MR-Appaji-Rao

Report
GOOD
HYGIENIC REQUIREMENTS
FOR
AGRI. MARKET YARDS
T. Appaji Rao
Lead Auditor QMS, FOOD SAFETY, EMS,OHSAS
BRC9Food)
QCI Registered HACCP & FSMS Principal consultant
WHAT IS FOOD?
• FSSAI describes ‘Food’ as :
“Any substance, whether processed,
partially processed or unprocessed,
which is intended for human
consumption and includes primary food
to the extent defined in clause (zk),
genetically modified or engineered food
or food containing such ingredients,
infant food, packaged drinking water,
alcoholic drink, chewing gum, and any
substance, including water used into the
food during its
manufacture,
preparation or treatment but does not
include any animal feed, live animals
unless they are prepared or processed
for placing on the market for human
consumption,
plants,
prior
to
harvesting, drugs and medicinal
products,
cosmetics, narcotic or
psychotropic substances
THE QUALITY CATALIST
WHAT IS FOOD SAFETY
• Food which is free from
ill-health causing
hazards is called SAFE
FOOD.
• The hazards are
biological, Chemical or
physical elements.
THE QUALITY CATALIST
BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS
•
•
•
•
•
THE QUALITY CATALIST
BACTERIA
YEAST
MOLD
VIRUS
PROTOZOA.
CHEMICAL HAZARDS
• EXCESS OF FOOD
ADDITIVES
• ADULTRANTS
• NON PERMSSIBLE FOOD
ADDITIVES
– COLOURS
– FLAVERS
– STABILIZERS
• RESIDUES
– PESTICIDES
– VETERINARY DRUG
– CLEANING CHEMICALS
THE QUALITY CATALIST
PHYSICAL HAZARDS
• THESE COME INTO
FOOD DUE TO
IMPROPER
HANDLING OF FOOD
BY PROCESSERS OR
THROUGH WORK
ENVIRIONMENT.
THE QUALITY CATALIST
BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS
• Hazards occur ONLY if
pathogenic vegetative
cells or spores are in
contact with the food at
some time.
• Cells must be able to
grow to a number that
can cause either infection
or toxin production in a
“reasonable” time frame
THE QUALITY CATALIST
TIME FACTOR IN BACTRIAL GROWTH
Time, hr:min
Number of Bacteria
0
1
0:20
2
1:00
8
2:00
64
3:00
512
4:00
4096
THE QUALITY CATALIST
Growth Potential of Bacteria
IF WE LOOK AT -Escherichia Coli:
Generation time 20 min under Suitable
conditions
in 48 hours: 48 X 3 = 144 generations
No. of Bacteria after 48 hours = 2 144 = 2.2 X
1043
If 1 Bacteria weighs 10-12g the total weight is
= 2.2X1043 X10-12
=
22,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
Kg
= 4,000 X Weight of earth!!!!!!!!??????
THE QUALITY CATALIST
FOOD HAZARDS- CHEMICALS
• Most common are pesticide residues- the
agricultural practices in present day farming
is usage of these chemicals unknowingly
excess than what is prescribed- resulting in
residues and the farm left outs given as
fodder to cattle thereby detected in milk
and milk products.
FOOD HAZARDS- CHEMICALS
• Next in line is Veterinary Drug residues- again
farm practices adopted. farmers administering
drugs, more often excess, leading to residues
in milk & milk products.
• Latest trend of hormone administration for
more milk let down- a drug given as boon for
calf mortality to letdown of milk to save cattle
is taken for wrong practice
LOCATION
• Market yard should be located
– on raised,
– well drained site
– safe from damage
• by surface water
• seepage water
– not subjected to
• floods
• inundation.
LOCATION
• It should preferably be in an area
– away from the residential localities,
– Factories
– other industrial establishments
•
•
•
•
•
•
dairy and poultry farms,
kilns,
sources of fire,
garbage dumping grounds,
slaughter houses,
hide curing centres etc.;
– Away from the close vicinity of which is deleterious to
the qualities and safe storage of agricultural
commodities.
– The structure shall be 150 m away from factories and
other sources of fire, 300 m away from kilns, slaughter
houses etc.
LAYOUT PLAN
• The roads and parking spaces should be
constructed to withstand the traffic of bullock
carts/ lorries/ trucks without raising the dust
and dirt which will contaminate the product.
• Drainage arrangements for rain, waste and
sewerage water should be made by means of
covered surface or underground drains so that
the product is safe from the contaminants.
LAYOUT PLAN
• Minimum provision for:
– shops and small go-downs,
– platforms for growers to dry, clean& display for
auction,
• The Roads must be of hard-surfacing is
necessary to
– avoid dust in the dry seasons
– accumulation of mud and water in the rainy
season.
LAYOUT PLAN
• Drying and Auction Platform
– The platform surface should be constructed about
0.3 m to 1 m above the ground level. This check
the contamination from the floor.
• Go-downs and Shop-cum-go-downs
• Storage go-downs should be made
–
–
–
–
termite proof,
moisture proof,
rodent proof
bird proof.
• Steps should be taken to carry out periodical
treatment with fumigation of stacks of grains to
render it insect proof.
LAYOUT PLAN
• COLD STORAGE
– This may be constructed in the market yards where
perishable items are required to be traded
• REFUSE BINS
• The number of refuse bins shall not be less than
one for every 10 carts or 50 tonnes of daily
arrival.
• The dimensions of each bin should be one meter
diameter and one meter height with no bottom
• placed on a platform 15 cm high above the
ground.
LAYOUT PLAN
• Urinals
• Two nos. for every 50 persons.
• Latrines
– Minimum of 2 nos. and one for every 50 persons.
• Taps
– Minimum of 2 nos. and one for every 50 persons.
• Washing place
• One for every 50 persons.
ALL THESE MUST BE AWAY FROM AUCTION/
DISPLAY/ STORAGE ARA
LAYOUT PLAN
• DRINKING WATER
– Suitable arrangements for drinking water both for
men and animals are to be made.
• VETERINARY DISPENSARY
– This shall be provided in the market yards where
the trading of animals also takes place.
MARKET YARD AND
GODOWN STRUCTURES
• PLINTH
– This shall be generally kept 80 cm above the
finished ground levels. The plinth shall be filled
with good and selected earth and properly
consolidated and compacted in layers.
• TERMITE TREATMENT
– Proper pre-construction anti-termite treatment
should be carried out.
MARKET YARD AND
GODOWN STRUCTURES
• RODENT CONTROL
A Cement Concrete or RCC or stone slab
projection at plinth level may be provided so that
rats will not be able to enter the go-downs.
Movable steps are to be provided so that they can
be pulled away from the go-downs entrances
when not required.
.
MARKET YARD AND
GODOWN STRUCTURES
• DOORS, WINDOWS AND VENTILATORS
– Adequate doors, windows and ventilators shall be
provided. Doors shall normally be of steel rolling
shutters. Windows and ventilators can be either of
good quality wood or of steel and may be glazed.
Windows and ventilators should be provided with
suitable mesh or grill so that when the shutters
are closed, birds cannot enter the go-down.
MARKET YARD AND
GODOWN STRUCTURES
• FLOORING
– The flooring should be damp proof, rigid and durable.
Normally flooring provided will be 50 mm thick cement
concrete 1:2:4 ratio mix over a base course layer of lean
cement concrete of 1:5:10 ratio mix. A layer of bitumen
asphalt of 80/ 100 or equivalent grade is spread uniformly
at the rate of 1.67 kg/ sq.m between the two layers of
cement concrete to make the flooring damp proof
MARKET YARD AND
GODOWN STRUCTURES
• FINISHING
• The internal faces of the walls shall be cement
plastered. If the walls are of stone masonry, the
external faces may be merely cement pAinted.
• The internal surfaces of walls shall be white
washed and the external surfaces colour washed.
All steel or wooden members of trusses, doors,
windows and ventilators shall be provided with a
primer coat and two coats of enamel paint of
superior quality.
WATER SUPPLY
• The market yard should have a dependable
source of potable water. When the market yard
is located close to a town where municipal water
supply is available the same may be availed;
otherwise suitable tube-well / bore-well
• arrangements should be made for the provision
of water. An overhead storage tank which can
provide water, at desired pressures in the
distribution pipes should be constructed. The
pipeline should be underground to avoid damage.
SEWAGE SYSTEM &
GARBAGE DISPOSAL
• Arrangements should be made for the market
yard for collection of garbage/agricultural
waste and disposal of sewage.
Thank you
for your attention
You can reach me at
raoappaji@gmail.com
Mobile: 09810616657
THE QUALITY CATALIST &
TQC INTERNATIONAL, INDIA

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