what is cps

Report
What Cyber-Phisical System
is?
Rock Hyun Choi
MOEM Lab in Daegu
University
CPS Executive Summary
by CPS Steering group
What is CPS?
The integration of physical system and
processes with networked computing
has led to the emergence of a new
generation of engineered system
CPS Executive Summary
by CPS Steering group
 Range
Miniscule(pace makers) ~ large scale(Aircraft)
 Good Ex:
Automobiles: the depth of this change is
well-reflected
 Why important?
다른 방법으로 실현 할 수 없었던 것을 임베디드
시스템을 이용하면 physical system에 어떤 능력
을 부여해 줄 수 있다.
Ex) fuel efficiency, pollution mandates
 How to make it better?
 Merging computing and networking with physical
system
 So, it creates new capabilities and
improve/maintain product quality.
 Methodology
 U.S. – NSF
 European Union – ARTEMIS & EPoSS
 JAPAN – Embedded technology conference
 South Korea - KIPA
Opportunities Created by CPS

Opportunities Created by CPS
Shortcomings
Current industrial experience
→ inefficient, unsafe, and unpredictable
 Composition
Compositionality: 시스템 레벨 영역들을 로컬영
역 구성요소들에 의해서 계산(조작) 될 수 있다.
Composability: 컴포넌트(부품, 성분, 구성요소)
영역은 다른 컴포넌트에 상호작용의 결과로 변화
되지 않는다.
 Composition
CPSs are inherently heterogeneous
Why? Their components and essential design
requirements.
Multi-objective design problems:
Separation of concerns( = design viewpoints)
Engine engineer
Network engineer
orthogonal
Design automation
Heterogeneity → increase design complexity
• → bad for design automation, serious
problem
Today standard is to use different processes
and tools
• 중복된 노력으로 시간과 자원 낭비가 심함
 System integration
integrate
complex
components
into
Complex
System
• Cannot reliable, predictable
• Large scale system development에 일반적 문제
• Why? Science 와 engineering의 분리로 발생한 관리
문제
Certification
현재 complex system(ex. 비행기, 의료장비)
인증비용이 너무 높고, 이전 디자인 양상으로
는 모두 역어서 테스트 하기가 너무나 힘듬
First
building
And then
check
검
사
기
 Security and privacy
It’s new threats!
Can cause huge accidents → can’t easily
recover
Why? Physical system can now be attacked
through cyberspace, and vice versa.
 Education
Stovepiping of engineering versus computer
science
• Fail to train CPS workers
CPS: A new Frontier by Lui
sha
 The challenges of CPS research
2.1 Real-time system abstractions
• Current: the principal task of a computer is data
transformation
• CPS: CPSs are real-time system. This requires
reexamination of existing hardware and software
architecture.
– Real-time event triggers
– Consistent views of distributes states in real-time
within the sphere of influence. Great in mobile devices
– Topology control and dynamic real-time groups in the
form of packaged service classes of bounded delay,
jitter and loss under precisely specified condition.
– Interface to access to the same type of controls
regardless of the underlying network technology
CPS: Design Challenges
by Edward Lee
 임베디드 시스템은 다른 일반 목적 컴퓨팅 시
스템 보다 높은 안정성을 추구한다
Not entirely predictable
Why? It misses timing deadline
1. Worst Case Execution Time(WCET)
•
간단한 문제해결을 위해서도 많은 노력이 필요
2. RTOS
•
•
Timing behavior → coarse and complexity → more
uncontrollable
Bench testing 필요: 그러나 포작하기 어려운 미묘한
timing bugs가 큰 문제를 일으킬 수 있음
CPS: Design Challenges
by Edward Lee
Solution
Timing이 고려된 언어들
• Ex)spilit-C, Cik, SHIM
• Guava language – 멀티플 쓰레드에서 비동기화된
객체를 자바 오브젝트에서 제한시킴
• Giotto
그 밖에 다양한 연구들이 실시간 시스템을 위
해 연구된 논문이 나와있음

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