Sporting injuries intrinsic extrinsic and preventative measures

P1/ P2
- Taking part in sport can result in injury to
any part of the body. In which the causes can
be divided into 2 categories:
INTRINSIC- Physical aspect of the
athletes body that can cause injury
EXTRINSIC- Risk factor external to the
body, that causes injury
Task 1…
Extrinsic Factors:
Extrinsic risk factors can be categorised into 4:
Incorrect Technique
Environmental Factors
Safety Hazards
In Buzz groups of 4, each research one of the above
headings of external risk factors. This should take around
15 minutes, you should then come together in your group
of 4 and share your findings with the others. Open the
document in the OULFC ‘Extrinsic risk factors’ in
order to help you.
Task 2… on the
same document
Intrinsic Factors:
In the previous task we looked into the external factors that can
increase the risk of players injuring themselves, however, there are
also internal or intrinsic factors that can also increase the probability
of experiencing an injury.
To research this and familiarise yourself with it, open the worksheet
Intrinsic Factors’
in the OULFC ‘
and complete the table on
the Intrinsic Risk Factors, using the internet & text books to help you.
NB: For Extrinsic factors, use the 4 spider
diagram sheets from class. For Intrinsic
factors download the ‘fill the gap’ worksheet
on the OULFC.
extrinsic and
intrinsic risk
factors as listed:
Intrinsic Factors:
Training effects:
muscle imbalance, poor preparation,
level of fitness, overuse
Individual variables:
age, fitness level, growth development,
previous injury history, flexibility,
nutrition, sleep
Postural defects:
lordosis, kyphosis, scoliosis, overuse
Extrinsic Risk Factors:
-Poor coaching/leadership
- Communication
- ensuring adherence to rules
- Qualified and appropriate activities
Incorrect technique:
- lifting and handling equipment (bad
- weather effects on surfaces
- clothing and footwear, eg protective,
sport-specific, specific to surface
Safety hazards:
- the importance of safety checks
- environment safety checks
- equipment safety
- misuse of equipment
- first-aid provision
- safety checklists
- risk assessments
Tip: Think back to the group work on Extrinsic Risk
There are 3 Key Areas to think about here:
Up to date
knowledge of the
sport and their
Ability/ Age/
Fitness level
Fully qualified for the
Level of
Playing surface
of equipment
Safe use of
Size of
equipment- linked
to age group
Describe sports injury
prevention methods as
identified …
of information given
in P2 would indicate whether or not
coverage to meet
learners had
Role of the coach:
- up-to-date knowledge of
sport/performer - qualifications
- adapt coaching style to
performers ability/age/fitness level
- communication
Equipment and Environment:
checking equipment
risk assessments
protective equipment
appropriate usage
grading criterion M1, which requires
explanation of how risk
factors can be
minimised by adopting
preventative measures.
(The content would need to explain the
relationship rather than purely
describe the issues related to criteria
P1 and P2)
Role of the coach/ Coaching:
Within any sport, such as rugby there are constant rule adaptations and changes
as you know (temporary rule introductions/adaptations used for 1 season trials
etc). An example of a new rule change within rugby was that of the ‘Scrum
engagement’ sequence used by referee’s. Due to the sport being contact in
nature the RFU changed the sequence from ‘Crouch, Touch, Pause, Engage’ to
‘Crouch, Touch, Set’. This was to reduce potential discrepancies when waiting to
engage, from presumption and not being ready, which can cause serious injury
(such as broken necks- Matt Hampson)
As a coach there are ‘Scrum factory’ CPD (career professional development)
sessions that I can go to, in order to communicate the new rule changes within
the team I am responsible for. This not only furthers/ improves my knowledge
of the scrum, but also impacts upon how the new rule changes can influence
safety aspects and be used to improve future performance.
Obviously the scrum is a complex tool within rugby and is modified for the
different age groups within the game (touch rugby, sevens etc). Which means by
using appropriate courses to gain qualifications in coaching rugby, I can adapt
my delivery to suit the age and ability of the team I am associated with.

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