Scoring II

Report
Geant4 v9.2p02
Scoring II
Makoto Asai (SLAC)
Geant4 Tutorial Course
Contents
• Sensitive detector vs. primitive scorer
• Basic structure of detector sensitivity
• Sensitive detector and hit
• Touchable
• Use of G4HCofThisEvent class
Scoring II - M.Asai (SLAC)
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Geant4 v9.2p02
Sensitive detector
vs.
primitive scorer
Extract useful information
•
Given geometry, physics and primary track generation, Geant4 does proper
physics simulation “silently”.
– You have to add a bit of code to extract information useful to you.
•
There are three ways:
– Built-in scoring commands
• Most commonly-used physics quantities are available.
– Use scorers in the tracking volume
• Create scores for each event
• Create own Run class to accumulate scores
– Assign G4VSensitiveDetector to a volume to generate “hit”.
• Use user hooks (G4UserEventAction, G4UserRunAction) to get event /
run summary
•
You may also use user hooks (G4UserTrackingAction, G4UserSteppingAction,
etc.)
– You have full access to almost all information
– Straight-forward, but do-it-yourself
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Sensitive detector vs. primitive scorer
Sensitive detector
• You have to implement your own
detector and hit classes.
• One hit class can contain many
quantities. A hit can be made for
each individual step, or accumulate
quantities.
• Basically one hits collection is made
per one detector.
Primitive scorer
• Many scorers are provided by
Geant4. You can add your own.
• Each scorer accumulates one
quantity for an event.
•
•
Hits collection is relatively compact.
•
G4MultiFunctionalDetector creates
many collections (maps), i.e. one
collection per one scorer.
Keys of maps are redundant for
scorers of same volume.
I would suggest to :
 Use primitive scorers
 if you are not interested in recording each individual step but accumulating
some physics quantities for an event or a run, and
 if you do not have to have too many scorers.
 Otherwise, consider implementing your own sensitive detector.
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Geant4 v9.2p02
Basic structure of
detector sensitivity
Sensitive detector
•
A G4VSensitiveDetector object can be assigned to G4LogicalVolume.
•
In case a step takes place in a logical volume that has a G4VSensitiveDetector
object, this G4VSensitiveDetector is invoked with the current G4Step object.
– You can implement your own sensitive detector classes, or use scorer
classes provided by Geant4.
Stepping
Manager
Physics
Process
Particle
Change
Step
Track
Logical
Volume
Sensitive
Detector
GetPhysicalInteractionLength
SelectShortest
DoIt
Fill
Update
Update
IsSensitive
GenerateHits
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Defining a sensitive detector
•
Basic strategy
G4LogicalVolume* myLogCalor = ……;
G4VSensetiveDetector* pSensetivePart =
new MyDetector(“/mydet”);
G4SDManager* SDMan = G4SDManager::GetSDMpointer();
SDMan->AddNewDetector(pSensitivePart);
myLogCalor->SetSensitiveDetector(pSensetivePart);
•
Each detector object must have a unique name.
– Some logical volumes can share one detector object.
– More than one detector objects can be made from one detector class with
different detector name.
– One logical volume cannot have more than one detector objects. But, one
detector object can generate more than one kinds of hits.
• e.g. a double-sided silicon micro-strip detector can generate hits for
each side separately.
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Concrete class provided by G4
Class diagram
Abstract base class provided by G4
Template class provided by G4
G4LogicalVolume
has
G4Event
User’s class
1
0..1
G4HCofThisEvent
G4VSensitiveDetector
n
G4VHitsCollection
kind of
G4THitsCollection
G4MultiFunctionalDetector
userSensitiveDetector
n
G4VPrimitiveSensitivity
G4PSDoseScorer
G4PSDoseScorer
G4PSDoseScorer
G4PSDoseScorer
G4PSDoseScorer
n
G4VHit
G4THitsMap
hits map
hits map
hits map
hits map
hits map
1
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n
userHitsCollection
or userHitsMap
n
userHit
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Hits collection, hits map
•
G4VHitsCollection is the common abstract base class of both G4THitsCollection
and G4THitsMap.
•
G4THitsCollection is a template vector class to store pointers of objects of one
concrete hit class type.
– A hit class (deliverable of G4VHit abstract base class) should have its own
identifier (e.g. cell ID).
– In other words, G4THitsCollection requires you to implement your hit class.
•
G4THitsMap is a template map class so that it stores keys (typically cell ID, i.e.
copy number of the volume) with pointers of objects of one type.
– Objects may not be those of hit class.
• All of currently provided scorer classes use G4THitsMap with simple
double.
– Since G4THitsMap is a template, it can be used by your sensitive detector
class to store hits.
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Geant4 v9.2p02
Sensitive detector and hit
Sensitive detector and Hit
•
Each Logical Volume can have a pointer to a sensitive detector.
– Then this volume becomes sensitive.
•
Hit is a snapshot of the physical interaction of a track or an accumulation of
interactions of tracks in the sensitive region of your detector.
•
A sensitive detector creates hit(s) using the information given in G4Step
object. The user has to provide his/her own implementation of the detector
response.
•
Hit objects, which are still the user’s class objects, are collected in a G4Event
object at the end of an event.
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Hit class
•
Hit is a user-defined class derived from G4VHit.
•
You can store various types information by implementing your own concrete Hit class.
For example:
– Position and time of the step
– Momentum and energy of the track
– Energy deposition of the step
– Geometrical information
– or any combination of above
•
Hit objects of a concrete hit class must be stored in a dedicated collection which is
instantiated from G4THitsCollection template class.
•
The collection will be associated to a G4Event object via G4HCofThisEvent.
•
Hits collections are accessible
– through G4Event at the end of event.
• to be used for analyzing an event
– through G4SDManager during processing an event.
Scoring II - M.Asai (SLAC)
• to be used for event filtering.
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Implementation of Hit class
#include "G4VHit.hh"
class MyHit : public G4VHit
{
public:
MyHit(some_arguments);
virtual ~MyHit();
virtual void Draw();
virtual void Print();
private:
// some data members
public:
// some set/get methods
};
#include “G4THitsCollection.hh”
typedef G4THitsCollection<MyHit> MyHitsCollection;
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Sensitive Detector class
•
Sensitive detector is a user-defined class derived from G4VSensitiveDetector.
#include "G4VSensitiveDetector.hh"
#include "MyHit.hh"
class G4Step;
class G4HCofThisEvent;
class MyDetector : public G4VSensitiveDetector
{
public:
MyDetector(G4String name);
virtual ~MyDetector();
virtual void Initialize(G4HCofThisEvent*HCE);
virtual G4bool ProcessHits(G4Step*aStep,
G4TouchableHistory*ROhist);
virtual void EndOfEvent(G4HCofThisEvent*HCE);
private:
MyHitsCollection * hitsCollection;
G4int collectionID;
};
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Sensitive detector
•
A tracker detector typically generates a hit for every single step of every single
(charged) track.
– A tracker hit typically contains
• Position and time
• Energy deposition of the step
• Track ID
•
A calorimeter detector typically generates a hit for every cell, and accumulates
energy deposition in each cell for all steps of all tracks.
– A calorimeter hit typically contains
• Sum of deposited energy
• Cell ID
•
You can instantiate more than one objects for one sensitive detector class. Each
object should have its unique detector name.
– For example, each of two sets of detectors can have their dedicated
sensitive detector objects. But, the functionalities of them are exactly the
same to each other so that they can share the same class. See
examples/extended/analysis/A01 as an example.
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Step
•
Step has two points and also “delta” information of a particle (energy loss on the
step, time-of-flight spent by the step, etc.).
•
Each point knows the volume (and material). In case a step is limited by a
volume boundary, the end point physically stands on the boundary, and it
logically belongs to the next volume.
•
Note that you must get the volume information from the “PreStepPoint”.
Boundary
Step
Post-step point
Pre-step point
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Implementation of Sensitive Detector - 1
MyDetector::MyDetector(G4String detector_name)
:G4VSensitiveDetector(detector_name),
collectionID(-1)
{
collectionName.insert(“collection_name");
}
•
In the constructor, define the name of the hits collection which is handled by this
sensitive detector
•
In case your sensitive detector generates more than one kinds of hits (e.g.
anode and cathode hits separately), define all collection names.
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Implementation of Sensitive Detector - 2
void MyDetector::Initialize(G4HCofThisEvent*HCE)
{
if(collectionID<0) collectionID = GetCollectionID(0);
hitsCollection = new MyHitsCollection
(SensitiveDetectorName,collectionName[0]);
HCE->AddHitsCollection(collectionID,hitsCollection);
}
•
•
•
•
Initialize() method is invoked at the beginning of each event.
Get the unique ID number for this collection.
– GetCollectionID() is a heavy operation. It should not be used for every events.
– GetCollectionID() is available after this sensitive detector object is constructed
and registered to G4SDManager. Thus, this method cannot be invoked in the
constructor of this detector class.
Instantiate hits collection(s) and attach it/them to G4HCofThisEvent object given
in the argument.
In case of calorimeter-type detector, you may also want to instantiate hits for all
calorimeter cells with zero energy depositions, and insert them to the collection.
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Implementation of Sensitive Detector - 3
G4bool MyDetector::ProcessHits
(G4Step*aStep,G4TouchableHistory*ROhist)
{
MyHit* aHit = new MyHit();
...
// some set methods
...
hitsCollection->insert(aHit);
return true;
}
•
This ProcessHits() method is invoked for every steps in the volume(s) where this
sensitive detector is assigned.
•
In this method, generate a hit corresponding to the current step (for tracking
detector), or accumulate the energy deposition of the current step to the existing
hit object where the current step belongs to (for calorimeter detector).
•
Don’t forget to collect geometry information (e.g. copy number) from
“PreStepPoint”.
•
Currently, returning boolean value is not used.
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Implementation of Sensitive Detector - 4
void MyDetector::EndOfEvent(G4HCofThisEvent*HCE)
{;}
•
This method is invoked at the end of processing an event.
– It is invoked even if the event is aborted.
– It is invoked before UserEndOfEventAction.
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Geant4 v9.2p02
Touchable
Step point and touchable
•
As mentioned already, G4Step has two G4StepPoint objects as its starting and
ending points. All the geometrical information of the particular step should be
taken from “PreStepPoint”.
– Geometrical information associated with G4Track is identical to
“PostStepPoint”.
•
Each G4StepPoint object has
– Position in world coordinate system
– Global and local time
– Material
– G4TouchableHistory for geometrical information
•
G4TouchableHistory object is a vector of information for each geometrical
hierarchy.
– copy number
– transformation / rotation to its mother
•
Since release 4.0, handles (or smart-pointers) to touchables are intrinsically used.
Touchables are reference counted.
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Copy number
•
Suppose a calorimeter is made of
4x5 cells.
– and it is implemented by two
levels of replica.
•
•
In reality, there is only one physical
volume object for each level. Its
position is parameterized by its
copy number.
To get the copy number of each
level, suppose what happens if a
step belongs to two cells.



0
1 CopyNo
2 =0 3
4
0
1 CopyNo
2 =1 3
4
0
1 CopyNo
2 =2 3
4
0
1 CopyNo
2 =3 3
4
Remember geometrical information in G4Track is identical to
"PostStepPoint".
You cannot get the collect copy number for "PreStepPoint" if you directly
access to the physical volume.
Use touchable to get the proper copy number, transform matrix, etc.
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Touchable
•
G4TouchableHistory has information of geometrical hierarchy of the point.
G4Step* aStep;
G4StepPoint* preStepPoint = aStep->GetPreStepPoint();
G4TouchableHistory* theTouchable =
(G4TouchableHistory*)(preStepPoint->GetTouchable());
G4int copyNo = theTouchable->GetVolume()->GetCopyNo();
G4int motherCopyNo
= theTouchable->GetVolume(1)->GetCopyNo();
G4int grandMotherCopyNo
= theTouchable->GetVolume(2)->GetCopyNo();
G4ThreeVector worldPos = preStepPoint->GetPosition();
G4ThreeVector localPos = theTouchable->GetHistory()
->GetTopTransform().TransformPoint(worldPos);
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Geant4 v9.2p02
Use of G4HCofThisEvent class
G4HCofThisEvent
•
A G4Event object has a G4HCofThisEvent object at the end of (successful)
event processing. G4HCofThisEvent object stores all hits collections made
within the event.
– Pointer(s) to the collections may be NULL if collections are not created in the
particular event.
– Hits collections are stored by pointers of G4VHitsCollection base class. Thus,
you have to cast them to types of individual concrete classes.
– The index number of a Hits collection is unique and unchanged for a run.
The index number can be obtained by
G4SDManager::GetCollectionID(“detName/colName”);
• The index table is also stored in G4Run.
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Usage of G4HCofThisEvent
void MyEventAction::EndOfEventAction(const G4Event* evt)
{
static int CHCID = -1;
If(CHCID<0) CHCID = G4SDManager::GetSDMpointer()
->GetCollectionID("myDet/collection1");
G4HCofThisEvent* HCE = evt->GetHCofThisEvent();
MyHitsCollection* CHC = 0;
Cast !
if(HCE)
{ CHC = (MyHitsCollection*)(HCE->GetHC(CHCID)); }
if(CHC)
{
int n_hit = CHC->entries();
G4cout<<“My detector has ”<<n_hit<<" hits."<<G4endl;
for(int i1=0;i1<n_hit;i1++)
{
MyHit* aHit = (*CHC)[i1];
aHit->Print();
}
}
}
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When to invoke GetCollectionID()?
•
Which is the better place to invoke G4SDManager::GetCollectionID() in a user
event action class, in its constructor or in the BeginOfEventAction()?
•
It actually depends on the user's application.
– Note that construction of sensitive detectors (and thus registration of their
hits collections to SDManager) takes place when the user issues
RunManager::Initialize(), and thus the user’s geometry is constructed.
•
In case user's EventAction class should be instantiated before
Runmanager::Initialize() (or /run/initialize command), GetCollectionID() should
not be in the constructor of EventAction.
•
While, if the user has nothing to do to Geant4 before RunManager::Initialize(),
this initialize method can be hard-coded in the main() before the instantiation of
EventAction (e.g. exampleA01), so that GetCollectionID() could be in the
constructor.
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