Reading Instruction, Curriculum and Coaching Panel Moderated by Pennye Thurmond Director of Administrator Evaluations Tennessee Department of Education Welcome to our Panelists • Tony Dalton, Ed.D. Instructional Coach, Hamblen County Schools • Caresa Brooks Coordinator, Reading and Instructional Interventions, Murfreesboro City Schools • Jennifer Jordan, Ed.S. School Psychologist, Lauderdale County Schools Today our panelists will be discussing the following three questions: • What are the key elements principals and teachers need to hear to improve core reading instruction? • How do you identify gaps in skill and understanding for your students? • How can intervention be structured to provide meaningful, targeted instruction for all students? What are the key elements principals and teachers need to hear to improve core reading instruction? Tony Dalton Instructional Coach, Hamblen County Schools Improving Our School’s Core Reading Instruction Tony Dalton PreK-1st District Instructional Coach Hamblen County Scientifically Based Reading and Intervention Programs Reading Components (Phonics, Phonemic Awareness, Vocabulary, Fluency, Comprehension, and Writing) each day Scope and Sequence for consistency and to ensure all skills/standards are addressed Differentiated Instruction/Materials to meet the need of all students Grade level and High Expectations for all Technology-based reinforcement RTI2 with Fidelity Effective Scheduling • Efficient, but flexible use of staff, resources, and time • Prioritize responsibilities, skills, and strengths across staff • Common Planning for teachers • 90-120 minutes of Reading/Language Arts each day • Emphasis on small-group differentiated instruction. Tier I implemented correctly! Professional Development • On-going/follow-up training for all staff members on current, research-based, best practices and intervention • Regular monthly staff meetings/training • Empower teachers to lead PD Parental Involvement • Ongoing Communication • Flexible and Accommodating time for parent meetings/training • Encourage assistance at home and offer support • Involve them by keeping them informed Data Analysis • Valid and reliable assessments/screener • Ongoing data management, disaggregation, and utilization • Grade-level meetings/PLC to analyze data and make instructional decisions Strong Leadership – Strong Vision • Recognize and identify staff needs • Establish reading instruction as a priority • Constant support and encouragement How do you identify gaps in skill and understanding for your students? Caresa Brooks Coordinator, Reading and Instructional Interventions, Murfreesboro City Schools The Reading Rope SKILLED READING: Language Comprehension ● Background Knowledge ● Vocabulary Knowledge ● Language Structures ● Verbal Reasoning ● Literacy Knowledge fluent execution and coordination of word recognition and text comprehension. Increasingly strategic Word Recognition ● Phonological Awareness ● Decoding (and Spelling) ● Sight Recognition Increasingly automatic Reading is a multifaceted skill, gradually acquired over years of instruction and practice Areas of Deficit Reading • Basic Reading – Phonological Awareness – Decoding skills (and spelling) – Sight word recognition • Reading Fluency – Retrieval speed – Reading quickly, correctly, and with expression • Reading Comprehension – – – – – Background Knowledge Vocabulary Knowledge Language Structures Verbal Reasoning Literacy Knowledge Identifying Skill Deficits • Benchmark Testing – Red Flag that something is wrong – Much like a thermometer; a fever indicates something is wrong….but what???? Have to go deeper • Skills Assessment – Identify deficit then assess that skill for instruction Example • 3rd grade student flags in reading CBM (fluency measure) at the 8th percentile – Questions to ask: • Is the fluency deficit due to a Basic Reading Deficit? – If you don’t ask this question, you could provide intervention for a fluency deficit and never address the underlying deficit • How far below the standard is the student? • What skills must be remediated to help the student reach the standard? – INTERVENTION Example (cont’d) • 3rd grade student – RTI team feels the student has deficit Basic Reading Skills – Administer a test of phonological processing and basic decoding and sight word recognition • This student is found to have deficits in phonemic segmentation, confusing short and long vowel patterns (reading and spelling), and poor retrieval speed Example (cont’d) Standard for third grade • Know and apply gradelevel phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. – Prefixes and suffixes – Multisyllable words – Read irregularly spelled words SKILL DEFICIT (to reach this standard) • Phonemic Segmentation • Read and spell short vowel sounds • Read common sight words in first and second grade Intervention • Intervention should be focused to remediate these skill deficits!! • This is how students will access the standard Caresa Brooks Murfreesboro City Schools [email protected] How can intervention be structured to provide meaningful, targeted instruction for all students? Jennifer Jordan, Ed.S. School Psychologist, Lauderdale County Schools How can intervention be structured to provide meaningful, targeted instruction for all students. Jennifer Jordan Lauderdale County Schools • [Intervention] is first and foremost, instruction focused on individual needs. It is carefully planned. It is intensive, urgent, relentless and goal directed. It is empirically supported practice, drawn from research.” (Zigmond, 1997, p.385). Zigmond, N. (1997). Educating students with disabilities: The future of special education. In J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameenui, & D. Chard (Eds.). (1997). Issues in educating with disabilities. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Instruction and Intervention Matter! • There is a convergence of research studies that show all but 2-5 percent of children can master basic reading skills in the early grades. (Mathes et al, 2005). • In addition, interventions that are intensive, explicit, and long-term will close grade level gaps for older students (Torgensen, Alexander, et al 2001). Mates, P. G., Denton, C. A., Fletcher, J. M., Anthony, J. L., Francis, D. J., & Schatschneider, C. (2005). The effects of theoretically different instruction and student characteristics on skills of struggling readers. Reading Research Quarterly, 40, 148-182. Torgesen, J. K., Alexander, A. W., Wagner, R. K., Rashotte, C. A., Voeller, K. S., & Conway T. (2001). Intensive remedial instruction for children with severe reading disabilities: Immediate and long-term outcomes from two instructional approaches. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34, 33-58. Why Students Struggle …. • Studies find that there are three broad reasons students have difficulty reading: – problems with the alphabetic principal that lead to deficits in fluent and accurate reading skills – failure to acquire verbal knowledge and reading strategies that are necessary for comprehension – motivational issues due to continued reading struggles (Perfetti, 2011; Torgesen, 2006) Perfetti, C. A. (2011). Phonology is critical in reading: But a phonological deficit is not the only source of low reading skill. In S. A. Brady, D. Braze, & C. A. Fowler (Eds.), Explaining individual differences in reading: Theory and evidence (pp. 153-171). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group. Torgesen, J. K., (2006). Recent discoveries from research on remedial intervention for children with dyslexia. In M. Snowling and C. Hulme (Eds.). The Science of Reading: A Handbook. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Simple View of Reading DECODING Word Recognition LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION READING COMPREHENSION FLUENCY Language Comprehension Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Text Comprehension Phonics Torgesen, 2006 K – 5 Reading Tier 2 Intervention Program Specialized, scientifically-based reading intervention program and/or research-based strategies. Setting General Education Classroom Interventionist General Education Teacher Grouping Homogeneous small-group instruction (1:6 or less) Time Minimum of 30 minutes per day Assessment Progress monitoring twice a month on targeted skill at students’ instructional levels to ensure adequate progress and learning. K-5 Reading Tier 3 Program Sustained, intensive scientifically-based reading program emphasizing the five critical elements of beginning reading. Setting Appropriate setting determine by school (usually pullout setting) Interventionist Personnel determined by school to provide intensive interventions Grouping Homogeneous small-group instruction (1:5 or less) Time Minimum of 30 minutes per day (above Tier 1 and Tier 2) Assessment Progress monitoring weekly on targeted skill at students’ instructional levels to ensure adequate progress and learning. High School Literacy Intervention Plan • Reading Lab – All 9th grade students who reading between the 2nd and 8th grade are assigned to the Reading Lab. • Students are served in the Reading Lab for 85 minutes daily for 18 weeks. • The instruction is provided by one certified teacher and one paraprofessional (approximately a 1:15 ratio) • A research-based reading program (Cambium Learning Voyager) is used in the Reading Lab. • Progress Monitoring is conduced three times during the intervention period. – 10th grade students are in a Literacy Circle 30 minutes per day during interdisciplinary studies to encourage out of school reading.