Para PPT

Universal Supports
Team Process
Para-professional Support
Functional Communication Systems
Visual Supports
Educational Strategies and Supports
Peer Supports
Behavior Support
Parent and Family Support
Guiding Principles
Paraprofessionals in the Classroom
Are trained, caring adults who support
students individually or in small groups
Participate in regularly-scheduled team
planning meetings
Having a paraprofessional automatically
assigned to a student simply because of
eligibility is not a universal support
Considering the need for a
paraprofessional is a universal support
Goals for students with ASD:
Socialization skill development
 Independent functioning
Paraprofessionals are only assigned when
the student needs direct support for:
 Behavior
 Social Interaction
Advantages of Having a Para-Pro
Assigned to a Student
Opportunities for increased learning
 Assist students in learning systems which
can be self-sustaining/self-supporting
For example, using a visual schedule rather
than prompting
Increase in communication between
school and families
Disadvantages of Having a Para-Pro
Assigned to a Student
Interference with peer relations
 Creates dependency
 Integrity of daily communication
 Meeting
the needs of families and staff can be
a challenge
 Often times one person is communicating for
the entire team (ex. daily notebook)
 The information given doesn’t always match
the information requested
Typical ROLES for Paraprofessionals:
Support the student in interacting
effectively with the environment
Provide additional learning opportunities
Foster the use of learning systems or
tools that allow for independence and
optimal participation in the school
Typical ROLES for a Paraprofessional:
Support the student in interacting effectively
with the environment:
Interpret Environmental / Educational Expectations
Assist in Material and Desk Top Organization
Implement Academic Accommodations /
Support Student Output
Support /Facilitate Socialization
Support/Facilitate Communication
Highlight steps
for doing Read
 Color-coding
matches color
on supplies
needed for
each step
Interpret Educational Expectations
Sometimes I want to eat
other peoples food. My
friends DO NOT like it if I
take food off their lunch
tray. I will only eat food
on my lunch tray.
Social Story
DO NOT eat other
people’s food
Videotape students not taking
food from each other
Small Cue Card
Interpret Environmental Expectations
Privacy/Distraction Screens
Organize Materials
Reference Materials
is a HUGE
problem for
many students.
Organize Desk/Backpack/Notebook
Make Accommodations and Modifications
Make accommodations and modifications
Accommodations and
modifications may include the
use of assistive technology
Make Accommodations and Modifications
Keyboarding answers
Support Output Method
(help student show what they know)
Taking dictation for a student
Support/Facilitate Socialization
Stand 18 inches away from the
person with which you are talking.
You can ask things like:
“Did you go to watch the game last
“How was lunch?” (or class)
“Have you seen the movie _____?”
“What is your favorite band?”
Utilizing a communication system
Support Communication
Example of a cue card
Typical ROLES for a Paraprofessional:
2. Provide additional learning opportunities:
 Pre-teach
or re-teach skills and concepts
needed for success
 Prompt appropriate behavior / work
completion, etc.
 Run Behavior Intervention Plan if one has
been developed by the team
Ex. Token system
Re-teach concepts student didn’t “get”
Break down tasks into manageable
Pre-teach or re-teach concepts
Pre-teach or re-teach concepts/skills
Token reward system
Prompt and Reward Appropriate Work
Habits and Behavior
Token system for behavior
Typical ROLES for a Paraprofessional:
3. Foster the use of learning systems or
tools that allow for independence and
optimal participation in the school
 Visual
 Visual Prompts
 Set Up and Support Peer Interaction
Daily schedule with expectations
Small cue card hooks on belt-loop
Foster independent use of visuals
Three-ring binder with Velcro schedule
Work space organization
Task organization
Mrs. O. takes us to lunch.
I like it when she stays
with me during lunch. Mrs.
O. will stay with me for 5
minutes each day. When
the timer says 5 minutes is
up, I will say good-bye to
Mrs. O. and she will go
somewhere else to eat her
lunch. I might be sad but I
will try to stay calm and eat
my lunch. I will see Mrs. O
again after lunch.
Everybody Makes Mistakes!
When you make a
mistake: Say to
yourself, “Everyone
makes mistakes. This
is OK.”
Think about ways you can
fix the problem.
Ask friends or adults for
help if you need it.
Social Stories and Power Cards
“If you’ve told a child a thousand times and
he still does not understand, then it is not
the child who is a slow learner.”
Attributed to Walter Barbee
Helpful Tools:
Schedule Matrix for Identifying Support Strategies
______________________________________________ Date: ______________________________
Student Schedule
General Education
Student Skills
Supports, Services,
Strategies Needed
IEP Goals/Objectives
Rules for Prompting AND Fading
1. Define target behavior
Define the behavior to be prompted.
2. Identify suitable prompts
Choose a prompt that will reliably produce
this behavior.
3. Implement Sequence
 Wait,
wait, wait – a minimum of 10 seconds
4. Monitor results
This is essential to know you are
progressing satisfactorily.
 Collect
 Chart/graph progress
Type of Prompt
Full Physical Assistance (Full), also
known as Hand-Over-Hand or HOH
Child requires physical assistance to
complete a task. The Para will "handover-hand" the child to ensure a correct
When teaching the child to hand in a paper, the Para
will take the child’s hand and guide them to pick it up,
and navigate them to the bin.
Partial Physical Assistance (Part)
Child requires partial physical assistance
to complete a task.
When teaching the child to hand in the paper, the Para
guides the child’s hand to the paper by the elbow, in
order to gently ‘nudge’ the child into executing the skill
correctly, and then assists them in the same manor to
the bin.
Full Model (FM)
Para models what the desired response
of the child is.
When teaching the receptive instruction "put your paper
in the bin” the Para demonstrates so while he/she is
telling the child what they are doing.
Partial Model (PM)
Para models only part of the response
that is desired from the child.
When teaching the receptive instruction the mediator
may point to the areas or direct the child to the desired
bin rather than actually going through all motions.
Full Verbal Model (FVM)
Para verbally models what the desired
response of the child is.
When teaching the expressive label "put your paper
away" the Para asks, "What do you need to do? Put
your paper in the bin."
Partial Verbal Model (PVM)
Para verbally models only part of the
desired response of the child.
When teaching the expressive label the Para asks,
"What do you need to do?
Gesture (G)
Para makes some kind of gesture to
prompt the desired response of the child.
Similar to “partial model” but only involves a gesture.
Para places a stimulus in a particular
When teaching the receptive label the Para places the
paper, or a picture of the bin next to the child to direct
him/her what is next.
Arrangements of the physical
environment that induce the desired
An example of this might be a communication board or
a PECS binder.
Keep in Mind…
Verbal prompts can easily become a habit.
• Easy to give.
• Less verbal prompting allows students time to give their own
• Remember: Wait, wait, wait!
Helpful Tools:
Paraprofessional Role Development
Name: _________________________________________________
Student Schedule
Student Goal / Outcome
Date: ______________________________
Paraprofessional Role / Responsibilities / Strategies
Helpful Tools:
Accommodations and Modifications
Accommodation: Supports and services provided to help a student
access the general education curriculum and validly demonstrate
Adapt the time allotted and allowed
for learning, task completion, or
Level of Support
Increase the amount of personal
Adapt the way instruction is
Adapt how the student can respond
to the instruction.
Reduced Response
Reduce complexity of the task (ex.
dictate responses rather than
Adapt the extent to which a learner
is actively involved in the task
Student Specific Plan
Helpful Tools:
Accommodations and Modifications
Modification: Individualized changes made to the content being taught
Adapt the number of items the
learner is expected to master.
Adapt the skill level, problem type,
or rules on how the learner can
approach the work.
Alternate Goals
Adapt the goals or output
Provide different instructional
materials to meet the student’s
specific goals.
Student Specific Plan
Where to go for help…
General Education Teacher – Can tell you the educational priorities
of each lesson and provide direction regarding your role.
Special Education Teacher – Can help you with accommodations
and modifications to the curriculum.
Teacher Consultant – Can help you with resources, as well as
additional training, and information about accommodations and
Itinerant Service Providers (Speech Pathologist, Occupational
Therapist, Social Workers, etc.) – Can help with specific
communication, motor/sensory or behavior issues
Principal – Can help with scheduling and behavior issues.
 Solve problems  Teach  Love kids  Keep track
of schedules  Fix Boo-Boo’s  Give Ideas  Help
kids make friends  Teach  Make activities  Go on
fieldtrips  Read to children  Keep families informed
 Keep learning themselves  Teach  Make
adaptations for students  Correct papers  Help kids
meet IEP goals and objectives  Care for sick kids 
Attend meetings  Teach  Wipe noses  Listen to
lame jokes  Teach  Clean up messes  Smile when
they’re tired  Give suggestions  Teach  Pitch in
when help is needed  Foster independence  Make
phone calls  Supervise playgrounds and bus areas 
Zip coats  Find lost items Teach Lend a helping
hand  Come to school each day because they care 

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