Increasing the Effectiveness of Website Promotion for Heritage

Report
Increasing the Effectiveness of
Website Promotion for Heritage
Language Bilingual School Programs
ROSWITA DRESSLER
UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY
[email protected]
©2010
Canada’s bilingual programs
 Provincial legislation in western Canada allows
bilingual programs in which 50% of instruction is
conducted in the non-official language
 Most programs are found in urban centers
 Languages - e.g., Arabic, German, Hebrew,
Mandarin, Spanish and Ukrainian
Curriculum design
• “The continuous, concurrent development of
first and second language skills, or skills in
additional languages, is fostered in bilingual
programming. Opportunities for linguistic
knowledge and skill development in both
languages are maximized.”
(Alberta Education, 1999, p. 11)
Bilingual education
 Swain (2000) points out that bilingual education
seeks to make “’students proficient in the second
language while, at the same time, maintaining and
developing their proficiency in the first
language and fully guaranteeing their educational
development” (Stern, 1972, in Swain, 2000, p. 199)
Promoting to Anglophones
 “The levels presented are designed to represent the
progression of knowledge, skills and attitudes
expected of students who have had no prior
exposure to the specific language upon entry into
Kindergarten.”
(Alberta Education, 1999, p. 13)
Benefits of Bilingual Education
 Students with four or more years of language study
score higher on language sections of the SAT: metalinguistic awareness, higher analogical reasoning and
visual spatial skills.
Promoting to HLLs
• “However, students with prior exposure to the
specific language can be challenged within this
Framework.” (Alberta Education, 1999, p. 13)
• “Well-implemented bilingual programs can promote
literacy and subject matter knowledge in the
minority language without any negative effects on
the child’s development of the majority language.”
(Cummins, 2003, p. 63)
First language skills
• When HLLs enter the school system, they require
continued input in their first language in order for
their linguistic skills in this language to develop
further
(Cho, Shin, & Krashen, 2004)
 First language literacy is a predictor of second or
majority language development (Cummins, 2003)
Recognizing linguistic diversity
 In the last decade we have had to let go of the
assumption that early immersion classes would be
full of homogeneous young Anglophones” (Swain &
Lapkin, 2005, 174).
 Genesee & Gándara (1999) assert that Canada’s
Immersion/Bilingual model is “largely ethnocentric”
(p. 670), ignoring the reality of linguistic and ethnic
diversity in its school population
Minority language mainenance
• The maintenance and development of minority language
linguistic skills is highly influenced by schooling choices
(Tse, 2001)
• Some parents, often under the advice of teachers, choose
to concentrate on their children acquiring the dominant
societal (majority) language (Cummins, 2003),
• With reduced input, native speakers of a minority
language can struggle to maintain their linguistic skills,
as manifested by a reduction in oral fluency
(performance) (Lynch, 2003) or gaps in acquisition
(Montrul, 2002).
Website promotion
Sarah Elaine Eaton in 101 ways to market your
language program: A practical guide for language
schools and programs includes:
#28 Create an outstanding website
“a website is an essential marketing tool. . .
This is your sales pitch to the world!”
(Eaton, 2002, p. 37)
Research questions
How do Bilingual School Programs market to
Anglophones through their websites?
2. How do Bilingual School Programs market to HLLs
through their websites?
3. What features do exemplary Bilingual School
Program websites have in common?
1.
10 Western Canadian programs
Province
School District
Schools
Manitoba
2
3
Saskatchewan
2
2
Alberta
2
4
British Columbia
1
1
Map of Canada
Manitoba
School
School District
Languag
e
Website
http://www.sh.retsd.mb.ca
/programs/prog_main.htm
Springfield River East
Heights
Transcona SD Ukranian l
Brock
http://www.wsd1.org/broc
Corydon Winnipeg School
kcorydon/
School
Division
Hebrew
Princess
http://schools.retsd.mb.ca/
Margaret River East
pm/Pages/Welcome.aspx
School
Transcona SD German
Springfield Heights School, Winnipeg, Manitoba
Brock Corydon School, Winnipeg, Manitoba
Princess Margaret School, Winnipeg, Manitoba
Saskatchewan
School
School District
Language
Confederation
Park
Saskatoon Public Schools Cree
Athabasca
School
Regina Public Schools
Ukranian
Website
http://www.spsd.sk.ca/schoo
lsPrograms/elementaryschool
s/confederationPark/about.h
tml
http://athabasca.rbe.sk.ca/
Confederation Park School,
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
Athabasca School, Regina, Saskatchewan
Alberta
School
School District Language
Edmonton Public
Malmo School
Schools
Arabic
Edmonton Public
Schools
Talmud Torah
Hebrew
Edmonton Public
Delwood
Schools
Elementary School
Ukranian
Website
Bowcroft
Calgary Board of
Elementary School Education
http://schools.cbe.ab.ca/b1
11/
German
http://malmo.epsb.ca/
http://www.talmudtorahso
ciety.com/
http://delwood.epsb.ca/
Malmo School, Edmonton, Alberta
Talmud Torah School, Edmonton, Alberta
.
Delwood School, Edmonton, Alberta
Bowcroft School, Calgary, Alberta
British Columbia (BC)
School
Dr. Annie B.
Jamieson
School District
Vancouver School
Board
Language
Mandarin
Website
http://jamieson.vsb.bc.ca/
Dr. Annie B. Jamieson
Jamieson School has the only Mandarin Bilingual Program in British
Columbia. Entry to the program commences in Grade 4.
Discussion
 Most school websites do little to promote their




Bilingual Programs
Minority speakers of the target language are seldom
addressed
Target language rarely appears
Most websites appear relatively static
What can we learn from exemplary websites?
Promote bilingualism
Explicitly address HL competence
 “The Arabic Bilingual Program provides students
with opportunities to acquire or maintain
proficiency in both Arabic and English and to
learn about related cultures.”
 Programming begins in Kindergarten, although
children may also enter Grade 1 without previous
knowledge of the language. Later entry is determined
on an individual basis.
Use the target language
Recognize linguistic diversity
“We are very fortunate to have teachers on our faculty who represent diverse
cultures from throughout the Spanish speaking world. . . we have teachers from
Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru and Venezuela. Our teachers are
bilingual, trilingual, and in some cases quadra-lingual.”
Are updated regularly
Conclusion: 5 Essential Elements
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Elaborate on the benefits of bilingual education
Promote the development of heritage language
competence
Use the target language
Recognize linguistic diversity
Update regularly
References
Alberta Education. (1999). Common curricular framework for bilingual
programming in international languages, kindergarten to grade 12.
Western Canada protocol for collaboration in basic education. Edmonton:
Alberta Education.
Archibald, J. (2010). Multilingual minds and brains. Paper presented at the
CBE Bilingual Teacher Professional Day.
Cho, G., Shin, F., & Krashen, S. (2004). What do we know about heritage
languages? What do we need to know about them? Multicultural
Education, 11(4), 23-26.
Corbeil, J.-P., & Blaser, C. (2008). The evolving linguistic portrait, 2006
Census: Sharp increase in population with a mother tongue other than
English or French [Electronic Version], from
http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/analysis/language/allophone.c
fm
Cummins, J. (2003). Bilingual education: Basic principles. In J.-M. Dewaele,
A. Housen & L. Wei (Eds.), Bilingualism: Beyond basic principles (pp. 5666). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Cummins, J. (2005). A proposal for action: Strategies for recognizing
heritage language competence as a learning resource within the
mainstream classroom. Modern Language Journal, 89(05), 585592.
Eaton, S. E. (2002). 101 ways to market your language program: A
practical guide for language schools and programs. Calgary: Eaton
International Consulting Inc.
Edwards, V., & Newcombe, L. P. (2006). Back to basics: Marketing the
benefits of bilingualism to parents. In O. García, T. Skutnabb-Kangas
& M. E. Torres-Guzmán (Eds.), Imagining multilingual schools:
Languages in education and globalization (pp. 137-149). Clevedon:
Multilingual Matters.
Genesee, F. (2003). Rethinking bilingual acquisition. In J.-M. Dewaele,
A. Housen & L. Wei (Eds.), Bilingualism: Beyond basic principles
(pp. 204-228). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Genesee, F., & Gándara, P. (1999). Bilingual education
programs: A cross-national perspective. Journal of Social
Issues, 55(4), 665-685.
Montecel, M. R. (2002). Successful bilingual education
programs: Development and the dissemmination of
criteria to identify promising and exemplary practices in
bilingual education at the national level. . Bilingual
Research Journal, 26(1), 1-21.
Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. (2005). The evolving sociopolitical
context of immersion education in Canada: Some
implications for program development. International
Journal of Applied Linguistics, 15(2), 169-186.
Tse, L. (2001). Resisting and reversing language shift:
Heritage language resilience among U.S. native
biliterates. Harvard Educational Review, 71(4), 676-708.

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