Teacher Behavior: Key to Enhancing the Learning Environment Michelle Marchant, Darlene Anderson, Michele Thompson Brigham Young University and Nebo School District Share key concerns regarding student behavior in your classroom and school. Think – Pair – Share Scenario A Case 2 Scenario A Case 1 Background Student: Sam Age: 14.2 Grade: 8th Scenario: Sam is an eighth grader who is not finishing his work due to his off-task behaviors. According to his records, this has been an ongoing problem since third grade. His grades have become progressively worse this year. His academic grade in his social studies class (and in most of his other classes) is at 65% because assignments are rarely completed or are done haphazardly. When Sam does start an assignment, he often rushes through it, making a number of errors and overlooking information. His teacher reports the following types of off-task behaviors; reading books and magazines, drawing and doodling, daydreaming, and talking to friends and neighbors. These behaviors occur most often during independent work times and rarely during large group or whole class activities, Sam’s social studies teacher believes he is capable of doing grade-level work and has decided that Sam will achieve the following goals within six weeks: 1. Increase the number of independent assignments completed. 2. Earn 80% or higher on all completed assignments. Background Student: Heather Age: 8.1 Grade: 3rd Scenario: Heather is a third grader in Ms. Reyes’ classroom of 24 students. Heather enjoys school and often arrives early so she can spend time on the playground with her friends. Ms. Reyes, however, is concerned because Heather is disrupting the class. She reports that Heather calls out answers during lessons, speaks over others during class discussion, and talks to neighbors during group and independent work. For 25 minutes each day, Heather and two peers receive resource room support in math. Heather’s resource room teacher has not noticed any of these behaviors. Ms. Reyes decides to set these goals for Heather for the next nine weeks: 1. Raise her hand and wait to be called before speaking. 2. Decrease interruptions and wait for others to finish before adding to discussions. 3. Complete independent work quietly. Effective Practices: Developing a Positive and Engaging Classroom Climate Improving student achievement is a national concern. Teacher quality is directly related to effective learning environments where students are more likely to achieve (NCLB, 2001; Sutherland, Wehby & Yoder. 2002; Chalk & Bizo, 2004). Positive and Engaging Classroom Climate. The ultimate act of prevention: Teaching behavior along with academic content (Algozzine, Wang & Violette). Effective Teacher Practices. Effective classroom management is preventative rather than reactive (Emmer & Stough, 2001). Effective Practices: Developing a Positive and Engaging Classroom Climate Effective Teacher Practices. Student outcomes improve when teachers take a positive, proactive approach to managing problem behavior (Tillery, Varjas, Meyers, & Collins, 2010). SWPBS – The primary prevention tier involves teaching, monitoring, and acknowledging behavioral expectations for all children and implementing evidence-based practices (Horner et al., 2009). Behavior-specific praise is considered an effective teacher skill to increase student engagement in academic and socially appropriate behavior (Beaman & Wheldall, 2000; Brophy, 1981; Cherne, 2009; Sutherland, Wehby & Copeland, 2000; Sugai, 2007). Given the current emphasis on improving outcomes for all students, it is imperative that educators receive access to methods and training materials appropriate to a wide range of student needs. Over Arching Principles Assess and Establish a Positive Learning Environment Include a Positive Teaching Approach Implement Praise Over Arching Principles Assess and Establish a Positive Learning Environment Include a Positive Teaching Approach Implement Praise Assess and Establish a Positive Learning Environment Children are more likely to trust teachers when they model responsible behaviors and provide students with opportunities to receive positive reinforcement for engaging in desired behavior. Positive Learning Environment (cont.’d) Relationship bank Positive vs. negative interactions Body Language Non-contingent attention High expectations & routines Relationship Bank Positive vs. Negative Interactions 4:1 Adult ‘withdrawals’ are more powerful Deposits > Withdrawals positives : negatives Balance feedback with positives Video clip of Dean Young here Adult Behaviors Judged by Young People as: POSITIVE NEGATIVE Calm, pleasant voice tone Overt displays of anger Offers to help Accusing/blaming statements Compliments on their performance Giving no opportunities to speak Mean insulting remarks Unpleasant physical contact Lack of fairness Bossy, demanding Fairness Explaining why, how, or what Concern Enthusiasm Politeness Getting right to the point Unpleasant Giving specific examples Talking only about mistakes Pleasant facial expression No eye contact Stating expectations Adapted from Willner, et al. (1977) Over Arching Principles Assess and Establish a Positive Learning Environment Include a Positive Teaching Approach Implement Praise Use a Positive Teaching Approach Discipline Punishment Purpose To teach appropriate behavior To stop inappropriate behavior by inflicting pain (physical, mental or emotional) Focus in time Future correct behavior; long term Past incorrect behavior; short term Attitude of adult Love and concern for the individual’s success and happiness; the adult feels calm and relaxed Hostility and frustration toward the individual; the adult feels physical tension, stress, and avenged Resulting emotions in child Positive self image, self worth, value, self confidence, reciprocates love and concern Fear, guilt, stupidity, anger, inferiority, lack of confidence in self, reciprocities, hostility and contempt Video clip of Dean Young here Over Arching Principles Assess and Establish a Positive Learning Environment Include a Positive Teaching Approach Implement Praise What is Praise? Praise is… Reinforcement Specific Descriptive Accurate Sincere Contingent Age appropriate Relationship building Praise is not… a compliment a statement with an accompanying ‘zinger’ statement insincere comments made out of duty 3 Types of Praise GENERAL: simple, not specific EFFECTIVE: specific, sincere, immediate, and contingent upon something a child has done or an effort he has made INSTRUCTIVE: praise that teaches, includes the components of effective praise along with a rationale Examples PRAISE Thanks for putting your coat away so quickly. COMPLIMENTS I appreciate the way you shared your cookies with Alan. Nice shoes. You look great today. You are a good boy. Wow! Look at the way you painted that picture. It looks terrific! Professional Development Strategies for Teachers: Preservice and In-service Instructor Materials and Resources DVDs Music of the Heart Children’s Literature Secret of the Peaceful Warrior (Millman, 1991) October Sky You Can Do This http://education .byu.edu/youca ndothis/ Professional Articles Textbooks IRIS Center Website CHAMPS: A Proactive and Positive Approach to Classroom Management (Sprick, Garrison, & Howard, 1998) The Therapeutic Power of Kindness (Long, 1997) Somebody Loves You, Mr. Hatch (Spinelli, 1996) Case Study: Encouraging Appropriate Behavior http://iris.peabody. vanderbilt.edu/ Building Positive Relationships and Social Skills: A Nurturing Pedagogy Approach (Young & West, 2008) Five Reasons to Stop Saying, “Good Job.” (Kohn, 2001) In-Class Activities Class Activity View and discuss video clips. Example Prior to class discussion, candidates view a clip from October Sky that demonstrates the value of building strong, positive relationships with students. Read children’s literature prior to discussing principles In small groups, candidates read The Secret of the Peaceful associated with course content. Warrior. Small and large group discussions ensue, with a focus on mentoring and establishing high expectations. View and discuss scenarios illustrating effective classroom set- Candidates problem solve ways to arrange their classrooms to up from the IRIS Center website. support learning and increase appropriate behavior. Produce hypothetical and real-life situations in which student Candidates identify a student with whom they would like to teacher relationships are likely to be strengthened. build a more positive relationship, given the student’s personality and interests, listing activities they could engage in with the student and the time involved. Engage in a journaling activity, recording insights gleaned from Teacher candidates reflect on behavioral methods and strategies past experiences and in relation to one’s future classroom. they would like to use in their future classrooms. Ways to attend to the multi-cultural needs of the school’s population are among the topics addressed. Praise Note Assignment and In-School Application Identify 1 or 2 people/students Write 10 praise notes Create written reflection Share observed changes Reference readings Indicate future use Example Praise Note Lora I was actually very excited about this assignment because I know the power of these notes…Whenever a [praise] note is given in my class, all of my students try just a little harder . . . I have already discovered that giving students praise notes helps me have a better attitude toward them . . . Giving [a student] five notes within two weeks really helped me notice more of his strengths instead of focusing on those things that bothered me. He, in turn, liked all of the positive attention he was receiving from me and worked very hard in class each day. Lora video clip here Sheila I was . . . impressed that something as simple as writing a praise note [would impact [student] behavior and class work… I must admit I had never seen Joe work so hard in my class before. Joe still had talk outs, but they were fewer. He would still make jokes, but . . . was less disruptive. On Friday…the office called to say he was being checked out of school early. As he was putting away his belongings, he pushed the pad of yellow [post-it] notes [in] my direction and smiled at me. I wrote him [a] praise note which he stuck to his shirt . . . I have learned . . . how important it is to fill the relationship bank with all kinds of deposits. I have also learned that this bank takes currency in the form of verbal praise, kindness, trust, understanding, and [written] praise notes. Because of this experience and what I have learned from it, I will continue to write praise notes to my students. Sheila video clip here Kathy [Kelly] was a little socially awkward and not . . . as accepted by her classmates as others. . . [One] day . . . I wrote [her] a [praise] note . . . She . . . ran over to her mom and (happily] showed her the note. Her mom [simply] smiled . . . [However] the biggest change has been in me. This assignment helped me to appreciate . . . Kelly . . . I hope that in some way the notes have helped [her] . . . I know this assignment has helped me. Kathy video clip here Multi-tiered Training Tier 1: School-wide faculty training on the use of BSP Tier 2: Video self-monitoring Tier 3: Coaching Outcomes of Multi-tiered Training Figure 1. Effects of multi-tiered interventions on BSP rates Social Validity 6-point Likert scale Strongly agreed on the following: Increasing BSP is an effective intervention Collaborative coaching is an effective tool to improve teacher behavior Contact Information Darlene Anderson [email protected] Michelle Marchant [email protected] Michele Thompson [email protected] Marchant, M., & Anderson, D. (2012). Improving social and academic outcomes for all learners through the use of teacher praise. Beyond Behavior, 21 (3), 22-28. Thompson, M. T., Marchant, M., Anderson, D., Prater, M., & Gibb, G. (2012). Effects of tiered training on general educators’ use of specific praise, Education and Treatment of Children, 35 (4), 521-546. Questions?