Steven Golden 课件2

Report
Prevention Strategy 4: Choice of
site /预防策略4:选择穿刺部位
The risk of catheter-related infection is lower
with which insertion site? /哪个部位导管相关性感染
的风险小些?
A. Internal Jugular Vein /颈内静脉
B. Subclavian Vein /锁骨下静脉
Prevention: What Site is Best? /预
防策略:那个部位最好?
• RCT of femoral (n=145) and subclavian (n=144) lines in the ICU
在ICU进行的穿刺部位比较的随机对照研究:股静脉(145例)和锁骨下静脉
(144例)
• Outcomes/结果
– Mechanical complications /机械性并发症 : 17.3% vs 18.8% (p值无差异)
– Infectious complications (colonization and BSI combined) in femoral grp:
19.8% vs 4.5% (p < .001)
感染(含细菌定植和血流感染在内)股静脉组:19.8% vs 4.5% (p < .001)
– Thrombotic complications in femoral grp: 21.5% vs. 1.9% (p < .001);
complete thrombosis 6% vs 0%
血栓并发症股静脉组:21.5% vs. 1.9% (p < .001); 完全栓塞6% vs 0%
JAMA; 2001,286:700-7
Prospective, Randomized, Multicenter Study of 750 Femoral
vs Jugular Hemodialysis CVCs
750 例中心静脉导管血液透析穿刺部位股静脉与颈内静脉
的前瞻性,随机,多中心研究
Femoral/股静脉 Jugular/颈内静脉
CVC
CVC
CRBSI/1000 catheter days
1.5
2.3 (p=0.4)
Cath coloniz/1000 cath d
41
36 (p=0.3)
Cath coloniz/1000 cath d
pts with BMI >28/体重指数>28
51
25
(HR 0.4[0.23-.69])
in
Cath coloniz/1000 cath d
24
45
in
pts with BMI <24/ /体重指数<24
(HR 2.1 [1.1 – 3.9])
Parienti et al JAMA 2008
Subclavian Site for CVCs /锁骨下静脉CVC
• In adult patients, a subclavian site is preferred
for infection control purposes /成年患者锁骨下
静脉是预防感染的首选部位
 although other factors (e.g. the potential for mechanical
complications, risk for subclavian vein stenosis, obesity or
hypoxemia, use of ultrasound guidance) may dictate site
insertion
虽然其他因素(潜在的机械性并发症,锁骨下静脉狭窄风
险,肥胖或血氧不足,使用超声引导等)可能会影响穿刺
Prospective, Randomized, Multicenter Study of Femoral vs
Subclavian CVC Insertion /股静脉穿刺锁骨下静脉穿刺部
位的前瞻性,随机,多学科比较
Femoral
Subclavian
CVC†
CVC
Cath. Colonization(定植) 14.2%
2.2% (p≤0.01)
CR Sepsis(脓毒血症)
4.4%
1.5%
CR thrombosis(血栓)
6%
0%
†Femoral
insertion independent risk for thrombosis (OR 14.4)
股静脉独立危险因素
Merrer et al JAMA 2001
Prevention: What site is best? /预防:那个
部位最好?
• Based on these and other studies, many experts recommend the
preferred order of line placement is SC IJ F /基于上述研究,
许多专家推荐穿刺部位的选用顺序为锁骨下静脉颈内静脉
股静脉
• Other factors to consider in site choice /部位选择的其他考虑因素
– Anatomic deformity 解剖畸形改变
– Coagulopathy
凝血异常
– Operator experience 操作者经验
• Caveat--Hemodialysis catheters, JAMA article shows that
femoral>IJ especially in highest BMI patients (JAMA 2008:299;2413-22)
警告—血透导管,JAMA文章显示股静脉>颈内特别是身体指
数高(肥胖)的患者
Finding the site using ultrasound /使用超声引
导
Pooled RR
for mechanical
complications with
bedside US
机械性并发症
的相对危险度
Randolph AG et al. Crit Care Med 1996:24;2053-8
Tips About Execution
执行要点
Courtesy
Trish Perl, MD
Line Cart Contents/CVC穿刺车内容物
“Stop the Line” (Toyota)
“中止插管”(恰与丰田的口号一致-自动化生产线)
• If a defect or break in recommended practices is noted during
the procedure, nurse or physician observer is present during
insertion and empowered to “stop the line” immediately if
checklist not followed (i.e., breach in aseptic technique
observed) /操作中,如果操作规程中的要求出现中断或缺失,
当值护士或医生可要求立即中止插管(如明显违反无菌原
则等)
• Empowerment still an issue in many locations (Culture of Safety)
/医疗场所授权仍是一个有待解决的问题(安全文化)
Prevention Strategy 5: Other
Considerations
预防策略5:其他要素
After Insertion/穿刺后
• Perform surveillance for CLABSI using NHSN definitions
/依照NHSN的定义监测CLABSI
– Focus first on ICUs /重点关注ICU
– Risk of CLABSI per CVC day as high in pts outside ICUs but
surveillance more resource-intensive / CLABSI风险ICU并非最
高,但监测资源较集中在ICU
– Hospital-wide inpatient CLABSI surveillance now required per
TJC NPSG /目前住院患者的CLABSI监测要求符合美国病人安
全目标
Implementation: Daily Review of Line Necessity /执
行:每日检查导管保留的必要性
• Assess need for line daily basis --- during
multidisciplinary rounds /根据每日需要保留
导管—多学科查房
• Use the daily review sheet to prompt
discussion of line removal. /借助每日核查表,
迅速判断是否拔管
• Avoid routine replacement of central lines,
even over guidewires. /避免常规更换CVC,
即使通过导丝
Take Home Points: Get the catheters out
不需要的时候就拔除导管
Fact: Catheters and other invasive devices are the
# 1 exogenous cause of hospital-acquired
infections. /事实:导管和其它侵入装置是造成院内感染的首要
外因之一
Actions:
use catheters only when essential /只有当必要时才使用
导管
use the correct catheter/使用正确的导管
use proper insertion & catheter-care protocols /正确的
置入&导管照护流程
remove catheters when not essential
拔除不必要的导管
After Insertion/穿刺后
Disinfect catheter hubs, needleless
connectors, and injection ports before
accessing /在连接输液前,消毒导管接头,
无针接头和注入座
Adjuvant Strategies/辅助策略
• CHG impregnated transparent dressings
/含有CHG的透明敷料
• Impregnated caps for end of ports
/含有消毒剂的保护帽
Stopcock Contamination
三通接头污染
• Microbial contamination rate of needleless connectors
in cardiothoracic patients undergoing surgery: /胸外科
手术患者中,无针连结接头细菌污染率
– Internal surfaces of 20/200 (10%) of three-way
stopcock Luers with standard caps were
contaminated vs. 1/193 (0.5) Y-type extension set
Luers with needleless connectors (P< 0.0001)
三通带标准接头的内表面被污染20/200(10%) vs. Y型延长管带无针连接
器1/193(0.5)(P <0.000)
O’Grady NP et al. MMWR. 2002;51:1-29: Casey AL et al. J Hosp Infect. 2007;65:212-218.
Pathogenesis of Catheter-Related Infections /
导管相关感染的发生机理
• Recently inserted catheters (< 1
week) are commonly colonized by
skin microorganism along external
surface
置入导管<1周感染,多为皮肤上
的微生物附着于导管外表面
• When duration of placement > 1
week intraluminal spread from hub
may be dominant mechanism of
colonization
置入导管>1周感染,可能是接头
腔内感染所致
Preventing Catheter Hub Contamination
/预防接头污染
• Catheter hubs and sampling ports should be
disinfected prior to sampling. /取样前必须消毒导管接
头及取样口
• Antiseptic containing hub (iodinated ETOH) decreased
CR-BSI rates (RR=0.2; CI 0.1-0.7). /
含消毒剂的螺旋帽(含碘醇剂)减少CR-BSI发生率
• Providone iodine saturated sponge casing for hub
reduced catheter infections from 24% to 0% (p=0.02).
用完全浸透碘伏的海棉刷消毒接头降低导管相关感
染由24%至0% (p=0.02).
Segura M et al. Ann Surg 1996 223; 363-9, Halpin et al. Nutrition 1991;7:33-4.
Other Considerations: “Scrub the Hub”
其他要点:
• “Scrub the Hub”: Perform alcohol hub decontamination before
each access /“摩擦接头”每一次连接前,用酒精消毒
• All insertion sites contaminated with skin organisms - most
common organisms that infect CVC lines /穿刺部位皮肤上的污
染物是影响CVC最常见的微生物
• CHG or 70% alcohol is effective /CHG或70%的酒精是最有效的
• Technique is critical – Scrub 10-15 seconds, allow to dry
/技术是最关键的—摩擦10-15秒,充分干燥
• Buddy system to encourage best practice/配套的系统,鼓励最
佳实践
Seconds Count!
时间是关键!
No Scrub – then after 15 Second Alcohol Scrub
无摩擦—至15秒酒精摩擦后的效果比对
Courtesy U Mich PICU
Antimicrobial-Coated or Impregnated Catheters
抗菌涂层或含抗菌素的导管
• Catheters impregnated with chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine or with
minocycline and rifampin can decrease risk of CR-BSI
导管含CHG、磺胺嘧啶银盐或二甲胺四环素和利福平可降低CR-BSI风
险
• All studies done in adult patients with triple-lumen, non-cuffed catheters
in place < 30 d
全部的研究,在成人三腔导管,没有保护套,导管留置<30天以内
 A single randomized compared CVCs impregnated with
minocycline/rifampin (both internal and external) were associated with
lower rates of CR-BSI than with first generation chlorhexidine-sliver
impregnated catheters
一项随机比对含有二甲胺四环素/利福平的CVC(内外两面) CR-BSI发
生率较含有一代CHG银的导管低
 (Darouiche R et al NEJM 1999;340:1-8)
Minocycline-Rifampin-Impregnated vs 1st Generation CHGSilver Sulfadiazine- Impregnated CVCs
含二甲胺四环素-利福平vs 含1st CHG-磺胺嘧啶银盐 CVC
M-R
Duration
catheterization 6 d
CHSS
7d
/残留时间
CRBSI
Darouiche et al, NEMJ 1999
0.3%
3. 4% (RR 0.1, CI 0-0.6)
CHG-Silver Sulfadiazine-Impregnated Catheters
/CHG或磺胺嘧啶银盐涂层导管
1st Generation: Summary CA-BSI incidence prospective, RCT
of catheterization < 11 days: RR 0.4 (CI 0.2-0.8)
第一代:前瞻性CA-BSI 发生率,随机对照研究< 11 天
2nd Generation: Summary CA-BSI from 3 published,
prospective, RCT: RR 0.46 (0.2-1.2), p=0.08
第二代:3个研究结果对比,前瞻性预测,随机对照: RR 0.46 (0.21.2), p=0.08
Rupp et al; Bruin-Buisson et al; Ostendorf et al; Maki et al 1997; van Heerden et al 1996; Hannan et al 1996;Bach et
al 1996; Collin 1999; George et al 1997, Pemberton et al, 1996, Ramsay et al 1994
Recommendations on Use of Antimicrobial or Antisepticimpregnated CVCs in Adults (1B)
成人使用含有抗菌素的CVC导管的建议
 Catheter expected to stay > 5 days and
导管预计留置>5天,并且
 CVC rate of infection is high despite adherence to
comprehensive strategy to reduce rates of infection (e.g.
education, maximal sterile barrier, 2% chlorhexidine)
尽管执行了减低感染发生率的策略,CVC的感染率仍是很高
的(如:培训、最大无菌屏障、2%CHG)
 Issues of limited studies, cost and emergence of resistant
organisms
有限的研究,成本和耐药性的出现
Special Approaches: Daily CHG Bathing
特殊方法:每日CHG擦拭
• Bathe ICU patients with a chlorhexidine (CHG) preparation on a
daily basis /ICU患者每日用CHG擦拭
– Several studies found routine bathing of ICU patients reduces the risks of
CLABSI, as well as acquisition of MRSA and VRE infections (one recent SICU
study did not observe such benefit)
几项研究显示ICU患者常规擦浴降低CLABSI风险,同时也减少了MRSA和
万古霉素抗药性肠球菌感染(最近的一个外科重症监护病房的研究并
没有观察到这样的好处)
• Single-use bottles of aqueous CHG added to a basin of water or use 2% CHG
bathing cloths
一次性的瓶装CHG加入盆中稀释或用含2%CHG的擦浴棉
• CHG not approved for children <2 months of age
CHG 不建议用于<2月的婴儿
Use of Professional IV Teams
/成立专业的静疗团队
• After professional, dedicated IV team introduced /引入专业的、
专职的静疗团队
• CR-BSI were reduced 35% (1.1 to 0.7 BSI/1000 pt days)
CR-BSI减少35%
• S. aureus BSI reduced 51% (P<0.01) /金黄色葡萄球菌BSI的减
少51% (P<0.01)
• Team cost $253,000 /团队成本$253,000
• Cost per infection saved $14,000 /每一例感染成本节约
$14,000
Meier et al. Am J Infect Control 1998; 26:388.
CLABSI Surveillance
CLABSI Surveillance /监测
• Core function of an Infection Prevention
program /感染预防方案的核心功能
– Establish base line rate – recognize increase in
disease activity /建立基准线率 - 识别增加的疾
病活动
• Provide actionable data for improvement
efforts /为改进工作提供依据
• Metric for public reporting – Proxy for quality
of care delivered /公示—提高护理质量改进
HABSI/医院获得性感染
Empirical CLABSI
CLABSI
实验室证实的
Secondary
NHSN defined secondary site
符合NHSN诊断的继发感染
Probably Secondary - Indeterminate Source
疑似继发感染----不确定来源
Translocation 置换
Immunocompromised Host 宿主免疫系统受损
At or near time of line insertion /接近或查管时
Secondary source suspected clinically /可能来自临床的继发感染
•Single Enterococcus considered a contaminant
•Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, Candida in blood = Indeterminate
•C. septicum or tertium, MAC, TB, Nocardia, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Cryptococcus
Not CLABSIs
Process Measures: CLABSI
CLABSI 过程控制
• Compliance with central line insertion checklist /依从CVC穿刺核查表
• Compliance with daily assessment regarding the need for continued central
line access /遵从每日评估需要保留的导管
• Compliance with avoiding femoral insertion site /避免穿刺股静脉
• Compliance with cleaning of catheter hubs and injection ports before they are
accessed /连接前,清洁导管接头和注入座
– Look for documentation (hard to capture) 通过寻找文档(难以捕捉的)
– Observe practice 观察实践
Objective /目的
• Reduce the number of hospital acquired
bloodstream infections through application of
best practices for infection prevention to include:
adherence to the central line bundle, optimal
maintenance lines, adherence to hand hygiene
and standard precautions /通过感染预防最佳实
践,减少医院获得性血流感染的数量,包括:
执行CVC穿刺集束,最优化的导管维护,执行
手卫生和标准预防措施
Process Improvement Components
/ 流程优化
–
–
–
–
–
–
Bundle compliance dashboard / 集束依从性公示板
Monitoring bundle compliance 监测集束依从性
Electronic documentation of the bundle & procedure
checklist /集束&流程核查表的电子记录
Identification and measurement of line use outside of the
ICUs /ICU以外 CVC使用结果的鉴定和衡量
Selection of IC Champions at the local level /区域感控责任
人的挑选
Expansion to the Regional Hospitals /区域院的推广
Bundle Audits /集束核查
– A bundle audit tool will be developed shortly
which will look at insertion practice in the ICUs.
Would like to look at every patient, every unit, and
every line for 1-2 weeks.
将制定一个简洁的集束核查工具,可以观察1-2
周在ICU置管、每名患者,每个单元和每条导管
– Once we discover that we are fully compliant with
utilizing the bundle then we can focus on other
areas
一旦我们发现,我们已经完全遵从了集束,那
我们还可以关注其他方面
Central Line Maintenance Audit Tool
CVC 导管维护核查工具
– The data will be collected at the bedside via
paper forms. These will be collected and taken
to a central point for data display. The data will
be moved from paper into a table displaying the
results. /床旁的纸张记录表格将被收集并传
送到数据中心汇总分析
– This audit should be used as a teaching
moment with the unit. /这次核查应作为科室
教学培训
Maintenance Audit/维护核查表
HF
CCU
MICU
NICU
SICU
CTICU
Total
N
6
5
32
8
25
58
134
SC Site
17%
20%
22%
37%
56%
19%
28%
Intact
Dressing
4/6
3/5
28/32
6/8
25/25
52/58
88%
Dressing
Dated
2/6
3/5
31/32
6/8
23/25
31/58
72%
CHG patch
Present
3/6
0
13/32
3/8
3/25
37/58
44%
Stat Lock*
0/6
1/5
9/32
1/8
3/25
6/58
15%
Microclave
6/6
2/5
10/32
7/8
15/25
25/58
49%
No Ports
Open
6/6
4/5
31/32
8/8
25/25
55/58
96%
CHG Bath**
4/6
4/5
5/32
7/8
25/25
53/58
73%
CHG patch
and Statlock*
0/6
0/5
5/32
0/8
1/25
4/58
7%
CLABSI Dashboards/ CLABSI公示板
CLABSI
2009 - 2011
ICU
Non-ICU
120
80
N
40
0
1q-09 2q-09 3q-09 4q-09 1q-10 2q-10 3q-10 4q-10 1q-11 2q-11
Quarter
Data Driving Improvement /数字驱动着改进
…for the secret of the care of the
Patient is in caring for the patient”
如何照顾好患者?秘密就是关心他们。
Francis W. Peabody, October 21, 1925
每个患者
每时每刻
没有例外
没有借口
患者不知道你的医疗知识有多少,
但是他们能体会出你有多关心他
们
每一个生命都值得世界级的护理

similar documents