Bell Ringer (On a sheet of paper) Copy the 7 statements below. Then, identify whether the statement is true or false. 1. DNA is found in a cell’s membrane. 2. Identical twins have different DNA. 3. Genes are sections of DNA that code for certain traits 4. Chromosomes are long strands of DNA. 5. DNA is Single-stranded 6. Clones contain the same genetic material 7. Nearly every cell in your body has a complete set of DNA. Brain Pop Video Clip • While watching the video clip, look back at the 7 true or false questions from the bell ringer to correct your answers. Bell Ringer (Answers) 1. False: Nucleus 2. False: Same 3. True 4. True 5. Double 6. True 7. True deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) -The Blue Print of Human Life- Learning Target: I can identify the characteristics of DNA. DNA What is it? • Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)- The genetic material of all living organisms that controls all chemical changes that take place in cells. • Often known as “blueprint of all living organisms.” Where can it be found? • In the nucleus of all cells for all organisms. DNA What does it look like? It looks like a twisted ladder. DNA What is it composed of? • DNA has two ‘backbones’ or strands. (They look like sides of the ladder.) • The strands are composed of alternating phosphates and sugars. • The steps of the ladder are composed of four bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) and guanine (G). Homework: Vocabulary Terms Nucleus Double Helix Chromosomes Base Pair Gene Inherit Clone Modify Cross-Breed (verb) Genome Exit Slip/Quiz • Number your paper from 1-10. • This is a multiple choice quiz. http://www.brainpop.com/health/gen eticsgrowthanddevelopment/dna/quiz / Bell Ringer 1.What does DNA look like? 2.What is DNA Composed of? 3.Where can you find DNA? Learning Target I can create a model of DNA to describe the composition of DNA. Edible DNA Model Each group (of 2) will have • 2 pieces of twizzlers • 12 toothpicks • 9 pink marshmallows • 9 green marshmallows • 9 yellow marshmallows • 9 orange marshmallows • 5 paperclips Edible DNA Model There are 1 set of instructions per group as well as questions. Please read and follow the written instructions and answer all questions. (Everyone will answer all questions) Questions 1. When constructing the DNA molecule, explain what you notice about the orientation of the two strands? 2. In DNA, thymine is complementary to (or pairs with) _________________________ ; cytosine is complementary to _________________________. Questions 3. What DNA strand would bond opposite S----P----S----P----S----P----S----P----S----P----S T G G A C C 4. Explain why DNA is known as “blueprint of all living organisms.” Questions 5. Describe the smallest unit of DNA. 6. Describe the shape of the DNA molecule. 7. Assume that a 100-base pair DNA double helix contains 45 cytosines. How many adenines are there? History of DNA • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VegLVn_ 1oCE Vocabulary DNA RNA DNA Repair Deleterious Mutation Sickle-Cell Anemia Cancer Beneficial Mutation Evolution Spontaneous Mutation Bell Ringer Please copy the sentence and then answer. 1. According to base‐pairing rules with DNA "A" bonds only to ______. 2. According to base‐pairing rules with DNA “G" bonds only to ______. 3. A segment of DNA has one strand with the following sequence of bases: AGCGCATAGCAA What would the complimentary strand of DNA would be? Mutations Would a mutation make you a superhero? • In the comic books, a mutation can give a person superpowers. Do you think this really happens? In real life, a mutation can be beneficial, or it can harm an organism. For example, beneficial mutations lead to evolution, and harmful mutations can lead to diseases like cancer. A mutation, however, is not going to turn you into a superhero! Brain Pop Video Clip Before watching the video clip, fold your construction paper in hotdog style and then into 1/8ths. (fold it in hamburger style 3 times) DNA and Mutations Mutations are any changes that take place in DNA: • Can be spontaneous or caused by mutagens • ex: Chemicals, high temperatures, UV light, radiation • Can change the genetic code, and be replicated when forming new body cells. • In sex cells, can be passed on to offspring. • Mutations can be neutral, beneficial, or harmful • ex: Blue eyes – a mutation that occurred 610,000 years ago, can be traced back to one ancestor • what kind of mutation is that? Different Types of Mutation • On the front tab, you will write down the name of the mutation. • Inside, you will write down the definition for that specific mutation. • On the other side of the tab (inside), you will write down the example. Different Types of Mutation • On the front tab, you will write down the name of the mutation. • Inside, you will write down the definition for that specific mutation. • On the other side of the tab (inside), you will write down the exmaple. 1. Deletion When a segment of DNA is lost, so there is a missing segment in the chromosome. These usually result in many genes missing from the chromosome. THE DOG BIT THE CAT Delete just one letter (T): THE DOG BIT HEC AT If a single base is deleted (called a point mutation), there can be huge effects on the organism because this may cause a frameshift mutation. 2. Duplication When a segment of DNA is repeated, creating a longer chromosome. These usually result in multiple copies of genes in the chromosome. THE DOG BIT THE CAT Repeat one letter: THE DOOG BIT THE CAT 3. Inversion When a segment of DNA is flipped and then reattached to the same chromosome. THE DOG BIT THE CAT Two letters from the word switch places THE GOD BIT THE CAT 4. Insertion When a segment of DNA from one chromosome is added to another, unrelated chromosome. THE DOG BIT THE CAT Add just one letter (E): THE DOE GBI TTH ECA T 5. Translocation When two segments from different chromosomes change positions. THE DOG BIT THE CAT The letters from different words switch places THE DOT BIG THE CAT 6. Substitution A substitution is a mutation that exchanges onebase for another (i.e., a change in a single “chemical letter” such as switching an A to a G) THE DOG BIT THE CAT Replace just one letter: THE DOG BIT THE CAR 3,2,1 Exit! 1. Name 3 types of mutations and define each one. 2. Describe two causes of mutation. 3. Explain how a mutation can be a benefit to an organism. Support your answer with a specific example.