Dental Terminology Typodonts • a model of each arch that contains all of the teeth in the jaw. You will work with maxillary (upper) and mandibular (lower) typodonts in the Tooth Preparation class. Maxillary Mandibular Tooth Types • Anterior – incisors and canines • Posterior – premolars and molars Anatomic vs. Clinical Crown • Anatomic crown - The part of the tooth which is covered by enamel, and extends from the occlusal surface (or incisal edge) to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) • Clinical crown - that portion of enamel visibly present in the oral cavity; the visible portion of the tooth that is occlusal to the deepest part of the gingival crevice Tooth Structure • Enamel – outer covering of crown • Dentin - covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root and surrounds the entire pulp • Pulp – contains nerve and blood supply • Cementum – outer covering of root of tooth • DEJ - dentin enamel junction • CEJ – cementoenamel junction Gingiva - gums Numbering of Teeth • Universal System—used in clinic (#1-32) Maxillary teeth #1 – 16 starting in the patient’s upper right Mandibular teeth #17 – 32 starting in the patient’s lower left Numbering of Teeth • International (FDI) System—used in DentSim lab (#11, 21, 31, 41 for centrals) Terminology • Incisal - any surface or movement towards the biting edges of anterior teeth • Occlusal - any surface or movement towards the chewing surface of posterior teeth • Mesial – closest to midline • Distal – farthest from midline Occlusal surfaces Mesial (of #15) Distal (of #15) Walls of Cavity Preparation • External wall - prepared cavity surface that extends to the external tooth surface and takes the name of the tooth surface (or aspect) it faces, eg. buccal wall Buccal Wall Buccal Side of Tooth Terminology • Margins - the junctions of the preparation and the external surface of the tooth Walls of Cavity Preparation Lingual • Buccal (Facial) – cheek side • Lingual – tongue Axial wall side • Pulpal (floor) Mesial • Gingival (floor) • Axial – wall between pulpal and gingival floors Pulpal floor Gingival floor Distal Buccal • External outline (cavosurface margin) -the preparation outline created by the outer rim of the preparation • Internal outline - the outline created by the pulpal floor • Preparation retention - created by placing parallel or slightly converging walls within the preparation Internal outline External outline • Internal line angle - line angle whose apex points into the tooth, eg. pulpal-axial line angle • Point angle - junction of three surfaces of different orientations, eg. Distobucco-occlusal point angle Internal line angle Morphology Terminology • Cusp - prominence created by the meeting of inclined surfaces on the occlusal aspect of the crown • Fossa - rounded or angular depression in the occlusal enamel surface (represents the complete fusion of developmental enamel lobes) • Central fossa - broad, angular depressed area in the central portion of the occlusal surface of molars Morphology Terminology • Lingual fossa - a depression in the central portion of the incisor's lingual surface • Cingulum - a pronounced convexity on the gingival third of the lingual surface of an anterior tooth • Mammelones - 3 minor elevations that appear at the incisal edge of a newly erupted incisor • Contact area - area on the mesial or distal of a tooth that touches the adjacent tooth • Proximal surface – mesial or distal surface of tooth • Gingival embrasure - triangular spaces originating at the proximal contact areas between adjacent teeth called after the direction towards which they radiate • Gingival papilla - soft tissue that occupies gingival embrasures Gingival papilla Gingival embrasure Morphology Terminology • Marginal ridge - elevated crest that forms the mesial and distal margins of the occlusal surface in premolars and molars Class I preparation • a preparation that involves only the occlusal surface of the tooth (pit and fissure cavity) Class II preparation • located on the proximal surfaces of the posterior teeth. Often includes the occlusal surface as well as proximal surface Class III preparation • mesial or distal surface of anterior teeth. does not involve incisal edge Class IV preparation • preparation of the proximal surface of an anterior teeth, which involves the incisal angle • You will learn about all of this terminology in great detail once you begin dental school. These are just some basic definitions that will give you a head start. • In Dentsim this year we will prepare Class I, II, and III preparations on the mandibular and maxillary arches.