All nations involved in WWI used propaganda posters for several reasons: To justify their involvement to their citizens To encourage young men to enlist (often by guilt or fear) To appeal to the emotions of their citizens to save food, money, resources for the war efforts Posters from the war show us the link between the war and their impact on national economies Who produced this poster? * Artist Saville Lumley for the British government What is the purpose of this poster? * Recruit for the British Army What emotions does this poster elicit? * Fear, guilt, curiosity What emotions does this 1917 U.S. government poster use to encourage men to enlist in the military? The image of the woman bent over, the fallen flags and the ominous background suggest fear. The image of Uncle Sam pointing his finger, with a set jaw, suggests anger. What messages does this 1918 Australian poster give about Germans? They are evil and will leave Europe in blood. The German, indicated by his helmet, is portrayed as a beast, with its bloody arms dripping onto a map of Europe. Why would the Australian government represent Germans this way? To support the war effort against Germany—Australia was a member of the British Empire and felt loyal War is expensive—food, clothing, soldier pay, weapons, transportation of troops and supplies Rather than raise taxes on civilians, governments asked people to raise their own money for the war effort. Lend Your Shillings 1915, Great Britain D.D. Fry According to The Official Record of the United States’ Part in the Great War, Great Britain and its colonies spent 38 billion dollars waging war in WWI Buy Liberty Bonds 1918, U.S.A. Joseph Pennell The imaginary attack on New York City would have been highly unlikely with the enemy across an ocean that had yet to be crossed in an airplane. Nevertheless two million copies of this popular poster were printed, demonstrating that terror can be guaranteed to sell war (Paret 75). Save Your Quarters 1917, U.S.A. James M. Flagg Buy War Loan Bonds 1918, India T. Martin Jones 800,000 Indian men fought in WWI, suffering more than 100,000 casualties and nearly bankrupting the Indian economy. The Times of London editorialized: “The Indian empire has over-whelmed the British nation by the completeness and unanimity of its enthusiastic aid.” Subscribe to the War Loan 1918, Austria-Hungary Bela Moldovan Industry was needed to produce all the weapons and supplies for the war Marxist ideas had been spreading, causing worker unrest—lots of strikes and anger in the working class. Governments saw this as a direct threat to the war effort and needed to convince people to work hard for their country’s sake. Rivets are Bayonets 1916, U.S.A John E. Sheridan Workers are like soldiers, working to win the war for their country. According to The Official Record of the United States’ Part in the Great War, “to build factories and storage warehouses for supplies, as well as housing for troops, 200,000 workmen in the United States were kept continuously occupied for the period of the war. The title and the image suggest that building ships is linked to winning the war. The sponsor organization is the U.S. Shipping Board. Soldiers All 1915, Great Britain Bernard Partridge It is unpatriotic and even treasonous for workers to strike during wartime. The wounded soldier is telling the sheepish worker that striking is the same as refusing to fight. Once a German— Always a German 1918, Great Britain David Wilson Another version of this poster included this text: “This man, who has shelled churches, hospitals, and open boats at sea; this robber, ravisher, and murderer, AND this man, who after the war, will want to sell you his German goods, ARE ONE AND THE SAME PERSON!” Through Work to Victory! Through Victory to Peace! 1917, Germany Alexander Cay A Marxist Revolution had just placed a communist government in power in neighboring Russia in 1917. Many powerful and wealthy Germans feared a Communist revolution in Germany might emerge from labor strikes. This poster stresses cooperation between labor and the military to win the war but also to secure peace. In order for industry to do its job to supply the war effort, energy was needed to run the factories. Steel and copper were needed to manufacture weapons. Mine More Coal 1918, U.S.A. Walter Whitehead As a fuel that could propel ships and warm homes coal was an essential fuel in WWI. The Fuel Administration produced many posters focused on coal mining and use including posting instructions on how to fire coal successfully. Light Consumes Coal 1918, U.S.A. Coles Phillips Conserving energy was a means to reduce the depletion of a limited resource. Successful domestic conservation efforts meant that more coal could be used in the war effort.