The technology of three-dimensional methodical system of learning

Report
The technology of three-dimensional
methodical
system of learning
Author: professor Zh.A.Karayev
Republic of Kazakhstan
Almaty
2014
Actuality of technification of the education
system
•
Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Education" article 51. “Rights,
duties and responsibilities of pedagogical employee "paragraph 3.2 "Pedagogical
employee is obliged to ensure the quality of educational services provided in
accordance with the requirements of state compulsory educational standards. “
•
"We must pay great attention to the functional literacy of our students, in
general of all younger generation. It is important to our children to be adapted to
modern life "(N. Nazarbayev. "Strategy of Kazakhstan - 2050").
•
Low rates of Kazakh schoolchildren in international comparative studies of
the quality of education PISA, TIMSS, PIRLS.
•
Transition from informative and explanatory (instructional) model of
education based on knowledge of centric approach to the constructive learning
model based on functional and competence approach.
Definition and
general characteristics of TTMSL
Definition
TTMSL – project of Pedagogical System (PS), realized on practice.
PS=MSL+DPr (Methodical System of Learning + Didactical Process)
DPr=М+Pa+Ma (Motive + Pedagogical activity + Management);
MSL =
1.
2.
3.
4.
aim, content, methods, forms, sources of learning
Characteristics of TTMSL
Diagnostic aim setting and objective assessment of (criterial
assessment) academic success of students.
The structure and content of DPr built for pupil development
through independent cognitive activity.
Integrity of DPr.
100% guarantee that students achieve results.
TTMSL consists of two parts:
1) synectical part;
2) part oriented on result
Synectics (Synectic – combination of heterogeneous elements) – research
technique, based on socio-psychological motivation of collective intellectual
activity proposed by V. Gordon.
Synectics– is a transition to creative thinking, which depends on
understanding the possibility of combining of incompatible, at first glance,
things.
Synectics presents guidance to the generation of new ideas.
Synectics presents guidance to the generation of new ideas.
In a synectic part TTMSL is applied a technology of critical thinking,
consisting of three phases: challenge, implementation, reflection.
4
Characteristic of stages of critical thinking formation
Critical thinking - is the ability to raise new questions, to produce a variety of
arguments, to make independent decisions.
CHALLENGE
IMPLEMENTATION
1. Actualization of available
knowledge;
1. Acquisition of new
information, comprehension.
2. Awakening interest in
obtaining information;
2. The ratio to the existing
knowledge, knowledge
systematization
3. Posing of own learning
objectives by a pupil;
3. Adjustment of a learning
objectives by a pupil.
REFLECTION
1. A holistic understanding,
summarizing of information
received
2. Thinking, birth of a new
knowledge
3. Formation at each student of
their own attitudes to the
studied material
5
Summary table of the objectives and methods on Technology
"Critical Thinking"
Aims
STAGES
CHALLENGE
- Actualization of previous
experience and knowledge of
trainees.
- Revitalization of students
activity.
- Formation of motivation to
learning activity.
- Posing of individual goals in
educational activity by trainees.
IMPLEMENTATION
- Getting of a new knowledge by
trainees.
- Building awareness and
systematization of knowledge,
correlation of known with the new.
- Mastering the ways of working
with information.
- Support the goals set at Challenge
stage.
REFLECTION
- Assignment of new knowledge.
- Creation of a holistic view of the
subject.
- Extension of the problem field,
setting new objectives in training
activities.
- Work on assessment and selfassessment of development of
students in the subject.
6
Techniques
Results
- "Brainstorming"
- Forecasting (by portrait, picture)
- Forecasting by keywords
- Alternative test (correct or
incorrect statements)
- The wording of questions, the
answers to which need to find in
the text
- Cluster
- Table "W-X-Y"
- An actualized experience
- An activized knowledge
- Formed motive
- Reading of text with marking
by the method of insert
- Highlight key words by
underlining
- Lecture with stops
- Thin and thick questions
(priority issues behind thick)
- Fishboun
- Keeping "logbook"
- Marking table insert
- Creative work - sinkveyn, essay
- Return to the keywords, true
and false statements
- Keeping a diary, a letter to a
friend
- Construction of a cluster from
keywords
- Entangled logic circuits
- Systematized knowledge
- Appropriation of knowledge
- Strengthening of the objectives - To form a holistic view of the
stated at the stage Challenge
subject
- The problems posed to further
promote
7
Part of TTMSL oriented to result
Diagnostic setting of learning objectives, transition from informative
content to activity-based, developing training content, the introduction
of activity-based pedagogical qualimetry, including criteria system of
evaluation assumes implementation of the TTMSL oriented on result.
An operational setting of learning objectives is characterized by the
fact that they are stated in terms of learning outcomes expressed in the
actions of students that can be accurately measured and identified.
Quality of teaching, the ratio of objectives and learning outcomes as
a measure to achieve the objectives, with that the objectives are set only
operationally and predicted in the zone of proximal development of the
student.
Benjamin Bloom's Taxonomy
GENERAL CATEGORIES OF
LEARNING AIMS
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE
RESULTS OF STUDENTS
1. Knowledge. This category denotes memorization and reproduction • knows the terms used;
of the material studied. We can talk about different kinds of content - •
from concrete facts to holistic theories. Common feature of this •
•
category - remembering the relevant information.
•
2. Understanding. As an indicator of the ability to understand
the meaning of studied material may serve a transformation
(translation) of the material thereof to another form of
expression, "translation" from one "language" to another (e.g.,
from verbal form - in math). As an indicator of understanding
can also act interpretation of material by pupil (explaining
summary) or assumption about the future course of
phenomena, events (predicting consequences, results). These
learning outcomes are superior to simple memorization of
material.
•
•
•
•
•
know the specific facts;
knows the methods and procedures;
knows the basic concepts;
knows the rules and principles.
understands the facts, rules and
principles;
interprets verbal material;
interprets diagrams, graphs and
charts;
converts verbal material in
mathematical expressions;
supposedly describes future
consequences arising from the
available data.
3. Applying. This category denotes the ability to use studied material • uses the concepts and principles in
in specific circumstances and new situations. This includes the
application of rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws and theories. •
Appropriate learning outcomes require a higher level of mastery of the
•
material than understanding.
new situations;
apply the laws, theories in specific
practical situations;
demonstrates the correct application
of the method and procedures.
4. Analysis. This category denotes the ability to break the material into
components so that its structure appeared clear. This includes isolation of parts
of the whole, revealing the relationships between them, the realization of the
principles of the whole organization. Learning outcomes are characterized with
higher intellectual level than understanding and application because they
require awareness of both the content of the learning material, and its internal
structure.
5. Synthesis.
•
•
•
•
•
This category denotes the ability to combine elements so as to
•
obtain a whole, embracing novelty. Such a new product can be a message
(performance, report), a plan of action or a set of generalized relations (scheme •
to arrange the available data). Appropriate learning results suggest an action of
creative nature with an emphasis on the creation of new schemes and structures.
•
6. Assessment. This category denotes the ability to assess the significance
of each material (approval, artwork, research data) for a specific purpose.
Judgments of pupil should be based on clear criteria. Criteria can be either •
internal (structural, logical) and external (matching the intended target). Criteria
can be determined by the student, or be asked to him outside (e.g., teacher). •
This category implies the achievement of learning outcomes on all previous
categories plus evaluative judgments based on clearly defined criteria.
allocates hidden (implicit)
suggestions;
sees the errors and omissions
in the logic of the argument;
makes differences between
facts and consequences;
assesses the significance of
the data..
writes a little creative essay;
makes a plan of the
experiment;
uses knowledge from various
fields to compare plan of
solving a particular problem.
assesses the logic of the
material in the form of
written text;
assess the compliance of
conclusions of available data;
assesses the importance of a
product of the activity, on the
basis of external quality
criteria.
(Interrelation of taxonomy of aims with the levels of mastering, motive, activity, skills and quality of knowledge)
Skills
Generalization
The need for
and
cognitive
systematization, activity
evaluation
Creative level of Creative skills
activity
Applying
Sustained
interest
Heuristic level
of activity
Understanding
Situational
interest
Interpretive level Reproductive
of activity
skills in
changing
situation
Knowledge
Indifference
Reproducing
level
Quality of knowledge
Partiallysearching skills
Reproductive
skills in
standard
situation
Levels of
mastering
Creative
Consistency,
strength
Activity
Efficiency, flexibility, depth,
systematicity
Motive
Effectiveness, mindfulness
Taxonomy of
aims
Correctness, completeness
уровни иерархии
Didactical matrix<=> Logical and structural model of TTMSL
Heuristic
Algorothmic
pupilary
Т
Psycho-pedagogical bases of TTMSL
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Theory of L.S. Vygotsky on the transition, in the learning process, of mental
development of the student from the zone of "actual development" to the zone
"of proximal development", implemented through the work, passing from
reproductive to a productive level.
The concept of S.L. Rubinstein on the inclusion of the object's thoughts in new
connections in the thinking process and thereby identification of new properties
in it, leading to inventions and discoveries.
Philosophy and pedagogical views of John Dewey.
"The theory of complete assimilation" B. Bloom.
"Theory of needs" A. Maslow.
The concept of V.P. Bespalko on pedagogical technologies.
Pupil – subject of a didactic process
KNOWLEDGE
Self-development of student and the formation of functional literacy through
the application of TTMSL.
2
literacy
Functional
creative
Productive
activity
Reproductive
activity
UNDERSTANDING
Stage of
Challenge
APPLICATION
Technology of critical thinking
ANALISYS
Didactical matrix
SYNTHESIS
Stage of
comprehension
Stage of
reflection
EVALUATION
Teacher – subject (facilitator) of didactical process
As a result,
learning process becomes an environment of "immersion" of search activity for
pupil, the teacher becomes a coach. Pedagogical interaction is implemented on a
"subject-subject“ scheme
He becomes:
an author of developing textbooks and teaching materials developed on a
technological basis, including taking into account the didactic possibilities of ICT
He develops by himself:
a) a system of task to ensure independent searching activity of pupil on “ladder” of
didactical matrix;
B) a system of leveled tasks for criterial evaluation of learning achievements of
students.
He is ICT competent:
effectively uses didactical opportunities of ICT in designing of lesson
He designs:
lesson on technological basis
He masters::
Two trends of pedagogical technologies (PT)
a) PT suggesting learning as a process of research (including critical thinking PT) and
aimed at creative thinking, dialogue training, team work, etc.;
b) result-oriented PT (development on stairs of didactic matrix, individual learning
activities, criterial assessment, guarantee of academic success in accordance with SES)
3
Some construction principles of three-dimensional content of
methodical system of training
Personality and pragmatist approach, developing education, suggests that students in
a process of performance of a leveled tasks system gradually climbed up the ladder of
didactic matrix development, herein the stepping stones ladder of development are
leveled exercises - tasks;
With orientation to diagnostic set aim of education and upbringing in the school
must be made a content selection in all school subjects of the curriculum.
The task of skills formation as a learning objective should be reflected in the
structure of the educational process and the system of exercises in the textbook and the
learning process, on their number and system of their inclusion in the context of the
lesson and method of development in homework.
THE ROLE OF DIDACTICAL MATRIX IN DEVELOPMENT OF CRITICAL THINKING
AND ORGANIZATION OF DEVELOPMENTAL LEARNING, AS A WHOLE
1. Taxonomy of tasks of didactic matrix form a hierarchy of tasks, quite appropriate:-to the stages of
technology of critical thinking such as: challenge - comprehension - reflection;- hierarchies of
application of thin and thick questions;- hierarchy of different types of thinking at different levels of
complexity;-formation stages of techniques of thinking activity of students.
2. Leveled tasks necessary for the development of individual search activities of students, criteriabased assessment of their academic success, organization of address corrective action.
3. Solution of leveled tasks plays an important role in perfecting skills of pupils needed for their
successful performance at international researches of education quality PISA, TIMSS, etc.
4. Taxonomy of tasks provides an optimal combination of individual and group forms of activity of
students.
Models of questions and tasks on taxonomy of B.Bloom
Types
K
N
D
O
G
W
E
L
E
U
N
D
E
R
S
T
A
N
D
I
N
G
Sample questions,
that you can ask to students
Sample tasks
(learning aims)
Levels of
knowledge
and skills
Aimed at testing memory through repetition or
recognition of information, remembering information
and material: perform test tasks, insert missing
symbols, learn by heart, , the repetition of rules and
definitions, bring the order of application
- When the Great Patriotic War
started?
- What is the subject?
- How to write simple
fractions?
- What is the capital of Egypt?
To determine, to
repeat, to note, to list,
to remember, to
name, to correlate, to
highlight
Low
Transfer of information into another, known system to
identify ways of transferring to another stored
information. Description of similarities, differences
and result, mapping.
Divided into four groups:
1. Explanation (interpretation) - determination of the
basic idea and its internal interrelation; here can be
attributed the questions "how", "why", tasks as
"Compare", "Enter the difference", etc.
2. Translation (transformation) - translating ideas into
a familiar symbolic system or form with preservation
of meaning: to read a graph, to explain the picture, to
explain in their own words.
3. Examples - show that the idea, understood
information correctly.
4. Definition - transfer content of the term or concept
in your own words, summarization of definitions with
familiar and understandable words (not a repetition of
the above definition).
1. Explanation: What is the
difference between X and Y?
- Compare the relief of Western
and Eastern Kazakhstan.
2. Translation: Explain in your
own words what is understood;
- Show the study in the form of
tables and briefly summarize the
content;
-Tell the story in your own words.
3. Examples: Give examples on
topic (definition).
4. Definition: Define the problem
understandable for the student of
3 grade;
- Explain the term
in your own words.
To translate, to
reformulate, to
describe, to
recognize, to
explain, to express,
to distinguish, to
arrange, to report, to
tell, to read a graph,
to explain the picture,
to explain in your
own words, to
compare, to tell the
difference, to match,
to give an example
Content
Middle
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N
Pupils / students have an idea
of ​metaphors and similes
(learning) in the literature, and
Use or application of the information to solve a problem.
they know their difference
Pupil / student should without a teacher / instructor
(understanding). Now they need
independently solve unfamiliar problems. Teacher /
to apply this information and find
instructor should pay attention not only on the correctness of out (to tell), what images they
the decision, but also on the process of decision; because
constructed in the poem of Abay
solutions may be more important than the decision itself.
"Winter".
/ Corresponds to tasks "How can
you apply? Try to make. What do
you know? Make a table, graph
"/.
To interpret, to apply, to
attach, to use, to show (the
principles and procedures of
work), to perform in
compliance with the rules
(play a role), to practice, to
illustrate, to resort to ideas
(use the ideas), to show in
writing, order, to indicate
schematically
M
i
d
d
l
e
A
N
A
L
Y
S
IS
Division of investigated object into its component parts to
determine its structure, as well as finding out the hidden
meanings. Pupil / student discovers and understands how the
various parts and how they lead to the result / An analysis
differs understanding from a deeper processing and
assimilation of information /.
Kinds of analytical questions and tasks:
1. Figuring a matter of fact 2. Identifying subtext 3.
Motivation.
1. Figuring matter of fact - disintegration (in order to show
the relationship between the basic concepts of information,
pupils / students should go beyond it), the development of
ideas expressed.
2. Identifying the subtext - requires to identify the
relationship between the two conclusions / solutions can be
given associations, cause and effect are not listed directly /.
1.3. Motivation - determine the causes. Pupil / student
identifies the direct and hidden meanings and actions to
To allocate, to analyze, to
share, to assess, to calculate,
to experiment, to test, to
compare, to oppose, to
criticize, to diagrammize, to
inspect, to debate, to
inventory, to ask, to correlate
parts, to decide, to
examine, to categorize, to
divide into parts, to identify
causes and effects, to argue,
to reveal hidden meaning
h
i
g
h
1. figuring a matter of fact
- Give the difference of plot
elements of the story;
- Compare two parts of the
theorem.
2. Identifying the subtext
- What is the essence of pension
reform?
- How do you understand the
saying "There is no prophet in his
own country?"
3. Motivation
- What reasons of trip of the
President to China in the month
of May?
- Why exactly these days is
discussing the law of the land?
S
Y
N
T
H
E
S
I
S
E
V
A
L
U
A
T
I
O
N
Creative association of elements in order to
create new content. Construction of new
model (structure) on the basis of their
experience with the use of assumptions,
conditions, and opportunities.
Types of work and the results:
1. Creative genres.
2. Devising a plan or conducting experience.
3. The results, based on abstract concepts.
1. Creative genres - essays,
writings, poems, a report, a script, a
project, development of a computer
program.
2. Collection and concretization of
knowledge on the subject, leading
to a single system, a plan or scheme
/ planning experience, control over
the results /.
3. Construction and an offer of
scientific hypothesis (predicting).
To draw up, to plan, to
offer, to create, to
formulate, to assign, to
collect, to pick up to
construct, to establish, to
organize, to arrange, to
prepare, to write
Decision-making and protection of their own
point of view on a controversial and
polemical topic. Pupils / students must
formulate and convey their thoughts, ideas,
conclusions and justify them. At this level,
are applied concrete, logical and reasonable
standards.
Carried out through formulation of
issues of a discussion and disputes,
for example: "Do you think it is
right/ wrong, important /
unimportant, Are you "for" or
"against"?
To judge, to weigh, to
assess, to rate, to compare,
to review, to assign, to
select, to choose, to
measure, to argue "for" and
"against"
H
I
G
H
H
I
G
H
Tasks on constructing of content of three-dimensional methodical system of learning
(on taxonomy of B.Bloom, V.P. Bespalko etc.)
Level 1
What…?
Where..?
Why…?
When…?
How…?
Who were majors…?
Who/What from …?
Who was…?
Level 2
Compare…
Find a context…
Demonstrate…
Retail in your own words…
When…happened?
How would you show…?
How… happened?
List three…?
Memorization of facts
Remember…
Choose…
Define…
Name…
Understanding
How would you explain…?
What do you mean ...?
Give the classification of following ...
What can you say about ...?
What is the main idea ...?
What is the best answer ...?
What suggestions ... confirm?
How would you briefly
Explain what is happening now ...
explain...?
Level 3
Applying
How would you use ...?
How differently would you do to ...?
What are some examples you can find ...?
How would you decide ... using what is now
Apply the facts in order to ...
learned?
How would you show your understanding of ...?
How would you have placed the ... to show ...?
What approach would you use ...?
What elements would you choose to change ...?
What would happen as a result of ...?
What facts would you have selected to show ...?
What would you ask in an interview with ...?
How would you apply what you have learned to develop ...?
Level 3
How ... is associated with ...?
Why do you think ...?
What is the theme ...?
What is the motive in ...?
List the parts ...?
What is the function ...?
(on taxonomy of B.Bloom, V.P. Bespal'ko etc.)
(continued)
What are the parts or characteristics of ...?
How would you classify ...?
Identify the different parts ...?
What is the relationship between ...?
Spend the difference between ...?
What ideas confirm...?
Level 4
Do you agree with actions ...?
Do you agree with the effects ...?
What is your opinion on ...?
How would you prove ...? Refute
...?
Define the value or importance ...
It would be better if ...?
Why did they chose ....?
Analysis
Which category would you distribute ...?
What conclusion can be derived ...?
What conclusions can be made ...?
Assessment
What would you recommend ...?
To what sort ... do you qualify?
How could you define ...?
How would you substantiate ... ?
Why is it better than ...?
What would you quoted in defense of actions ...?
What choice would you do in their place?
In what order by priority would you have placed ...?
What judgment would you put up ...?
Basing on what you know, how would you explain ...?
What data have been used to reach this conclusion?
How would you compare the ideas ...? People ...?
Creation
How would you improve ...?
How you think, why ...?
Suggest alternative ...
Think ...
Predict the consequences if ...
A model that would change ...
How would you design ...?
What changes would you make to
solve ...?
What would happen if ... 7
How would you test ...?
What facts you can gather ...?
Come up with an unusual way to
...?
What could be combined to improve (change) ...?
How would you have altered ... to create another ...?
How would you have changed (altered) content (plan)
...?
What could be done to reduce (increase) ...?
If suddenly you could .... what would you do ...?
Formation of methods of cogitative activity of students one of the main challenges of TTMSL
• In conditions of developmental, pragmatical learning pupils must learn methods and
techniques of self-exploration - cognitive activity. The driving force in this plays
methods of cogitative (mental) activity.
• Under the techniques of mental activity is understood the logic operation or a set of
logical operations, subordinated to resolution of certain problems.
• Main types of methods of cogitative activity are:
1) analysis and synthesis; 2) a comparison; 3) the allocation of main; 4)
generalization and systematization; 5) specification; 6) proof and refutation;
7) modeling.
• Formed methods of cogitative activity becoming active learning methods, help to
achieve higher levels of learning/
• Execution of leveled tasks allows the formation of rational methods of mental
activity.
• TTMSL content consists of tasks that require the use of any method of mental
activity.
Критериальное оценивание учебных успехов
учащихся в условиях применения TTMCO.
1. Критериальное оценивание – это оценивание по научно-обоснованным
критериям, соответствующим целям и содержанию образования, т.е. оценка,
складывающаяся из составляющих (критериев), которые точно отражают учебные
достижения учащихся по разным направлениям развития их учебнопознавательной компетентности.
2. Таксономия Б. Блума, Таксономия В.П. Беспалько, дидактическая матрица служат
основой для разработки системы критериального оценивания в условиях
формирования функциональной грамотности школьников.
3. Критериальное оценивание должно стимулировать поступательное развитие
ученика по «лестнице» дидактической матрицы.
4. Критериальное оценивание предпологает внедрение многобалльной системы
оценивания в практику.
4
Assessment by method of stimulation
(computed method, transparent
gradebook)
№
Name
Topic of learning material
A1
A2
A3
++
1
Sidorov
+++++
++++
2
Petrov
+++++
+++
3
Ivanov
+++++
++
-----
-----
25
Kulikov
+++
А4
Individual trajectory of student development
levels
α3
α2
α1
ТСР1
ТКР1
ТСР2
ТКР2
ТСРn
ТКРn
The averaged semester academic
achievements of students
levels
α3
α2
α1
1-я четверть
2-я четверть
3-я четверть
4-я четверть
Т (semester)
Pedagogical technologies of learning as a condition for the
modernization of the education system
Only by creation of educational technologies can be overcome current stagnant
state of both pedagogical science and practice, are overcome well-known negative
phenomena.
To go from the traditional Pedagogical System without diagnosticity of goals and
objective control, without didactically reasonable content, random didactical
processes and ossified organizational forms to prospective PS, is required a special
design of it and experimental refinement to the degree of excellence when
guaranteed the ratio "goal-result."
Pedagogical technology develops classical didactics, and this
development is expressed in articulated principles of pedagogical
technology: structural and meaningful integrity of technology, its
diagnosticity purposefulness, completeness, socio and nature aligned,
finally, the intensity of all processes.
A transition of all the work of learning and upbringing in the education system
on the rails of educational technology means a decisive change in school
practice from arbitrariness in the construction and implementation of the
pedagogical process to the strict validity of each of its elements and stage,
focus on objectively diagnosed final result .
A transition in the practice of education system at rails of pedagogical
technology means equally decisive turn and in pedagogical science from the
widespread substitution of genuine scientific research and scientific demagogy
and verbal gymnastics to search of true fundamental and applied pedagogical
knowledge, capable to become a direct productive force in the improvement of
school practice.
Updating of school is only possible through science-based improvement of pedagogical technology,
involving a strictly scientific design and exact reproduction in the classroom ensuring the success of
pedagogical processes, rather than hope for the mythical occurring from nowhere pedagogical skill of
the teacher. Good, science-based technology of learning and upbringing - this is the pedagogical skill.
(V.P.Bespalko. Components of pedagogical technology, Moscow, 1989).
What gives applying of TTMSL?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
TTMSL integrates two world trends of pedagogical technology:
technologies, oriented to research and technologies, result-oriented.
Transition from knowledge centric didactics to three-dimensional
pragmatical didactics.
Provides functional literacy of students, criterial evaluation system.
To implement the project "Developmental books" where as a developer
of the textbook becomes the teacher himself.
Effectively solves the problem of ungraded schools with combined
classes.
Ensures effective use of ICT in the learning process.
Implement health sparing didactics in school practice.
Thank you for your attention!

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