Aerodrome Inspectors Training Course

Report
AERODROME TRAINING COURSE
Module 5 Part 1 Visual Navigation Aids
LEARNING OUTCOME
On completion of this module participants will be able to explain
the requirements of visual aids to facilitate aerodrome
operations.
They will have an understanding of :
Indicators
Markings
Lights
Signs
Markers
With access to reference material participants will be
able to determine the detail requirements of Visual
aids for Navigation
INDICATORS
•Wind Direction Indicators
•Landing Direction Indicator
•Signalling Lamp
WIND DIRECTION INDICATOR
An aerodrome shall be
equipped with at least one
wind direction indicator
•Visible from aircraft in flight
•Visible from aircraft on the
movement area
•Visible from control tower
•Free from effects of air
disturbances
•If the aerodrome is intended to
be used at night WDI should be
illuminated
LANDING DIRECTION INDICATOR
Landing direction indicator, needs to be visible to those using it
or
ORANGE
If aerodrome operations at night
Landing indicator needs to be
illuminated
SIGNALLING LAMP
Shall be provided at a controlled aerodrome and will be located
in the Control Tower
RED, GREEN and
SIGNS MOVEMENT AREA
Mandatory Signs
 Information Signs
 Signs shall be illuminated in accordance with the
provisions of Appendix 4 when intended for use:
a) in runway visual range conditions less than a
value of 800 m; or
b) at night in association with instrument runways;
or
c) at night in association with non-instrument
runways where the code number is 3 or 4.

MANDATORY SIGNS
GUIDANCE SIGNS
SIGNS - LOCATION
MARKINGS RUNWAYS
RUNWAY MARKINGS SHALL BE
MARKINGS TAXIWAYS
TAXIWAY MARKINGS SHALL BE
THRESHOLD MARKINGS
DISPLACED THRESHOLD
RUNWAY SIDE STRIP
Runway side stripe
White line with the outer edge on the approximate edge of the runway
• width 0.45m on runways up to 30m wide
• width 0.9m on runways 30m or more
• Runway greater than 60m wide Line located 30m
from runway centreline
RUNWAY HOLDING POSITION
1.05
m
0.9m
0.9m
0.15
m
PATTERN A 4 Lines and 3
spaces at 0.15m each
0.9m
RUNWAY HOLDING POSITIONS
RUNWAY EDGE LIGHTING
Required for:
•Runway night
•Precision Approach day or Night
•Recommended for Take-off RVR below
800m
Location
•On Edge (or not more 3m outside edge)
equidistant centreline
•Uniformly spaced not more tan 60m for
instrument runway and 100m non
instrument
Characteristic
•White unless displaced threshold or
optional yellow last third or 600m
•Variable intensity
RUNWAY CENTRELINE LIGHTS
Required for:
•Precision Category 2 & 3
•Take-off RVR 400 or less
Location
•Centreline 60cm offset if required
•15m spacing
Characteristics
•White to 900m RWY End
•Variable White Red 900m – 300m
•Red last 300m
RUNWAY THRESHOLD/ END LIGHTS
TAXIWAY LIGHTING
Edge – Blue
Centreline – Green
Spacing – dependent on RVR requirements
TAXIWAY EDGE LIGHTING
•Omni-directional BLUE
• Located as close to outside edge, or not more than 3m outside edge
• Visible up 30° from horizontal, elevated but frangible
• Shielded at intersections, exits or curves to minimize confusion
• Spaced uniformly not more than 30m
• On curve at radius divided by 4
TAXIWAY CENTRELINE
• Uni-/Bi-/Omni-directional GREEN
• Show green and yellow from centreline to perimeter of ILS critical area
• Visible to aircraft only in the vicinity of taxiway
• Along centreline markings or offset max. 300mm
• Spaced at max 30m along straight sections – except precision CAT III max 15m
• Spaced on taxiway curve not to exceed 7.5m
SIMPLE APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEM
Where practicable installed for noninstrument and instrument nonprecision runways used for night
operations.
Location/Configuration
Extends out to 420m from
threshold.
Centreline lights spaced every 60m
(30m optional)
Single crossbar at 300m
Lighting either single source or
barrette
PRECISION APPROACH CAT 1 ALS
Extends out to 900m from threshold.
High intensity uni-directional white
Lighting single source or barrette
Centreline spacing 30m
Crossbars spacing 150m
PRECISION APPROACH CAT 2,3 ALS
Configuration as for CAT 1 ALS
with the addition of side row
barrettes from 300m to threshold
spaced at 30m in line with centreline
lights
VASIS
Visual Approach Slope Indicator System
•T-VASIS dual sides runway
•AT-VASIS single side of runway
•PAPI Dual or single side of runway
•APAPI
•Red/White VASIS – no longer Annex 14 system
T-VASIS
On path centre – wing-bar shows
white
Slightly high - fly down units
progressively show white
Grossly high - all fly down show white
Slightly low – fly up units
progressively show whit
Grossly low – wing-bar and all fly up
show red
PAPI – PRECISION APPROACH PATH INDICATOR
PAPI
PAPI - MEHT
Minimum Eye Height over Threshold on slope (MEHT)
•Annex 14 – 2.12 AIP to contain nominal approach angle and
MEHT
•Annex 14 requires PAPI to be set to achieve minimum wheel
clearance/ threshold for most demanding aircraft regularly
using runway as per table 5-2
PAPI - MEHT
AIRCRAFT MEHT
AIRCRAFT MEHT
AIRCRAFT MEHT
APRON LIGHTS

Flood lights

Edge lights

Lead in Guidance Systems
OBSTRUCTION LIGHTS


Required for obstructions that penetrate any
obstacle limitation surface as defined in Annex
14 Chapter 4 – Appropriate Aeronautical Study
first must be undertaken to ensure appropriate
level of safety.
Also required marking of obstacles.
OBSTRUCTION MARKING
OBSTRUCTION LIGHTING
OBSTRUCTION LIGHTING
Obstacles with height (Y) greater than 45m
intermediate lights must be shown
Light spacing (x) in accordance with Appendix 6
Number of levels of lights = N =
Y (metres)
X (metres)
OBSTRUCTION LIGHTS
LIGHTING SERVICEABILITY
10.4.1 A light shall be deemed to be unserviceable
when the main beam average intensity is less than 50
per cent of the value specified in the appropriate figure
in Appendix 2. For light units where the designed
main beam average intensity is above the value shown
in Appendix 2, the 50 per cent value shall be related to
that design value.
 Category 1 85% serviceable


Category 2 & 3 95% serviceable
AERODROME ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
SECONDARY POWER REQUIREMENTS

similar documents