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Report
Heat Stress Prevention
Battle the Heat
OBJECTIVES
• Identify the causes and risk factors for heat stress.
• List the preventive measures for heat stress.
• Identify symptoms of heat stress and take appropriate
first aid measures.
Slide 2
Battle the Heat
WHAT IS HEAT STRESS
• Heat stress is the name
given to a number of
illnesses caused when
the body heats up and
cannot cool down.
• These range from the
more minor heat fatigue
to the life threatening
heat stroke.
Battle the Heat
HEAT GAIN
• Heat generated within the
body by muscle activity
and other body functions.
• Direct radiation from the
sun’s rays.
• Heat transfer from the air.
• High humidity which
decreases the evaporation
of sweat.
Battle the Heat
HEAT LOSS IS ACHIEVED BY
• Evaporation of sweat
• Radiation of heat
outwards from the body
• Transfer of heat from
skin to air
• Breathing
• Urination
Battle the Heat
HEAT STRESS IS LIKE BOILING EGGS IN WATER
Battle the Heat
WAYS TO COOL EGGS IN A POT OF BOILING WATER
• Remove from heat.
• Allow to Rest and
water will cool.
• Add cool water.
• Place in a cool
environment.
Battle the Heat
Battle the Heat
BODY TEMPERATURE CONTROL
After 1-2 hours:
• Core temperature rises
• Heated blood is pumped
to the skin’s surface
• Body heat is transferred to
the environment if cooler
• Heat needs to be released
• Sweating occurs
• Sweat evaporates to cool
Battle the Heat
BODY TEMPERATURE CONTROL
The longer the body
sweats, the less blood to
carry excess heat to skin or
oxygen & nutrients to
muscles due to heat
overload of the body.
After 3 hours, if dehydrated
symptoms may be:
• Headaches
• Heat cramps
• Nausea
• Muscle tiredness
• Loss of strength
• Loss of accuracy &
dexterity
• Reduced alertness
Description
Recognize the Symptoms of Heat Injury
Heat Cramps
Heat Exhaustion
Painful muscle spasms
caused by loss of salt from
excessive sweating.
Advanced and serious stage
of heat injury.
Body’s temperature is increased
and if not treated immediately may
result in coma, brain damage or
death.
• Muscular pain and
excessive sweating
• Tired, weakness
• Increased temperature
(very warm to the touch)
• Headache
Symptoms
• Goosebumps, tingling skin
• Increased heart rate and
breathing, sweating
• Nausea
Heat Stroke
• Mental impairment
(agitation, confusion)
• Possible loss of consciousness
• Headache, nausea, vomiting, flu
like symptoms
• Rapid breathing, heart rate
• Possibly dry skin
When In Doubt, Treat as a Heat Injury
Battle the Heat
CASE STUDY
• Concrete Truck Driver, mid 40’s (IP)
• Late in his shift, temperature over 100 all day.
• Controls are malfunctioning, when team members
are requesting stop, more concrete is being poured
or visa versa.
• When the team assisted the IP to “fix” the problem
they recognized the IP looked pale, was fatigued
and sluggish. When questioned he complained of
feeling tired.
• What was really going on?
Battle the Heat
INDIVIDUAL RISK FACTORS
• Age (> 60 years old)
• Drug and alcohol use
• Low level of physical
fitness
• Lack of acclimatization
• Medical conditions
(diabetes, cardiovascular)
• Dehydration
• Some medications
(High blood pressure)
Battle the Heat
WORKPLACE RISK FACTORS
• High frequency, duration or
intensity of physical activity
• Requirement for use of
personal protective equipment
and clothing (may increase
humidity levels and prevent air
flow across the skin)
Battle the Heat
CASE STUDY
• 60 year old male (IP, Injured Person)
• IP was trimming grass on right of way at 10:45 am
in July.
• Passes out.
• Works with son who takes him to emergency room.
• ER administers IV fluids and discharges man.
• Back at work next day.
• What were his risk factors?
Battle the Heat
CASE STUDY
• 24 year old male (IP or Injured Person)
• Out the night before drank 2 beers, 5 hours of sleep.
Arrives at 7:00 am, 4th day on shift. He mixes mud
for drilling.
• Drinks an energy drink within the first hour at work
followed by a 12 ounce bottle of water. He is
sweating while lifting heavy bags of mud for mixing.
• Passes out at 11:00 am, taken to ER, administered
IV fluids. Discharged. Back at work next day.
• What could be some risk factors?
Battle the Heat
WEAPONS-Urine Chart
Battle the Heat
TO PREVENT DEHYDRATION
STEP 1
STEP 2
STEP 3
Ensure you begin
hydrating
2 hours before
your shift.
Drink water until
you're are no
longer thirsty and
then a little more.
While working,
drink water every
15-20 minutes,
targeting one (1)
quart per hour.
(limit 12 quarts per
day)
Battle the Heat
PHYSICAL INDICATIONS OF DEHYDRATION
• Skin
Less Elastic; on pinch test, the skin regains its shape
slowly.
• Urine
Reduced in Volume and Frequency; concentrated and
darker.
• Sweat
Higher Sweat Rate; if sweat production suddenly stops,
despite continued heat exposure, dehydration has reached
a severe level.
• Physical Work Capacity
Reduced Endurance; accelerated onset of fatigue.
• Heart Rate
Faster Heart Rate; work seems increasingly more tiring
and increases the heart rate rapidly.
• Appetite
Suppressed Appetite; food intake is reduced during water
deprivation, and water intake reduced during starvation.
• Mental Indicators
Less Alert; increased lethargy; difficulty in concentrating;
confusion and irrational behavior.
Battle the Heat
CASE STUDY
• Compressor Station Worker mid 40’s (IP)
• Stopped at convenient store in the morning on the
way into work to buy an energy drink every morning.
• Filled cooler with ice and water at the shop before
going to work site. Slowly increased to several
energy drinks.
• One day passed out by noon.
• What happened?
Battle the Heat
WEAPONS-First Aid
Battle the Heat
CASE STUDY
• 23 year old machine shop worker (IP)
• Day 1 Complained of flu like symptoms while
working in non AC building moved to trailer with AC.
• Day 2 Refused MD visit from manager
• Nausea and vomiting, IP said “stomach flu” Still
working in AC trailer.
• Day 3 Working in AC trailer IP vomiting often early in
shift, alert, bright.
• Manager took IP to clinic.
Battle the Heat
CASE STUDY
• Clinic- IP alert, looked fine.
• MD took a blood sample.
• IP rushed to hospital in renal failure and placed on
dialysis.
• Kidneys and IP saved.
• What are the key lessons?
Battle the Heat Buddy-Up
BUDDY SYSTEM
• The buddy system is a
culture in which two people
(the buddies) operate
together as a single unit so
that they are able to monitor
and help each other.
• The main purpose of the
system is improved safety.
• Each Buddy may prevent
the other from becoming a
casualty of Heat Stress.
Battle the Heat Buddy-Up
BUDDY SYSTEM
• Buddies need to identify
the causes and risk
factors for heat stress.
• To be able to identify
symptoms of heat stress
and if appropriate first
aid measures.
Battle the Heat Buddy-Up
BUDDY SYSTEM SCREENING
• Have you worked more than 7 days in a
row in a hot workplace?
• Have you been treated for heat stress in
the past?
• Have you eaten today? Have you
checked your urine for hydration level?
• Did you sleep at least 5 hours in the
past 24 hours?
• Is there anything that has changed in
the past 24 hours that would affect your
fitness to work today?
Battle the Heat Buddy-Up
BUDDY SENSE
Try to do the most
physically demanding
jobs during the coolest
part of the day.
STOP the job if your
buddy exhibit any signs
or symptoms of heat
injury.
Battle the Heat
WEAPONS-HEAT INDEX
• The heat index can be used to
help determine the risk of heatrelated illness for outdoor
workers, what actions are
needed to protect workers, and
when those actions are
triggered.
• NOAA Heat Index chart, which
was developed for the public.
The NOAA bands have been
modified for use at worksites:
Battle the Heat
WEAPONS-Flag Conditions
Red Flag
Heat Index Risk Level
Protective Measures
>115°F
•
•
Very High
to
Extreme
Reschedule non-essential activity
Move essential work tasks to the coolest part of the
work shift;
• Consider earlier start times, split shifts, or evening and
night shifts.
• Strenuous work tasks and those requiring the use of
heavy or non-breathable clothing or impermeable
chemical protective clothing should not be conducted
when the heat index is at or above 115°F.
If essential work must be done, in addition to the steps above:
• Alert workers of extreme heat hazards
• Establish water drinking schedule (about 4 cups/hour)**
• Develop and enforce protective work/rest schedules
• Conduct physiological monitoring (e.g., pulse, temp.,etc)
• Stop work if essential control methods are inadequate or
unavailable.
Battle the Heat
CASE STUDY
• Manager arrived at shop to find worker with
coveralls cut off into shorts and short sleeves.
• When questioned worker stated “It’s over 100
degrees, it’s hot out there”.
• Manager went to location and found ice and water
but no shade.
• No vehicle idle policy was in effect.
• What should be done?
Battle the Heat
WEAPONS-Heat Stress Management Plan
Purpose:
Content:
• Identify Strategies
• Performance Criteria
• Awareness and
Scope:
• Personnel working in
high temperatures
combined with high
humidity.
Education
• Preparation
• Prevention Checklists
• Implementation
• Training
Battle the Heat
ROLES & RESPONSIBILITIES
•
•
•
•
Manager
Supervisor
Employee
Buddy
Battle the Heat
Battle the Heat
TRIED AND TRUE
• Buddy System
• Accountability
• OSHA Program
• Take their shoes off!
• Increase your count
• Forced breaks
• Plan your day
• Show up with cold fruit
Remember once you have heat stress,
You are susceptible for life.

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