GRE Lecture Outline on Analogies

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Verbal Ability
•Analogies
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Analogies
– The purpose of the Analogies section is to test
your ability to recognize parallels and similarities
between words and ideas.
• You will have to address eight analogies per each verbal
section (16 total for the entire test).
• First, memorize the directions for this portion of the
test.
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Analogies
– The purpose of the Analogies section is to test
your ability to recognize parallels and similarities
between words and ideas.
• Second, find the “bridge” between the stem words
before even looking at the answer choices.
– Come up with a simple sentence to relate the two words.
– If necessary, you can start with the second word first.
– Start with a simple, general bridge sentence, but if more than
one answer choice fits, go back and make your sentence more
specific.
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Analogies
– The purpose of the Analogies section is to test your
ability to recognize parallels and similarities between
words and ideas.
• Begin this section by first determining the relationship
between the original pair of words.
– There will always be a direct and necessary relationship between
the words in the stem pair.
» A weak bridge expresses a relationship that isn’t necessary
or direct.
» Some key words indicating a weak bridge: Usually, can,
might, seldom, may or may not, some, or sometimes.
» Use the phrase (by definition) to establish direct and
necessary links.
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Analogies
– The purpose of the Analogies section is to test
your ability to recognize parallels and similarities
between words and ideas.
• Some common types of analogies you should
memorize:
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–
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Part and whole: sole:shoe.
Whole and part: hand:fingers.
Class and member: fish:salmon.
Type of: debate:argument.
Degree: cool:frigid.
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Analogies
– The purpose of the Analogies section is to test
your ability to recognize parallels and similarities
between words and ideas.
• Some common types of analogies you should
memorize:
–
–
–
–
–
Opposites: tall:short.
Worker and tool: photographer:camera.
Worker and workplace: teacher:classroom.
Cause and effect (result): poison:death.
Effect and cause: death:poison.
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Analogies
– The purpose of the Analogies section is to test
your ability to recognize parallels and similarities
between words and ideas.
• Some common types of analogies you should
memorize:
–
–
–
–
–
Action and that which performs it: fly:plane.
Purpose or object and action: scissors:cut.
Indication of: boo:disapproval.
Synonyms: canine:dog.
Study of: linguistics:language.
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Analogies
– The purpose of the Analogies section is to test
your ability to recognize parallels and similarities
between words and ideas.
• Some common types of analogies you should
memorize:
– Characteristic of: dexterity:pianist.
– Definition: hero:courage.
– Lack of definition: coward:courage.
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Analogies
– The purpose of the Analogies section is to test
your ability to recognize parallels and similarities
between words and ideas.
• There are other types beyond those above, but you
have many of them covered here, and recognizing the
relationship is crucial to helping you answer the
question correctly.
• Plug the answer choices into the bridge and maintain
the same word order that you used with the stem pair.
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Analogies
– The purpose of the Analogies section is to test
your ability to recognize parallels and similarities
between words and ideas.
• If you get stuck, eliminate all answer choices with weak
bridges.
– If two choices have the same bridge—eliminate them both.
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Analogies
– The purpose of the Analogies section is to test
your ability to recognize parallels and similarities
between words and ideas.
• Avoid classic analogy traps.
– The Both Are Trap: The words aren’t directly related to each
other, but they are both related to a third word.
– The Same Subject Trap: The words are in the same subject
area as the stem words, but they don’t share the same bridge.
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Analogies
– The purpose of the Analogies section is to test
your ability to recognize parallels and similarities
between words and ideas.
• Avoid classic analogy traps.
– The Cliché Trap: The words sound natural together but don’t
actually have a clear and logical relationship.
– The Reverse Direction Trap: The bridge is strong but wrong
and would be right if the order of the words was reversed.
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Analogies
– The purpose of the Analogies section is to test
your ability to recognize parallels and similarities
between words and ideas.
• If you cannot build a good bridge for the words in the
stem pair, eliminate all choices with weak bridges and
then guess intelligently.
• The best way to prepare for Analogies is to practice,
practice, practice.
– Create your own types of analogies to help you think
analogously.
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Analogies
– The purpose of the Analogies section is to test
your ability to recognize parallels and similarities
between words and ideas.
• The best way to prepare for Analogies is to practice,
practice, practice.
– Analogies should be reasonable and inevitable or valid and
necessary.
» Eliminate answer choices that seem to violate the rule
above.
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Analogies
– The purpose of the Analogies section is to test your
ability to recognize parallels and similarities between
words and ideas.
• The best way to prepare for Analogies is to practice, practice,
practice.
– Make up a sentence that reveals the connection between the two
words.
– Example: For APPLAUSE:APPROVAL your sentence might be:
“Applause is an indication of approval.”
– Make sure your sentence is as precise and specific as possible.
– Imprecise: A MINISTER gives a SERMON.
– Precise: One of the functions of a MINISTER is to teach through a
SERMON.
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Analogies
– The purpose of the Analogies section is to test your
ability to recognize parallels and similarities between
words and ideas.
• The best way to prepare for Analogies is to practice, practice,
practice.
– Make sure you identify the parts of speech of the paired words
because the correct answer will have parts of speech that match.
– Most analogies involve nouns and adjectives.
– Always be alert for words with multiple meanings.
– Example: A school may mean “group.”
– The answer must be in the same order as the capitalized words.
– Example: COLLAGE:ARTIST and NOVEL:AUTHOR not
COMPOSER:SONATA.
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