Powerpoint over DNA - Jessamine County Schools

Report
Bell Ringer (On a sheet of paper)
Copy the 7 statements below. Then, identify whether the
statement is true or false.
1. DNA is found in a cell’s membrane.
2. Identical twins have different DNA.
3. Genes are sections of DNA that code for certain traits
4. Chromosomes are long strands of DNA.
5. DNA is Single-stranded
6. Clones contain the same genetic material
7. Nearly every cell in your body has a complete set of
DNA.
Brain Pop Video Clip
• While watching the video clip, look back at the
7 true or false questions from the bell ringer
to correct your answers.
Bell Ringer (Answers)
1. False: Nucleus
2. False: Same
3. True
4. True
5. Double
6. True
7. True
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
-The Blue Print of Human Life-
Learning Target:
I can identify
the
characteristics
of DNA.
DNA
What is it?
• Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)- The
genetic material of all living organisms
that controls all chemical changes that
take place in cells.
• Often known as “blueprint of all living
organisms.”
Where can
it be
found?
• In the nucleus of all cells for all
organisms.
DNA
What does it look like?
It looks like
a twisted
ladder.
DNA
What is it
composed of?
• DNA has two ‘backbones’ or
strands. (They look like sides
of the ladder.)
• The strands are composed of
alternating phosphates and
sugars.
• The steps of the ladder are
composed of four bases:
adenine (A), thymine (T),
cytosine (C) and guanine (G).
Homework: Vocabulary Terms
Nucleus
Double Helix
Chromosomes
Base Pair
Gene
Inherit
Clone
Modify
Cross-Breed
(verb)
Genome
Exit Slip/Quiz
• Number your paper from 1-10.
• This is a multiple choice quiz.
http://www.brainpop.com/health/gen
eticsgrowthanddevelopment/dna/quiz
/
Bell Ringer
1.What does DNA look like?
2.What is DNA Composed
of?
3.Where can you find DNA?
Learning Target
I can create a model of DNA to
describe the composition of DNA.
Edible DNA Model
Each group (of 2) will have
• 2 pieces of twizzlers
• 12 toothpicks
• 9 pink marshmallows
• 9 green marshmallows
• 9 yellow marshmallows
• 9 orange marshmallows
• 5 paperclips
Edible DNA Model
There are 1 set of
instructions per group as
well as questions.
Please read and follow
the written instructions
and answer all questions.
(Everyone will answer all
questions)
Questions
1. When constructing the DNA molecule,
explain what you notice about the
orientation of the two strands?
2. In DNA, thymine is complementary to (or
pairs with) _________________________ ;
cytosine is complementary to
_________________________.
Questions
3. What DNA strand would bond opposite
S----P----S----P----S----P----S----P----S----P----S
T
G
G
A
C
C
4. Explain why DNA is known as “blueprint of all
living organisms.”
Questions
5. Describe the smallest unit of DNA.
6. Describe the shape of the DNA molecule.
7. Assume that a 100-base pair DNA double
helix contains 45 cytosines. How many
adenines are there?
History of DNA
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VegLVn_
1oCE
Vocabulary
DNA
RNA
DNA Repair
Deleterious Mutation
Sickle-Cell Anemia
Cancer
Beneficial Mutation
Evolution
Spontaneous
Mutation
Bell Ringer
Please copy the sentence and then answer.
1. According to base‐pairing rules with DNA "A" bonds
only to ______.
2. According to base‐pairing rules with DNA “G" bonds
only to ______.
3. A segment of DNA has one strand with the following
sequence of bases:
AGCGCATAGCAA
What would the complimentary strand of DNA would be?
Mutations
Would a mutation make you a
superhero?
• In the comic books, a mutation
can give a person
superpowers. Do you think
this really happens? In real life,
a mutation can be beneficial,
or it can harm an organism.
For example, beneficial
mutations lead to evolution,
and harmful mutations can
lead to diseases like cancer. A
mutation, however, is not
going to turn you into a
superhero!
Brain Pop Video Clip
Before watching the video clip, fold your
construction paper in hotdog style and
then into 1/8ths. (fold it in hamburger style
3 times)
DNA and Mutations
Mutations are any changes that take place in DNA:
• Can be spontaneous or caused by mutagens
• ex: Chemicals, high temperatures, UV light,
radiation
• Can change the genetic code, and be replicated
when forming new body cells.
• In sex cells, can be passed on to offspring.
• Mutations can be neutral, beneficial, or harmful
• ex: Blue eyes – a mutation that occurred 610,000 years ago, can be traced back to one
ancestor
• what kind of mutation is that?
Different Types of Mutation
• On the front tab, you will write down
the name of the mutation.
• Inside, you will write down the
definition for that specific mutation.
• On the other side of the tab (inside),
you will write down the example.
Different Types of Mutation
• On the front tab, you will write down
the name of the mutation.
• Inside, you will write down the
definition for that specific mutation.
• On the other side of the tab (inside),
you will write down the exmaple.
1. Deletion
When a segment of DNA is lost, so there
is a missing segment in the chromosome.
These usually result in many genes missing
from the chromosome.
THE DOG BIT THE CAT
Delete just one letter (T):
THE DOG BIT HEC AT
If a single base is deleted (called a point
mutation), there can be huge effects on the
organism because this may cause a frameshift
mutation.
2. Duplication
When a segment of DNA is repeated,
creating a longer chromosome. These
usually result in multiple copies of genes
in the chromosome.
THE DOG BIT THE CAT
Repeat one letter:
THE DOOG BIT THE CAT
3. Inversion
When a segment of DNA is flipped and
then reattached to the same chromosome.
THE DOG BIT THE CAT
Two letters from the word switch places
THE GOD BIT THE CAT
4. Insertion
When a segment of DNA from one
chromosome is added to another,
unrelated chromosome.
THE DOG BIT THE CAT
Add just one letter (E):
THE DOE GBI TTH ECA T
5. Translocation
When two segments from different
chromosomes change positions.
THE DOG BIT THE CAT
The letters from different words switch places
THE DOT BIG THE CAT
6. Substitution
A substitution is a mutation that
exchanges onebase for another (i.e., a
change in a single “chemical letter” such
as switching an A to a G)
THE DOG BIT THE CAT
Replace just one letter:
THE DOG BIT THE CAR
3,2,1 Exit!
1. Name 3 types of mutations and
define each one.
2. Describe two causes of mutation.
3. Explain how a mutation can be a
benefit to an organism. Support your
answer with a specific example.

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