Report

Diagnostic segregation of human brain tumours using Fourier-transform infrared and/or Raman spectroscopy coupled with discriminant analysis Ketan Gajjar1,2, Lara Heppenstall1, Weiyi Pang1, Katherine Ashton2, Júlio Trevisan1, Imran I Patel1, Valon Llabjani1, Helen Stringfellow2, Pierre MartinHirsch1,2, Timothy Dawson2, Francis L. Martin1 1Centre for Biophotonics, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom; 2Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Royal Preston Hospital, Sharoe Green Lane North, Preston, Lancashire, United Kingdom Summary • Number of pages: 10 • Number of Figures: 9 • Number of Tables: 3 S1 ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy B C D Raman Spectroscopy A Figure S1 (A & C) shows mean spectra for each tissue type in the biochemical-cell fingerprint region for IR (1,800 cm-1 to 900 cm-1) and Raman (1,750 cm-1 to 800 cm-1) spectra respectively; and, (B & D) shows the spectra per individual (20 spectra for IR and 50 spectra for Raman) averaged with baseline correction. S2 C Coefficient ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy A D Coefficient Raman Spectroscopy B Wavenumber (cm-1) Wavenumber (cm-1) Figure S2 (A & B) shows 1-D PCA-LDA scores plot of IR and Raman spectra respectively comparing the Meningioma to normal brain tissue with the corresponding loadings plots; and, (C & D) showing top 6 discriminating wavenumbers associated with molecular alterations responsible for segregation of meningioma from normal brain. S3 Coefficient B D Wavenumber (cm-1) Coefficient ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy Raman Spectroscopy C A Wavenumber (cm-1) Figure S3 (A & B) shows 1-D PCA-LDA scores plot of IR and Raman spectra respectively comparing the lowgrade astrocytoma (WHO grade II glioma) to normal brain tissue with the corresponding loadings plots; and, (C & D) showing top 6 discriminating wavenumbers. S4 Coefficient C B D Wavenumber (cm-1) Coefficient ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy Raman Spectroscopy A Wavenumber (cm-1) Figure S4 (A & B) shows 1-D PCA-LDA scores plot of IR and Raman spectra respectively comparing the anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III glioma) to normal brain tissue with the corresponding loadings plots; and, (C & D) showing top 6 discriminating wavenumbers. S5 Coefficient ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy C A B Coefficient Raman Spectroscopy D Wavenumber (cm-1) Wavenumber (cm-1) Figure S5 (A & B) shows 1-D PCA-LDA scores plot of IR and Raman spectra respectively comparing glioblastoma multiforme (WHO grade IV glioma) to normal brain tissue with the corresponding loadings plots; and, (C & D) showing top 6 discriminating wavenumbers. S6 C Coefficient ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy A D Coefficient Raman Spectroscopy B Wavenumber (cm-1) Wavenumber (cm-1) Figure S6 (A & B) shows 1-D PCA-LDA scores plot of IR and Raman spectra respectively comparing metastatic brain tumours to normal brain tissue with the corresponding loadings plots; and, (C & D) showing top 6 discriminating wavenumbers. S7 Wave number intensity ratio Ratio of phospholipids (1,745 cm-1) to proteins (1,335 cm-1) in Raman spectra * * * Ratio of 1,745 cm-1 /1,335 cm-1 Normal vs. Tumour type * Normal vs. Men Normal vs. LA Normal vs. AA Normal vs. GBM Normal vs. Mets Figure S7 Wavenumber intensity ratio of phospholipids (1,745 cm-1) to proteins (1,335 cm-1) in Raman spectra of all brain tissues. S8 P-value P < 0.01 P < 0.01 P > 0.05 P < 0.01 P < 0.01 Wavenumber intensity ratio Ratio of cholesterol esters (1,670 cm-1) to phenylalanine (1,001 cm-1) in Raman spectra * * * ** Ratio of 1,670 cm-1 to 1,001 cm-1 Normal vs. Tumour type P-value Figure S8 Wavenumber intensity ratio of cholesterol esters (1,670 cm-1) to phenylalanine (1,001 cm-1) in Raman spectra of all brain tissues. S9 Normal vs. Men P < 0.01 Normal vs. LA P < 0.01 Normal vs. AA P > 0.05 Normal vs. GBM P < 0.01 Normal vs. Mets P < 0.05 Wavenumber intensity ratio 1,654 cm−1 (Amide 1 -helix)/1,446 cm−1 (CH2 bending mode of proteins and lipids) ratio in Raman spectra * * * Ratio of 1,654 cm−1 /1,446 cm−1 * Normal vs. Tumour type P-value Figure S9 Wavenumber intensity ratio of 1,654 cm−1 (Amide 1 -helix) to 1,446 cm−1 (CH2 bending mode of proteins and lipids) Raman spectra comparing different tissue types. S10 Normal vs. Men P < 0.01 Normal vs. LA P < 0.01 Normal vs. AA P < 0.01 Normal vs. GBM P > 0.05 Normal vs. Mets P < 0.01