Fall of the Roman Republic And Rise of the Roman Empire

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FALL OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC
AND
RISE OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
ARISTOCRATS
As Rome grew,
the aristocrats
grew richer, and
the poor grew
poorer
 The rich lived on
large estates (or
farms) where up
to thousands of
slaves worked

SLAVERY
Slaves in Rome were often conquered people
 Slavery was not based on race
 Slaves had to work on the large estates
 Slaves made up 1/3 the population

URBANIZATION
Small farmers could not compete with these
large estates
 Many were retired soldiers
 Some small farmers sold their farms
and worked for the
aristocrats

 Many
quit farming
and moved to
the city to find work
INFLATION

To add to the troubles,
the Romans created too
much currency.
 Prices
of goods and
services increased while
wages (pay) stayed the
same

Called inflation
POWERFUL GENERALS
The most powerful politicians (Patricians) are
also the most powerful generals
 These generals started to recruit and pay their
own armies from the poor people

 Those
armies loyal to the general, not the Republic
JULIUS CAESAR
Brilliant general
 Conquered Gaul (France)
for Rome
 Fought with his men,
they were dedicated to
him

FIRST TRIUMVIRATE
Caesar teamed up with Crassus and Pompey to
dominate the Republic as the First Triumvirate
 The Roman Senate worried that Caesar was
becoming too popular and powerful
 They ordered him to disband his army and
return to Rome

Caesar
Pompey
Crassus
CROSSING THE RUBICON
Caesar defied the order and
marched his men across
the Rubicon River, and into
Rome
 Defeated other members of
the triumvirate
 Took power and was named
dictator for life

 Ruled
with total power
CAESAR’S REFORMS
Expanded citizenship to provinces
 Created jobs by building
government buildings
 Increased soldiers’ pay
 Very popular with the
people

CAESAR ASSASSINATED

The Roman senate became worried about
Caesar again
 Some

considered him a tyrant
Several Senators, including Marcus Brutus and
Gaius Cassius, assassinated him by stabbing
him to death (Ides of March)
OCTAVIAN
Caesar’s nephew and adopted son
 Very shrewd politician
 After Caesar’s assassination,
Rome broke into civil war.
 Octavian emerged as one of
the most powerful Romans

SECOND TRIUMVIRATE
Octavian teamed up with Lepidus and Marc
Antony to defeat Caesar’s enemies and take
control of the Republic
 Eventually Octavian became the most powerful,
defeating Antony and his Egyptian ally
Cleopatra. (Antony and Cleopatra then
committed suicide together). He then forced
Lepidus into exile.

FIRST EMPEROR
When Augustus defeated Antony, he became
Rome‘s first emperor
 Maintained power through control of the army
and through favors
 While the institutions of the republic remained,
they had little real power

FURTHER EXPANSION
WHAT’S A COMMON PROBLEM FOR KINGS?
PAX ROMANA
Roman Peace
 27 BC- 180 AD
 Expansion and solidification of Roman Empire
 Afforded safety and leisure time inside the
empire

 Some
people talk about a Pax Americana since
World War II
ROMAN ROADS

Romans build a network of sophisticated and
durable roads
 Good
for:
 Trade
 Travel
 Moving
armies around
 Communicating with
provinces
ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF PAX ROMANA
Uniform system of money/currency
 Peace encourages trade and prosperity

 Trade
inside the empire flourished
 Trade with India and China
SOCIAL IMPACTS OF PAX ROMANA
In such a time of peace, stability returned to
social classes
 Renewed emphasis on the family

GLADIATORS

To control the mass or poor in Rome, the
Romans hosted holidays during which
Gladiators and/or exotic wild animals would
fight each other
POLITICAL IMPACTS OF PAX ROMANA
Uniform rule of law
 Developed civil service
 Expanded control of Europe and Mediterranean
world


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