International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavior

Report
INTERNATIONAL
MANAGEMENT
GLOBAL
Business and People
Management
Professor H. Michael Boyd, Ph.D.
Professor H. Michael Boyd, Ph.D.
International Management
International
Ninth Edition
Management
Luthans | Doh
Fred Luthans
Jonathan P. Doh
Ninth Edition
Chapter 2
The Political, Legal, and Technological
Environment
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The Political, Legal, and
Technological Environment
• The specific objectives of this chapter are to
1. INTRODUCE the basic political systems that
characterize regions and countries around the
world and offer brief examples of each and their
implications for international management.
2. PRESENT an overview of the legal and regulatory
environment in which MNCs operate worldwide;
highlight differences.
3. REVIEW key technological developments as well
as their impact on MNCs now and in the future.
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Ideologies
Individualism
• Individualism
– People should be free to pursue economic and
political endeavors without constraint.
• David Hume, Adam Smith, Aristotle
• In business context, similar to capitalism and
connected to free market society
– Private property more successful, productive, and
progressive than communal property
– Betterment of society related to level of freedom
individuals have in pursuing economic goals
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Ideologies
Collectivism
• Collectivism
– Views the needs or goals of society as a whole as
more important than individual desires
• Plato
• Does not value individual as such
• No rigid form of collectivism as societal goals
differ greatly among cultures
– Fascism: nationalism, authoritarianism, militarism,
corporatism, collectivism, totalitarianism
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Ideologies
Socialism
• Socialism
– A moderate form of collectivism in which there is
government ownership of institutions, and profit is
not the ultimate goal
• Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
• Has been practiced in China, North Korea, Cuba
• Democratic socialism is the more moderate form
– Practiced by Great Britain’s Labour Party, and in
France, Spain, and Greece
• Communism is an extreme form of socialism.
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Political Environment
• Ideologies underlie the actions of governments
– Ideas reflecting beliefs and values influencing the behavior
and culture of nations and political systems
• Political systems can be evaluated along two
dimensions
1. Rights of citizens based on a system of government
(range from democratic to totalitarian)
2. Focus of political system on individualism vs. collectivism.
• Democratic nations tend to emphasize individualism,
and totalitarian nations tend to emphasize collectivism
– No pure form of government
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Political Systems
Democracy
• Democracy
– System in which government is controlled by
citizens either directly or through elections.
• European roots
• Democratic society cannot exist without at
least a two-party system
– Once elected, representative is held accountable
to electorate for actions (which limits power of
government)
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Political System
Totalitarianism
• Totalitarianism
– Only one representative party which exhibits
control over every facet of political and human life
• Power maintained by suppression of
opposition
– Dominant ideals include media censorship,
political repression, denial of rights and civil
liberties
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Political Environment
Regional Example: China
• Emerging economic power
• Government attempting to open up economy
– Speed up conversion of state enterprises into
corporations
– Trade liberalization a top priority since joining WTO in
2001
– Becoming a more open, democratic society
– Shift toward greater tolerance of individual freedoms
– Seeking to unleash a more dynamic market economy
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Political Environment:
Regional Example: Europe
• Privatization and economic liberalization
reinforce EU-wide political and economic
integration
– Political power is variable and complex
– Strong opposition to U.S.-led intervention in Iraq
sometimes spill over into business relationships and
dealings
• Europe is a large interwoven region economically,
but contains vast cultural differences
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Political Environment:
Example: The Middle East
• In Iran and Saudi Arabia laws and government
based on Islamic principles
• Business conduct in Middle East similar to
Western in many ways
– Seeking modern technology and have ability to pay for
quality services
– Worldwide fallout from war on terrorism have made
business environment risky and potentially dangerous
– Arab Spring fallout: uncertain business environment
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Legal and Regulatory Environment
• Confusion and challenge for the MNC due to
many different laws and regulations in global
business operations
• Disparate legal frameworks can prevent MNCs
from capitalizing on manufacturing economies
• MNCs must carefully evaluate legal framework
in each market before doing business
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Global Foundations of Law
1.
2.
3.
4.
Islamic law
Socialist law
Common law
Civil or code law
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Global Foundations of Law
Islamic Law
• Islamic law
– Derived from interpretation of Qur’an and
teachings of Prophet Muhammad
– Found in Islamic countries: Middle East and
Central Asia
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Global Foundations of Law
Socialist Law
• Socialist law
– Origins in Marxist socialist system
– Continues to influence regulations in former
communist countries
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Members of former Soviet Union
Peoples’ Republic of China
Vietnam
North Korea
Cuba
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Global Foundations of Law
Common Law
• Common law
– Origins in English law
– Foundation of legal system for
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United States
Canada
England
Australia
New Zealand
Several other nations
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Global Foundations of Law
Civil or Code Law
• Civil or code law
– Derived from Roman law
– Found in non-Islamic and non-socialist countries
• France
• Some Latin American countries
• Louisiana in U.S.
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International Law
• Sources
– Laws of individual countries
– Treaties
• Universal
• Multilateral
• Bilateral
– Conventions
• Multilateral
• Bilateral
• Contains unwritten understandings
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Basic Principles
of International Law
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Sovereignty and Sovereign Immunity
International Jurisdiction
Doctrine of Comity
Act of State Doctrine
Treatment and Rights of Aliens
Forum for Hearing and Settling Disputes
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Principles of International Law
Sovereignty and Sovereign Immunity
• Principle of sovereignty
– An international principle of law which holds that
governments have the right to rule themselves as
they see fit.
– One country’s court system cannot be used to
rectify injustices or impose penalties in another
country unless that country agrees.
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Principles of International Law
International Jurisdiction
• Nationality principle
– Every country has jurisdiction over its citizens no
matter where they are located.
• Territoriality principle
– Every nation has the right of jurisdiction within its
legal territory.
• Protective principle
– Every country has jurisdiction over the behavior that
adversely affects its national security, even if that
conduct occurred outside the country.
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Principles of International Law
Doctrine of Comity
• Doctrine of comity
– A jurisdictional principle of international law that
holds that there must be mutual respect for the
laws, institutions, and governments of other
countries in the matter of jurisdiction over their
own citizens.
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Principles of International Law
Act of State Doctrine
• Act of state doctrine
– A jurisdictional principle of international law that
holds that all acts of other governments are
considered to be valid by U.S. courts, even if such
acts are inappropriate under U.S. law.
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Principles of International Law
Treatment and Rights of Aliens
• Treatment and rights of aliens
– Countries have the legal right to refuse admission
of foreign citizens and to impose special
restrictions on their conduct, their right of travel,
where they can stay, and what business they may
conduct.
– Nations can also deport aliens; this may result in
worker shortages.
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Principles of International Law
Forum for Hearing and Settling Disputes
• Forum for hearing and settling disputes
– U.S. courts can dismiss cases brought before them
by foreigners; however, they are bound to
examine issues such as
• where the plaintiffs are located
• where the evidence must be gathered
• where property to be used in restitution is located
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Legal and Regulatory Issues
• Financial and services regulation
• Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA)
– Bribes are the focus of investigations by
• U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS)
• Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
• Justice Department
– Illegal to influence foreign officials through
• Personal payment
• Political contribution Bureaucratization
• Bureaucratization
• Privatization
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Regulation of Trade and Investment
• Individual countries use legal and regulatory
policies to affect the international management
environment.
• Country is perceived to engage in unfair trade
practices (WTO and similar agreements)
– Government support (subsidies)
– Require MNCs to accept local partners
– Require MNCs produce a specific amount of produce
in their country
– Sell local products at below cost or home market price
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Technological Environment and Global
Shifts in Production
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Biotechnology
Nanotechnology
Satellites
Automatic translation telephones
Artificial intelligence and embedded learning
technology
• Advancements in computer chip technology
• Supercomputers
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Technological Environment and Global
Shifts in Production
• Biotechnology
– Agricultural and medical products through industrial
use and manipulation of living organisms
– Pharmaceutical competition
– Alternative fuels (biofuels)
• E-business
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Business to business (B2B)
Business to consumer (B2C)
E-retailing
Financial services (e-cash)
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Technological Environment and Global
Shifts in Production
• Telecommunications
– Wireless
– Merging of telephone and computer
• Technology, outsourcing and offshoring
– Technology has reduced and eliminated middle
management and white collar jobs
– Global competition has forced some MNCs to
outsource jobs to offshore productions
– Emerging technology makes work more portable
– Job loss from technology can be especially devastating
in developing countries.
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Winners and Losers in Selected Occupations
Percentage Change Forecasts for 2010–2020
continues
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Winners and Losers in Selected Occupations
Percentage Change Forecasts for 2010–2020
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Review and Discuss
1. In what ways do different ideologies and
political systems influence the environment in
which MNC’s operate? Would these challenges
be less for those operating in the EU than for
those in Russia or China? Why or why not?
2. How do the following legal principles impact
MNC operations: the principle of sovereignty,
the nationality principle, the territoriality
principle, the protective principle, and principle
of comity?
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Review and Discuss
3. How will advances in technology and
telecommunications affect developing
countries? Give some specific examples.
4. Why are developing countries interested in
privatizing their state-owned industries?
What opportunities does privatization have
for MNCs?

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