regulate: what?
Fix keys: how?
Piano Tuning
L
A piano string is fixed
at its two ends, and
can vibrate in several
harmonic modes.
L n

;
2

frequency of string = frequency of sound
( of string   of sound)
fn 
v

v
n
2L
 nf 0
 n  2 f n
[v = speed of wave on string]
“Pluck” center  mostly ‘fundamental’
“Pluck” near edge  many higher ‘harmonics’
What you hear is the sum (transferred into air pressure waves).
4
P ( t )  a 1 sin(  1t )  a 2 sin(  2 t )  a 3 sin(  3 t )  ...
Destructive
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time
domain
5
frequency
spectrum
Constructive
Piano Tuning
frequency content determines ‘timbre’
6
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7
Given only the ‘sum’,
what were the components?
Fourier Analysis
“How much of the sum comes
from individual components”
8
Piano Tuning
Piano Tuning
13 slides on how this is done
(just can’t resist)
distribution:
P(x) is the number of
P(x):
f(x) is a 1x1 block
f(x):
Summing the product of
P(x)f(x) gives the number of
P(x)f(x):
9
P(x)
“sum”
Piano Tuning
 P(x)f(x)
f(x)
“components”
0
2
3
1
2
3
4
5
1
0
1
10
2
3
4
5
Piano Tuning
P(t)
f(t)
 P(t)f(t)
0
1
0
11
Piano Tuning
An arbitrary waveform can be
described by a sum
of cosine and sine
functions:

P (t ) 
 a
n
cos(  n t )  b n sin(  n t ) 
n0
piano ‘note’ is a sum of harmonics
want graph of amplitude-vs-frequency
+
=2f
12
finding am
∞
( )  =
Piano Tuning

+     ( )


=
P ( t ) cos(  m t ) dt

 am
cycle
all terms on right integrate to zero except mth !
 cos( 
n
t )cos(  m t ) dt  
nm
( 0 ; or  if m  n )
cycle
 sin( 
cycle
13
n
t )cos(  m t ) dt  0
find bm using sin(mt)
Piano Tuning
typical extraction of properties from a distribution
Typical Application
f avg 
 Pf
center of mass
dipole moments
f avg 
Pf
(same as above, but for continuous distributions)
e.g.: Maxwell Boltzmann velocity distributions

an 

 P ( x )  cos( nx ) dx
1

f avg 

Fourier component of P ( x ) 
 a
n
cos( nx )  b n sin( nx ) 
0
f ψ
2
commuting quantum mechanical variables
f avg  ψ f ψ
rate  ψ
14
(assume P and  are normalized)
Weighted average
f
f ψi
non-commuting quantum mechanical variables
2
Fermi’s golden rule for transitions between two states.
200 Samples, every 1/200 second, giving f0 = 1 Hz
1 sec
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Input 4Hz pure sine wave
Look for 3Hz component
4+3 = 7 Hz
Multiply
4 - 3 = 1 Hz
15
Average     =

−

AVG = 0
1 sec
Piano Tuning
Input 4Hz pure sine wave
Look for 4Hz component
4+4 = 8 Hz
Multiply
4 - 4 = 0 Hz
16
Average     =    −

AVG = 1/2
1 sec
Piano Tuning
Input 4Hz pure sine wave
Look for 5Hz component
Multiply
17
Average     =    −

AVG = 0
Great, picked out the 4 Hz input. But what if the input phase is different?
Use COS as well. For example: 4Hz, 0 = 30o; sample 4 Hz
Piano Tuning
1 sec
sin
0.43
18
(0.432 + 0.252)1/2 = 1/2 Right On!
1 sec
cos
0.25
0.25
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Signal phase does not matter.
What about input at 10.5 Hz?
19
Finite Resolution
Piano Tuning
Remember, we only had 200 samples, so there is a limit
to how high a frequency we can extract. Consider 188 Hz,
sampled every 1/200 seconds:
Nyquist Limit
20
Sample > 2x frequency of interest;
lots of multiplication & summing  slow…
Piano Tuning
Fast Fourier Transforms
21
• uses Euler’s  = cos  +  sin()
• several very clever features
•  1000’s of times faster
Free FFT Spectrum Analyzer:
“Visual Analyzer”
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22
40960 sample/s
32768 samples
= 1.25 Hz resolution
Why some notes sound ‘harmonious’
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Octave (2/1)
5th (3/2)
4th (4/3)
3rd (5/4)
23
Octaves are universally pleasing;
to the Western ear, the 5th is next
most important.
G
C
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5th (3/2)
t
24
f
G
C
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A frequency multiplied by a power of 2
is the same note in a different octave.
25
Going up by 5ths
12 times brings you very
near the same note
(but 7 octaves up)
(this suggests perhaps
12 notes per octave)
“Wolf ” fifth
Up by 5ths: (3/2)n
Piano Tuning
“Circle of 5th s”
f
1 .5
12
2
7
log2(f)
We define the number of
‘cents’ between two notes as
1200 * log2(f2/f1)
Octave = 1200 cents
“Wolf “ fifth off by 23 cents.
26
log2(f) shifted into same octave
log2 of ‘ideal’ ratios
Options for equally spaced notes
Piano Tuning
1= log 2/1
log 3/2
log 4/3
log 5/4
log 6/5
log 9/8
0
Average deviation from ‘just’ notes
27
We’ve chosen 12 EQUAL tempered steps; could have been 19 just as well…
Typically set A4 to 440 Hz
Piano Tuning
Interval
28
Equal Temperament
Frequency Ratio
Octave

Major Seventh

Minor Seventh

Major Sixth

Minor Sixth

Perfect Fifth

Tritone

Perfect Fourth

Major Third

Minor Third

Major Second

Minor Second

Unison

Difference
Harmonic Series
Frequency Ratio
=
2.0000
0.0000
2.0000 =
2/1
=
1.8877
0.0127
1.8750 =
15/8
=
1.7818
0.0318
1.7500 =
7/4
=
1.6818
0.0151
1.6667 =
5/3
=
1.5874
-0.0126
1.6000 =
8/5
=
1.4983
-0.0017
1.5000 =
3/2
=
1.4142
0.0000
1.4142 =
/
=
1.3348
0.0015
1.3333 =
4/3
=
1.2599
0.0099
1.2500 =
5/4
=
1.1892
-0.0108
1.2000 =
6/5
=
1.1225
-0.0025
1.1250 =
9/8
=
1.0595
-0.0072
1.0667 =
16/15
=
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000 =
1/1
What an ‘aural’ tuner does…
for equal temperament:
Piano Tuning
Octave (2/1)
tune so that desired
harmonics are at the
same frequency;
5th (3/2)
4th (4/3)
3rd (5/4)
29
then, set them the
required amount off
by counting ‘beats’.
Piano Tuning
From C, set G above it such that
an octave and a fifth above the C
you hear a 0.89 Hz ‘beating’
I was hopeless,
and even wrote a
synthesizer to try
and train myself…
30
These beat frequencies are for the central octave.
but I still couldn’t
‘hear’ it…
Piano Tuning
Is it hopeless?
not with a little help from math
and a laptop…
we (non-musicians) can use a
spectrum analyzer…
31
Piano Tuning
With a (free) “Fourier” spectrum
analyzer we can set the pitches
exactly!
32
True Equal Temperament Frequencies
0
1
2
C
32.70
65.41
C#
34.65
69.30
D
36.71
73.42
D#
38.89
77.78
E
41.20
82.41
F
43.65
87.31
F#
46.25
92.50
G
49.00
98.00
G#
51.91 103.83
A
27.50
55.00 110.00
A#
29.14
58.27 116.54
B
30.87
61.74 123.47
3
130.81
138.59
146.83
155.56
164.81
174.61
185.00
196.00
207.65
220.00
233.08
246.94
4
261.63
277.18
293.66
311.13
329.63
349.23
369.99
392.00
415.30
440.00
466.16
493.88
5
523.25
554.37
587.33
622.25
659.26
698.46
739.99
783.99
830.61
880.00
932.33
987.77
6
1046.50
1108.73
1174.66
1244.51
1318.51
1396.91
1479.98
1567.98
1661.22
1760.00
1864.66
1975.53
7
8
2093.00 4186.01
2217.46
2349.32
2489.02
2637.02
2793.83
2959.96
3135.96
3322.44
3520.00
3729.31
3951.07
Piano Tuning
But first – a critical note about ‘real’
strings (where ‘art’ can’t be avoided)
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• strings have ‘stiffness’
• bass strings are wound to reduce this, but not
all the way to their ends
• treble strings are very short and ‘stiff’
• thus harmonics are not true multiples of
fundamentals
– their frequencies are increased by 1+n2
• concert grands have less inharmonicity
because they have longer strings
A4 (440) inharmonicity
which should match A7?
Piano Tuning
true 8x440
34
piano
Piano Tuning
Tuning the ‘A’ keys:
32 f0
sounds ‘sharp’
33.6 f0
Ideal strings
f 0  440 ( 2 ); n   4  2
n
With 0.0001 inharmonicity
sounds ‘flat’
Need to “Stretch” the
tuning.
35
Can not match all
harmonics, must
compromise  ‘art’
(how I’ve done it)
Piano Tuning
octaves 3-5: no stretch (laziness on my part)
36
octaves 0-2: tune harmonics to notes in octave 3
octaves 6-7: set ‘R’ inharmonicity to ~0.0003
load note into L and use R(L) ‘Stretched’
Piano Tuning
With Db4
Trying to set Db7
The effect is larger for higher harmonics,
and so you simply can’t match everything
at the same time.
37
With Db5
Piano Tuning
but some keys don’t work…
38
pianos were designed to come apart
(if you break a string tuning it,
you’ll need to remove the ‘action’ anyway)
(remember to number the keys before removing them
and mark which keys hit which strings)
“Regulation”
Fixing keys, and making mechanical adjustments
so they work optimally, and ‘feel’ uniform.
Piano Tuning
a pain on spinets
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40
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Piano Tuning
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“Voicing”
the hammers
NOT for the novice
(you can easily ruin a set of hammers)
Piano Tuning
Let’s now do it for real…
42
pin turning
unisons (‘true’ or not?)
tune using FFT
put it back together
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