Comment ancrer les principes d`une nouvelle gouvernance des

Comment ancrer les principes d'une nouvelle gouvernance
des entreprises dans l'éducation des futurs dirigeants et
dans la formation des dirigeants actuels?
Henri-Claude de BETTIGNIES
The Aviva Chair Professor (Emeritus) of Leadership and Responsibility, INSEAD
Distinguished Professor of Globally Responsible Leadership (Emeritus), CEIBS, Shanghai
Philosophie & Management
23 Juin 2014
Quelques observations et un Diagnostic qui inquiètent
• Mondialisation accélérée (technologie, marché, idéologie,
…)  émergence de craintes devant les dysfonctions
• Culte de la croissance  environnement usé et abusé
• Religion du marché - la marchandisation de tout
• Un monde de plus en plus riche, des écarts de plus en plus
grands  vers un apartheid global
• Un capitalisme triomphant remis en question  vers une
recherche d'alternatives
• Evolution de la technologie non contrôlée ? Intégration
des technologies  l'homme ne maîtrise plus sa maîtrise
• Chômage semble endémique  sous-produit de la
compétition et du progrès technologique
• Evolution des valeurs, perte des repères  quête de sens?
Le rôle des “business schools”
• Il est fondamental: à cause de:
– leur role dans la formation d’acteurs importants dans la
société: dirigeants présents et futurs
• Or les dirigeants, par leurs décisions dans les
organisations, sont les créateurs de valeur: ils ont un poids
déterminant dans les évolutions de la société
– Leur pouvoir "oblige"
• Les business schools par leur enseignement et leurs
recherches, par les modéles qu’elles propagent et les
valeurs dont ils sont porteurs ont une grande influence sur
le “mindset” des managers et la gestion des
organisationsla société
– Par les hommes et les femmes qu’elles influencent
• Par elles, le changement pourrait venir
Les business schools critiquées depuis 10 ans
"Business Schools do not need to do a great deal more to
help prevent future Enrons; they need only to stop doing a
lot that they currently do. They do not need to create new
courses; they need simply stop teaching some old ones.
But, before doing any of this, business school faculty need
to own up to their own role in creating Enrons."
Sumantra Ghoshal
Ghoshal, S., (2005) Bad Management Theories Are Destroying Good Management Practices,
Academy of Management Learning and Education, Vol. 4, N° 1, pp 75-91,
Les business schools critiquées depuis 10 ans
"More specifically, I suggest that by
propagating ideologically inspired amoral
theories, business schools have actively
freed their students from any sense of moral
Sumantra Ghoshal
Ghoshal, S., (2005) Bad Management Theories Are Destroying Good Management Practices, Academy
of Management Learning and Education, Vol. 4, N° 1, p76
Les business schools critiquées depuis 10 ans
"Agency theory, which underlies. The entire
intellectual edifice in support of shareholder
value maximization has little explanatory and
predictive power…"
(Ibid. P.80)
"It is not only morality, however that has been victim of
this endeavor of business academics to make
management a science: common sense, too…"
(Ibid, p.79)
Sumantra Ghoshal
Ghoshal, S., (2005) Bad Management Theories Are Destroying Good Management
Practices, Academy of Management Learning and Education, Vol. 4, N° 1, pp 75-91,
Les business schools se défendent…
• There are always been crooks.
• Creative accounting is a special field, considered as legitimate
(and with increased sophistication).
• "Tax planning", global tax management, tax creativity, tax
effectiveness is taught as the art of funambulism.
• A few sayings in business schools:
"If it is legal, it is ethical"
"The end justifies the means"
"Good guys finish last"
"Cutting corners is not a hobby or a choice it is a necessity: everyone
does it"
– "Given the competition, no choice!"
– "The problem with assuming that companies can do well while also
doing good is that market don't really work that way"
• To produce a cordon bleu in cooking the books, is not our
objective, just a by-product of an effective teaching in
accounting and finance.
Some components of the dominant paradigm
(as taught in many business schools)
• A narrow view of Man: a rational animal, with self-interest to
guide his behavior (inducing a glorification of self interest, not always
• The purpose of the firm: maximization of shareholder value
(inducing an obsession with bottom line).
• Regulations: unavoidable constraints of governments imposing
compliance (to be explored for loopholes and creatively interpreted).
• Everything has a price and the market is the best mechanism to
define it (if it has a market it can be traded, e.g. life, body parts, frozen embryo,
• In order to increase profit, implicit contracts can be broken (e.g.
between employees and employers).
• Lean and mean organizations bring lower costs with higher
productivity, more flexibility and better bottom line.
A path toward responsible leadership
Increase and broaden your Awareness
Enlarge, enrich and sharpen your Vision
Utilize and stimulate your Imagination
Explore the extent and limit of your
• Engage - with strategic courage - into
Quelques messages (idéalement) tissés
dans l'enseignement des business schools)
No corporation can be honest with the public, if it not
honest with itself
Ethics and integrity start at the top
Legal compliance programs and CSR initiatives should
not be confused with business ethics
There is no right way to do a wrong thing
If everyone does something wrong, it does not make it
Not "everything" is relative
Utilitarianism, "bottom line" reasoning is not the only
"Values" must discipline
Quelques conclusions
"Si tu penses que tu es trop petit
pour faire une différence, essaie
de dormir dans une chambre
avec un moustique…"
(Proverbe africain)
Et quand tout semble aller bien…
Business schools in question (1)
• Bennis, W.G. & O'Toole, J., How Business Schools Lost Their Way, Harvard
Business Review, May 2005,
• Bisoux, T., A Return to Reality, BizEd, May/June 2009,
• Connolly, M., The End of the MBA as We Know It? Academy of Management
Learning and Education, 2003, Vol. 2, N° 4, pp 365-367.
• Etzioni, A., The Education of Business Leaders, The Responsive Community, Fall
2002, Vol. 12, N° 4, pp 59-68.
• Fitzpatrick, L., Will Business Schools Learn from Wall Street's Crisis? Time, Sep.
21, 2008,
• Gardiner, B., B-Schools Rethink Curricula Amid Crisis, The Wall Street Journal,
March 27-29, 2009,
• Ghoshal, S., Bad Management Theories Are Destroying Good Management
Practices, Academy of Management Learning and Education, 2005, Vol. 4, N° 1,
pp 75-91,
• Green, H., Are B-schools a Blight on the Land? Business Week, November 5,
Business Schools in question (2)
• Holland, K., Is It Time to Retrain B-Schools? NYT, March 15, 2009,
• Khurana, R. & Nohria N., It's Time to Make Management a True Profession,
Harvard Business Review, October 2008, pp 70-77,
• McDonald, G.M. & Donleavy, G.D., Objections to the Teaching of Business
Ethics, Journal of Business Ethics, 1995, 14, pp 839-853.
• Mitroff, I.I., An Open Letter to the Deans and the Faculties of American
Business Schools, Journal of Business Ethics, 2004, 54, pp 185-189,
• Navarro, P., The MBA Core Curricula of Top- Ranked U.S. Business Schools: A
Study in Failure? Academy of Management Learning & Education, 2008, Vol.
7, N° 1, pp 108-123.
• Pfeffer, J. & Fong, C.T., The Business School 'Business': Some Lessons from the
US Experience, Journal of Management Studies, December 2004, 41:8, pp
• Pfeffer, J. & Fong, C.T., The End of Business Schools? Less Success Than Meets
the Eye, Academy of Management Learning and Education, 2002, Vol. 1, N° 1,
pp 78-95,
• Pfeffer, J., What's Right and Still Wrong with Business Schools, BizEd,
January/February 2007, pp 42-48.
Some References
• Evans, F.J. & Marcal, L.E.,(2005) Educating for Ethics: Business Deans'
Perspectives, Business & Society Review, Fall, pp 234-248
• Etzioni, A.,(2002) Profit without honor: when it come to ethics b-schools
get an F, The Washington Post, August 4, 2002, p B04
• Bennis, W.G. & O'Toole J., (2005) How Business schools lost their way,
Harvard Business Review, 83,5, pp 96-104
• Pfeffer, J. & Fong, C.T.,(2002) The end of business schools, Less success
than meet the eye, Academy of Management Learning and Education, pp
• Ghoshal, S., (2005) Bad management theories are destroying good
Management Practices, Academy of Management Learning and Education,
4,1, pp75-76
• Leavitt, H.J., (1989), Educating our MBAs: on teaching what we haven't
taught, California Management Review, 31, 3, pp 39-40
• de Bettignies, H.C. & Cuccoli, R., (2005), The role of Management
Education in developing Global Responsible Leaders, INSEAD Working
Paper, October 2005
• Goodpaster, K.E., Nash, L. & de Bettignies, H.C., Business Ethics: policies
and persons, McGraw-Hill, 2005, 633p

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