CV Raman INSA, Lucknow, 27.12.2013

R. Chidambaram
C.V. Raman Medal Public Lecture, Anniversary General Meeting of the
Indian National Science Academy, Lucknow, 27th December, 2013
 S&T–driven growth is needed to become a ‘developed’ country.
But for this development to be sustainable, a Knowledge-driven
Economy is essential.
 This requires Global Leadership in Science, Engineering
Technology, Manufacturing and Innovation.
 Excellence is needed in Basic Research (including what I call
‘Directed Basic Research’: Chidambaram, 2007).
 Excellence is required in Applied Research, including ‘precompetitive Applied Research’, particularly in
Technologies”, as determined by Technology Foresight Analysis.
 We need excellence in R&D–led Technology Development and
 All this must be backed by high-quality Manufacturing skills.
R. Chidambaram
Role of P S A’S office And SAc-C
Principal Scientitific Adviser(PSA)’s Office and the Scientific Advisory Committee
to the Cabinet(SAC-C) have a multi-departmental role. The scientific business
of the Govt. has been divided into many Scientific Departments. But there are
subjects which fall in nobody’s territory. And there are things, bits and pieces
fall in many territories. These are the things PSA’s Office and SAC-C focus on.
The PSA is also ex-officio Chairman of the SAC-C. SAC-C has as members
all the Scientific Secretaries, Presidents of the Science/Engineering/Agricultural
Academies, Presidents of Industry Associations, and some other leading
scientists and intellectuals.
PSA’s Office has held brain-storming sessions and has prepared reports (under
the guidance of SAC-C) on a wide range of subjects – from Nanoelectronics,
and Research & Education Networks to Photonics and Quantum Matter
Physics to Additive Manufacturing– to provide roadmaps for these areas.
PSA’s Office is funded for ‘Synergy Projects’ . Examples are the establishment
of Core Advisory Groups for ‘pre-competitive applied research’ in various
technology sectors and the Rural Technology Action Group (RuTAG).
“Measures of Progress in Science and Technology
(R. Chidambaram, Current Science, Vol. 88, No.6, 25 March, 2005)
The metrics for Basic Research is the number of publications and their
impact factors; the originality of the problems and their importance (to
science or society—a la Peter Medawar) are also relevant. The metrics
for industry-oriented applied research and technology development are
patents and R&D-inspired innovations.
The metrics for the application of science and technology for rural
development (needed for inclusive growth) can only be related to
success in technology delivery. The achievements of the missionoriented agencies like the successful Pokhran tests, the perfect launching
of missiles and satellites, the design and indigenization of the
construction of nuclear power reactors, etc., though they do create a
sense of great pride in the country, are difficult to be represented by
metrics like papers or patents.
All these dimensions of S&T are relevant as India puts in effortsto
become a developed country and a knowledge economy.
“The Appropriability Conundrum”
“The returns from basic research are large, but they are not very
appropriable. The nature of basic research is such that its results flow
to the rest of the world. Although basic research can be turned into
applied research—into patents, products, and eventually economic
growth—this may not necessarily occur in the laboratory where the
work is originally done or even in the same country….
....until as late as the sixties, America’s potential competitors, Japan
and Europe, lacked the full capacity to absorb the results of U.S.funded basic research…information flows today are so rapid that
anyone, anywhere, can potentially be the entrepreneur who recognizes
the economic potential of scientific discoveries….
The first path forward is to adopt policies that maintain the
appropriability of returns from U.S. basic research to the U.S.
From Dr. William H. Press(President AAAS), Science, Vol.342, pp 817-822, 15 November,
We must paraphrase these comments in the Indian context.
 Talented young people (and then there are the
 High quality faculty (including in Schools)
 Adequate Funds
 Strong Infrastructure, including
an e-Science
 Appetite for Risk-Taking
 International Collaboration (to leverage indigenous
 Leaders
Very different in the nature of their work, but they always
focused on important problems.
C.V. Raman : the greatest experimental physicist India has
Homi Bhabha : the founder of our atomic energy programme.
Srinivasa Ramanujan : Hardy and Littlewood have
compared Ramanujan’s natural genius with great mathematicians
like Euler, Gauss and Jacobi.
For the last three decades, I have kept the photographs/paintings of
these great scientists behind my chair in the Office!
Raman and Bhabha created their own Ecosystems, Ramanujan was
a soloist and did not need an Ecosystem
Representing my people………………..
C.V. Raman
“When the Nobel award was announced I saw it as a personal
triumph, an achievement for me and my collaborators -- ... But
when I sat in that crowded hall and I saw the sea of western
faces surrounding me, and I, the only Indian, in my turban and
closed coat, it dawned on me that I was really representing my
people and my country. I felt truly humble when I received the
Prize from King Gustav… Then I turned round and saw the British
Union Jack under which I had been sitting and it was then that I
realised that my poor country, India, did not even have a flag of
her own - and it was this that triggered off my complete
(from Dr. Subodh Mahanti, Vigyan Prasar Science Portal)
Celebrating Science
February 28, the day Raman announced the discovery
of the Raman Effect, has been declared the
National Science Day.
Ramanujan’s birthday (22nd December) has been
declared the
National Mathematics Day.
The first day of the 1998 Pokhran tests , May 11, has
been declared the
National Technology Day
National Development & National Security
“More than ten years back(Tenth Nayudamma Lecture, November 1999), I
said that ‘National Development and National Security are two sides of the
same coin’. Development without Security is vulnerable; Security without
Development is meaningless…In the context of nuclear deterrence, we must
remember that the greatest advantage of recognized strength is that you
don’t have to use it. And that the greatest disadvantage of perceived
weakness is that your enemy may get adventurist…
“The design of nuclear weapons (India is one country globally recognized as
having designed its nuclear weapons without outside inputs, overt assistance
or clandestine acquisition), with exactly predictable yields, requires expertise
in many areas of physics: explosive ballistics, shock wave physics, neutron
kinetics, and physics related to radiation coupling of the two stages in the
case of the thermonuclear device. Precise estimation of design yields also
requires complex computer calculations…accurate determination of the yields
after the tests requires capabilities in advanced seismology and
From R. Chidambaram, INAE Lifetime Achievement Award Lecture, Kalpakkam, 17th December , 2009
Science & the 1998 Pokhran Tests
“These tests were the culmination of a committed team effort…It is
universally recognized that India’s nuclear weapon development
pogramme is based on self-reliance (see Paine & McKinzie, 1998)…when
we refined our computer calculations for the designs we tested, physics
knowledge had advanced tremendously in every field (compared to the
Manhattan days)…(also) the number of (U.S.A.) tests per year came down
with increase in available computing power…the May 1998 (Indian) tests
were fully successful in terms of achieving their scientific
objectives…establishing the computer simulation capability to predict the
yields of nuclear weapons – fission, boosted fission, and two-stage
thermonuclear – of designs related to the designs of the devices tested by
us…Thus the carefully-planned series of tests carried out by us gave us the
capability to design confidently and build nuclear weapons from low
yields up to around 200 kt. A great deal of further scientific and technical
development work has taken place since then. ”
From R. Chidambaram, “Atoms for Peace” An International Journal(UK), Volume 2, No. 1, 2008, pp 41-57
 Building facilities like Synchrotron Radiation Sources, Particle
Accelerators, Research Reactors, Telescopes, etc. - requires large
multi-disciplinary engineering teams.
 Unique multi-billion dollar facilities like the Large Hadron
Collider in Geneva(CERN) are built through international
cooperation. India contributed 40 million dollars worth of
equipment (Leader: RRCAT, Indore) – superconducting
sextupole, octupole and decapole magnets and advanced grid
software - to this facility. India is also contributing to and
participating in experiments with two detectors – CMS (Leader:
TIFR, Mumbai) and ALICE (Leader: VECC, Kolkata) – and
analysis of data from them. The first signatures of the Higgs
boson came from the CMS detector.
Till date 35 Satellites from 19 countries have been
successfully launched using PSLV
The countries include Algeria, Argentina, Austria,
Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany,
Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg,
Republic of Korea, Singapore,
Switzerland, Turkey, UK. On 5th Nov., 2013, a PSLV
put the Mars Orbiter into Earth’s orbit.
2 Satellites Jointly built by ISRO- CNES ( French Space
• Satellite is meant for studying • Satellite
water cycle & energy exchanges
oceanographic studies viz.
in the tropics
marine meteorology, sea state
• Launched by PSLV in Oct 2011
forecasting, climate monitoring
• Launched by PSLV in Feb 2013
22 successive successful launches
Courtesy: Dr. K. Radhakrishnan, ISRO
Mass : 1000 kg
Mass : 410 kg
By Yukiya Amano, Director General, IAEA
in a lecture in BARC on 11th March, 2013
“(After) the Fukushima Daiichi accident, some people predicted
that nuclear power will go into decline. However, the evidence
suggests that this will not be the case. At the moment, there are
66 new reactors under construction. Seven of them are in India.
Other major users of nuclear power such as China and Russia
also have significant expansion plans. A number of countries
have taken the decision to introduce nuclear power, including
Egypt, Jordan, Nigeria, Poland, Turkey and Vietnam. The
United Arab Emirates has started building a nuclear power
plant, the first new country to do so for 27 years.”
India, a Leader in the Nuclear Sector
Yukiya Amano contd…
India is at the forefront of technological development in
the nuclear sector, not least in the area of fast reactors
and related fuel cycles.
Fast reactors and related fuel cycles will be important
for the long-term sustainability of nuclear power.
This innovative technology has the potential to ensure
that energy resources which would run out in a few
hundred years, using today’s technology, will actually
last several thousand years. Fast reactors also reduce
the volume and toxicity of the final waste.
from his lecture in BARC, 11th March 2013
Closing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and the Climate
Change Threat
Nuclear installed capacity with open and closed fuel cycle options
N u c le a r in s t a lle d
c a p a c it y d e rive d fro m
n u c le a r e n e rg y
g ro w t h p ro file o f A 1 T
s c e n a rio a n d
a c h ie ve d b y c lo s in g
t h e fu e l c y c le
Installed c apacity (G W e)
G ro w t h o f in s t a lle d
c a p a c it y w it h
u ra n iu m u s e d in
o p e n fu e l c y c le t o
m e e t t a rg e t p ro file o f
A 1 T s c e n a rio
Y e ar
from Chidambaram, Sinha & Patwardhan, Nuclear Energy Review 2007
Nuclear is now an accepted mitigation technology in the context of the Climate
Change Threat. But if it is to be a sustainable mitigation technology, you have to
close the nuclear fuel cycle.
Indigenous Light Water Reactor
The reactor in the
went critical on 10th
August, 2013, is a
Reactor(PWR). Earlier
shown in the figure
became operational
in September 2006 at
Based on the experience of design, analysis, fabrication, commissioning and
operation of the PWR for the propulsion programme, India has taken up design of
an indigenous 900 MWe PWR, whose construction is expected to be started
within five years.
Courtesy: Sekhar Basu, Director, BARC
Variation of Human Development Index(HDI) with respect to PCEC
I have been saying for two decades and more that the two measures of
development for us are PCEC and Female Literacy
Human Development Index (HDI) in 2011
India of our dreams
Each point refers
to a country. The
numbers are
female literacy
India now
Human Development Report, 2011
World Bank, 2011
World Factbook, CIA
Per Capita Electricity Consumption (PCEC) in 2009
To achieve an increase of PCEC by 6 to 8 times, all energy options are important for India
R. Chidambaram 2012
An Example of RuTAG/HESCO-BARC work in Uttarakhand
(RuTAG is an Open Platform Innovation Strategy of PSA’s office and is centred in 8 IITs)
Identification of Recharge Zones to Drying Springs in Gaucher
Here springs are the only available source of water for
domestic and agricultural use.
Techniques applied include;
 Measurement of environmental stable isotopic
ratios of 18O/16O, 2H/1H and environmentally
radioactive tritium.
Based on the above analysis, sub-surface
dykes were built at selected locations. The
rate of discharge increased three to nine
times in many springs and also two new
springs sprang up. Almost all the springs
have become perennial.
So successful that it is being replicated at ten
places in Uttarakhand and Himachal
from K. Shivanna, Gursharan Singh, A.P. Joshi et al, Current Science(2008)
R. Chidambaram
(in Rural development)
 The term “Re-Innovation” has been used* in the context of industrial
development by Roy Rothwell (1985) and
by China.
I use the term ‘re-innovation’, in the context of rural development,
the sense of repetitive, but suo moto, innovation, starting from the
same core concept and
ending in nearly the same product. This kind
of innovation
seems to be
inevitable in the context of rural
because of variations in raw material resource, taste,
or even culture.
 Whether it is reactors or rural products, evolutionary
changes of
existing products are more acceptable than revolutionary designs, however
 Roy Rothwell coined the word “re-innovation” to denote successive incremental modifications
to a ‘generic product’ to ‘take advantage of emerging technological or market opportunities’.
 China has often referred to a process: “introduction, absorption, digestion and re-innovation”
R. Chidambaram
( an example of synergising exceptional component capabilities)
This is not a zero carbon-emission but a relatively cleaner Coal-based technology.
In the Advanced USC coal-based plants, the steam temperature is 700-750 deg.C.
A Consortium of IGCAR, BHEL and NTPC has been formed through our Office
for developing this technology.
Two new indigenous materials have been developed by IGCAR for boiler tubes:
304HCu SS Tubes
Alloy 617 M tubes
They have been produced by MIDHANI and the tubes have been drawn by the
Nuclear Fuel Complex. A Test Loop will be set up by BHEL/NTPC.
R. Chidambaram
Indian Institute of Science (IISc) and Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB)
Total funding till date: $ 50 million
IISc Bangalore focus areas:
IITB Mumbai focus areas:
• MEMS/NEMS, Nano-bio sensors
• CMOS devices; Flash Memories
• Micro and Nano Fluidics
• Spintronics; GaAs and GaN devices
• Nanomaterials; new materials for
• Over 35 faculty members from 8
• Thin Film Technology
• Over 40 faculty members from 10
Has attracted a large number of young faculty from abroad
Courtesy: Prof. Juzer Vasi, IIT, Bombay
Indian Nanoelectronics Users Programme (INUP)
and University Collaborations
CEN facilities at IISc and IITB are open for
use by other academic users through INUP
• 115 projects completed or ongoing
• 230 users
• 112 papers
• 7 patents
International Collaborations of CENs
• NUS, Singapore
• EPFL, Switzerland
• Stanford University, USA
• UC Berkeley, USA
• Cambridge University, UK
• University of Waterloo, Canada
• NUS and NTU, Singapore
• Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
by INUP user
Courtesy: Prof. Juzer Vasi, IIT Bombay
Industrial Partnerships at CeNSE
Indian Industrial
Domain of Collaboration
Semiconductor Process Equipment
Electronics Manufacturing
Systems Electronics and packaging
MEMS Sensor for Consumer Markets
Solar PV Cells
MEMS Sensor for Consumer Markets
UHP Technologies
Process Equipment and Clean Room
Domain of Collaboration
I2N Technology
Cirel Systems
MEMS Sensor – ROIC Modules
By Design
Silicon Optical Bench platform
Bhat Biotech
Health Care Systems
Courtesy: Prof. Rudra Pratap, CeNSE, IISc Bangalore
International Partners: IBM, Tokyo Electron,
Samsung, Analog Devices, Lam Research, Unilever
First Industry Meet: March 20-21, 2013
@Centre for Nano Science & Engineering
with 70 industry delegates
• A university research park is a “cluster of technology-based organizations
that are located on or near a university campus in order to benefit from the
university’s knowledge base and ongoing research”.
• Effective parks can aid in the transfer of technology and business skills
between university and industry teams, encourage the creation of startups,
and promote technology-led economic development.
•India’s first and only University-based Research Park is in IIT Madras
• Some precursor examples include:
 Society for Innovation and Development in the IISc, Bangalore.
 Society for Innovation and Entrepreneurship in the IITB.
 Foundation for Innovation and Technology Transfer in the IITD.
 Innovation and Incubation Centre in the IITK.
 Industrial Consultancy and Sponsored Research Centre in the IITM.
 IITMRP has filed more than 70 patents in its first one and a half
years of existence.
Courtesy : Dr. M.S. Ananth, former Director, IITM, now in IISc Bangalore
National Knowledge Network(NKN): On conclusion of final phase
(A multi-10s gigabit per second core optical-fibre network)
At the conclusion of the final phase,
NKN shall have presence in more
than 640+ districts of India with
connectivity to major research and
education institutions
Core Points of Presence (PoP)
Backbone Links
Edge links
Already connected
District Links
: 31
: 89
: 1500
: 860
The NIC is the implementing Agency;
PSA chairs the High-Level Committee
for NKN.
There is a major thrust towards
(R.S. Mani, NIC)
NKN (National Knowledge Network)
High Energy Physics
NKN e-Classroom
Climate Change
NKN Webcasting
Remote Experiment
“NPTEL(MHRD) along with NASSCOM and companies such
as Cognizant, Infosys and TCS, is proposing to conduct
MOOCs in the following three Computer Sciences Courses: (1)
programming, (2) Algorithms, (3) Data Structures… The
MOOC will target between 100,000 to 500,000 graduates in all
areas of S and T over the next few years…. The contribution of
NASSCOM and the IT companies is a key differentiator for
the proposed MOOCs, which can be a valuable employment
creator for graduates…. The MOOCs will be followed by an inperson proctored exam…. We plan to launch a pilot of the
MOOCs in January, 2014, with a limit of 50,000 students. A
full launch is being planned from June 2014”.
Courtesy: Dr. Bhaskar Ramamurthi, Director, IIT Madras
MOOCs require the e-connectivity provided by the NKN
The Third Industrial Revolution is being driven
by the Internet and by Additive Manufacturing
(3-D printing technology), Robotics and other
advanced technologies and also by a desire to
manufacturing is not dependent on ‘economy of
scale’ and the products can be customized. We
must also close the existent technology gaps
(vis-à-vis the Second Industrial Revolution)
R. Chidambaram
Global Leadership in Manufacturing
If we want India to be a global leader in manufacturing
in the long term, we must be willing, if necessary, (particularly in a
new strategic technology area) to live with products with
somewhat lower specifications (compared to what the current
global leaders with long experience in manufacturing in the field
can provide) in the short term, as long as the indigenous
products meet the critical requirements. Then only we will be
able to manufacture tomorrow’s products at globally competitive
or even higher standards.
And we must shed addiction to branded products. This is what is
inhibiting introduction of indigenous diagnostic and therapeutic
medical devices and of advanced research instruments.
from R. Chidambaram’s keynote address in the first
Engineers’ Conclave-2013, organized by Indian National
Academy of Engineering, New Delhi, 17th September , 20 13
India should be a First Introducer of New Technologies
The path to a Knowledge-driven Economy is paved by
New Advanced Technologies.
India should have the courage to be the first introducer
new advanced technologies after, of course,
assurance about their safety. And, for providing this
assurance, we have ample capability.
The so-called Proven Technologies, unless subjected to
continuous evolutionary improvements, are often a
synonym for Obsolete Technologies.
The sinews for New Advanced Technologies are
comprehensive capabilities in frontier areas of science.
R. Chidambaram
Basic Research, though it gives prestige, cannot by itself
create prosperity -- wealth, strategic strength or
societal benefit-- without applied research, technology
development, high-quality manufacturing skills and
R&D-led innovation. On the other hand, an advanced
technology superstructure cannot be built without the
foundation of basic research, including what I have
called ‘directed basic research’, to develop new
knowledge and to provide the ability to appropriate
knowledge developed in other countries. We need
‘Coherent Synergy’ (a phrase I introduced many years
back) among all the component efforts needed to build
a Knowledge Economy.
R. Chidambaram

similar documents