pluralization of policing

Report
Policing within the EU:
Social Control at what cost?
Prof. John Winterdyk
[email protected]
Director: Centre for Criminology and Justice Research
Adjunct Prof: St Thomas Un., and Polytechnic of Namibia
With assistance from: Ms. Crystal Hincks
Date/Location: October 22 – 23, 2010
University of Luxembourg
Centre for Criminology and Justice Research
Overview
“it is better to prevent crimes than to punish them” C. Beccaria (1763:93)
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Qualifiers
Crime as a social construct
Crime control
Models of policing
Pluralization of policing
Policing in post 9-11
Summary
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Qualifier
• Social scientist
– Evidence based dec-making
• Critical realist
• Capacity over more order
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Crime as a Social Construct
• Two fundamental guiding principles to a harmonious society:
– “Do all you say you agree to do”
– “Do not encroach on other persons or their property”
• Natural law vs. political law
• Past:
– Domain of cannon law or civil law (esp. laws of tort)
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Crime Control
‘war against terror taking toll on human rights’ – P. Delean ‘10
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Utilitarian vs. vested interest groups
“contrology” J. Ditton
Crime rates
Financial burden
Erosion of community support
Need for ‘more order’
Forced compliance doesn’t work!
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Crime Control Cont.
• Not serve as defenders of the State but as guardians of human
rights
– research: biased and discretionary enforcement (official
statistics) Quinney ‘86
– Social injury (e.g., human rights violations, imperialism, sexism,
racism, poverty, state terrorism) DeKeserdy et al. ’05
– Transnational policing in the EU – justified and legitimated
• Form of deviance
• Control…subjective and/or political manipulation Braithwaite ’89
• “abolitionism” K. Stenson ‘95
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MODELS OF POLICING
• Traditional Model- order/maintenance role; policing was informal and based
on conflict resolution; minimal interaction with community: a ‘supply’ and
‘demand’ approach – NO crime prevention…. <15% dealing with crime!
(Sewell ‘85)
• Problem Solving Police: Proactive – crime prevention… detectives,
investigation, geographic profile, etc. Three Rs: random patrol, reactive
investigation, rapid response; SARA (Scan, Analyze, Response, and
Assessment) vs. CAPRA (Client, Acquire, Partnerships, Response, and
Assessment).
• Community Oriented Policing: Highly interactive with community ; 3 Ps
of community policing: public involvement, problem solving, and prevention
of crime.
Barlow & Barlow, 2009
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Productivity of the Police:
Suspects per 100 Police Officers
Finland
2692
Isreal
360
USA
2260
Macedonia, FYR
353
Canada
1043
Slovenia
332
Germany
872
Slovakia
251
Netherlands
845
Italy
249
Greece
769
Estonia
225
Austria
684
Rep. of Moldova
201
Norway
684
Croatia
173
England &
Wales
558
Cyprus
137
Portugal
475
Lithuania
132
Hungary
415
Ukraine
122
Poland
404
Spain
102
Romania
404
Latvia
100
France
385
Kazakhstan
82
Sweden
371
Russia
79
Ireland
366
Armenia
53
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Citizen Evaluation of Police Performance
1st
Quartile
Poor Evaluation
Kazakhstan, Russia, Georgia,
Latvia, Romania, Ukraine,
Estonia, Belarus, Lithuania
3rd
Quartile
Medium Evaluation
Spain, Macedonia, Slovakia,
Malta, Slovenia, Finland,
Belgium, Switzerland
2nd Quartile
Medium Evaluation
Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary,
Poland, Czech. Rep.,
Italy, Portugal,
Austria, Albania
4th Quartile
High Evaluation
France, Ireland, Netherlands,
Sweden, England and Wales,
Denmark, Canada, USA,
Scotland
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• Relative efficiency:
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Crime prevention
Crime control
Conflict resolution
General services – traffic, PR with public…
Police administration – integrity, leadership
? Productivity (complex and complicated)
Criminal investigation (12 city study) “left much to
be desired”! (Sewell ‘92)
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PLURALIZATION OF POLICING
• Governments no longer have a monopoly on policing (“high
policing”)
• Private security and consulting companies are growing at 2-3x the
rate of police forces (“low policing” Brodeur ‘83)
• Increase in citizen policing, special constables, peace officers,
auxiliaries, and crime prevention agencies have reduced the need
for more sworn officers
• Growth of civilian positions have surpassed officers 2:1
– 1 civilian member for every 2.5 officers
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PROFILE OF COUNTRIES for 2006
CANADA
GERMANY
FINLAND
UNITED STATES
POPULATION
33,487,208
82,110,097
5,250,275
307,212,123
# OF POLICE
OFFICERS
62,461
250,284
8,312
683,396
RATIO OF
POLICE TO
CITIZENS
1.914 : 1,000
3.035 : 1,000
1.579 : 1,000
2.236 : 1,000
POLICING
BUDGET
EUR 7
billion
EUR 362
million
EUR 576.60
million
EUR 70
billion
POLICE MODEL
Community
Paramilitary
Community
Community
Crime Rate
Per 100,000
8,317.24
7,628.46
9,825.43
3,764.78
Source: UNODC (2007)
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Belief in Police Efficiency
90%
80%
70%
87%
89%
60%
50%
70%
67%
Finland
Germany
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Canada
USA
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Percentage of people who reported paying brides
(2006-2009), by service
‘09 Global Corruption Barometer
25
20
15
2009
10
2006
5
0
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Hi-lites for reform
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Does low enforcement work?
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More police, more professionalism, more power, more… is NOT better
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Do they provide value for our taxes? (Waller ‘09)
When police strike – predatory crimes increase (robbery/assaults)
Clinton admin 20% increase in policing! Impact…none
65% respond to 911 calls!
Investigation 20%... $13B annually
Problem oriented policing …. Shows promise and crime prevention through social
development
Refocus on risk factors and protective factors
Shift 3-5% of LE budget to prevention (risk factors) and victim support
!! US Gallup Pools show since 1990…public favors ‘education and jobs’
over ‘police and prisons’
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POLICING IN POST 9-11 TIMES
•Terrorist attacks are both acts of war and also crimes
•Prevention of the next terrorist attack is priority number
one for governments
•Stopping large scale attacks are the public safety
imperative, even if it means risking the individuals
that police typically serve
•Advocates of stronger immigration laws are crying for
local police to become involved in enforcing immigration
law
•Police do not want this role
•Would result in a major setback in the progress of
community policing over the past two decades
•Police would wind up on the wrong side of the
immigrant communities would be a mistake
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Police would require greater power and authority
– That power, meant to be used for investigating and
stopping terrorism, would be used in investigations of
other crimes.
– This power comes attached to the expectation that it will
also be used to police immigration
– One concern is the need for more manpower and
resources
– Slippery slope of human rights
– UK law school study
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Costs of Crime Fighting in Canada
• Direct cost of the CJS- EUR 20 billion
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Includes policing, courts, corrections
2x more than unemployment
3x more than childcare
2x more than seniors pensions
Tax-payers 7X more to achieve 10% reduction vs. SD
• Indirect cost of the CJS- EUR 25 billion
– Costs incurred by victims; insurance, replacement, medical system,
lawyers, lost wages
Is it more cost effective to prevent crime and/or
investigate?
Centre for Criminology and Justice Research
http://ww4.ps-sp.gc.ca/en/library/publications/fact_sheets/cpsd/index/html
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Offending and Victimization is Predictable
for Groups (not individuals)
• 5% of youth account for 55% of offences
– The 5% experience more risk factors- poverty,
ineffective parenting, dropping out of school
• 4% of victims account for 44% of victimization
– The 4% lead life routines that increase risk, such as
not guarding goods, vulnerable to opportunity, close
to offenders
• “Hot Spot” locations exist for drugs and other offences
– “Hot Spots” concentrate offenders and victims
geographically
Source: Waller, 2003
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Summary
“we are sadly not close to solving the global problems of unsafety” B. Holtmann ‘10
• Focus not on just reducing crime rates/investigation
• Improve quality of life/community capacity
– Build trust between pop. and CJS
– Protective factors promote +ve alternate life-choices
• Prevention polices…’backseat’ to public safety policies
– ‘02 UN Guidelines for CP
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Social, economic, health & educational development
Locally based CP
Situational
Reduction of recidivism
• SROI…$1 prevention savings up to $10 intervention!
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Thank You/Merci/Danke
[email protected]
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