The technology of three-dimensional methodical system of learning Author: professor Zh.A.Karayev Republic of Kazakhstan Almaty 2014 Actuality of technification of the education system • Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Education" article 51. “Rights, duties and responsibilities of pedagogical employee "paragraph 3.2 "Pedagogical employee is obliged to ensure the quality of educational services provided in accordance with the requirements of state compulsory educational standards. “ • "We must pay great attention to the functional literacy of our students, in general of all younger generation. It is important to our children to be adapted to modern life "(N. Nazarbayev. "Strategy of Kazakhstan - 2050"). • Low rates of Kazakh schoolchildren in international comparative studies of the quality of education PISA, TIMSS, PIRLS. • Transition from informative and explanatory (instructional) model of education based on knowledge of centric approach to the constructive learning model based on functional and competence approach. Definition and general characteristics of TTMSL Definition TTMSL – project of Pedagogical System (PS), realized on practice. PS=MSL+DPr (Methodical System of Learning + Didactical Process) DPr=М+Pa+Ma (Motive + Pedagogical activity + Management); MSL = 1. 2. 3. 4. aim, content, methods, forms, sources of learning Characteristics of TTMSL Diagnostic aim setting and objective assessment of (criterial assessment) academic success of students. The structure and content of DPr built for pupil development through independent cognitive activity. Integrity of DPr. 100% guarantee that students achieve results. TTMSL consists of two parts: 1) synectical part; 2) part oriented on result Synectics (Synectic – combination of heterogeneous elements) – research technique, based on socio-psychological motivation of collective intellectual activity proposed by V. Gordon. Synectics– is a transition to creative thinking, which depends on understanding the possibility of combining of incompatible, at first glance, things. Synectics presents guidance to the generation of new ideas. Synectics presents guidance to the generation of new ideas. In a synectic part TTMSL is applied a technology of critical thinking, consisting of three phases: challenge, implementation, reflection. 4 Characteristic of stages of critical thinking formation Critical thinking - is the ability to raise new questions, to produce a variety of arguments, to make independent decisions. CHALLENGE IMPLEMENTATION 1. Actualization of available knowledge; 1. Acquisition of new information, comprehension. 2. Awakening interest in obtaining information; 2. The ratio to the existing knowledge, knowledge systematization 3. Posing of own learning objectives by a pupil; 3. Adjustment of a learning objectives by a pupil. REFLECTION 1. A holistic understanding, summarizing of information received 2. Thinking, birth of a new knowledge 3. Formation at each student of their own attitudes to the studied material 5 Summary table of the objectives and methods on Technology "Critical Thinking" Aims STAGES CHALLENGE - Actualization of previous experience and knowledge of trainees. - Revitalization of students activity. - Formation of motivation to learning activity. - Posing of individual goals in educational activity by trainees. IMPLEMENTATION - Getting of a new knowledge by trainees. - Building awareness and systematization of knowledge, correlation of known with the new. - Mastering the ways of working with information. - Support the goals set at Challenge stage. REFLECTION - Assignment of new knowledge. - Creation of a holistic view of the subject. - Extension of the problem field, setting new objectives in training activities. - Work on assessment and selfassessment of development of students in the subject. 6 Techniques Results - "Brainstorming" - Forecasting (by portrait, picture) - Forecasting by keywords - Alternative test (correct or incorrect statements) - The wording of questions, the answers to which need to find in the text - Cluster - Table "W-X-Y" - An actualized experience - An activized knowledge - Formed motive - Reading of text with marking by the method of insert - Highlight key words by underlining - Lecture with stops - Thin and thick questions (priority issues behind thick) - Fishboun - Keeping "logbook" - Marking table insert - Creative work - sinkveyn, essay - Return to the keywords, true and false statements - Keeping a diary, a letter to a friend - Construction of a cluster from keywords - Entangled logic circuits - Systematized knowledge - Appropriation of knowledge - Strengthening of the objectives - To form a holistic view of the stated at the stage Challenge subject - The problems posed to further promote 7 Part of TTMSL oriented to result Diagnostic setting of learning objectives, transition from informative content to activity-based, developing training content, the introduction of activity-based pedagogical qualimetry, including criteria system of evaluation assumes implementation of the TTMSL oriented on result. An operational setting of learning objectives is characterized by the fact that they are stated in terms of learning outcomes expressed in the actions of students that can be accurately measured and identified. Quality of teaching, the ratio of objectives and learning outcomes as a measure to achieve the objectives, with that the objectives are set only operationally and predicted in the zone of proximal development of the student. Benjamin Bloom's Taxonomy GENERAL CATEGORIES OF LEARNING AIMS CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESULTS OF STUDENTS 1. Knowledge. This category denotes memorization and reproduction • knows the terms used; of the material studied. We can talk about different kinds of content - • from concrete facts to holistic theories. Common feature of this • • category - remembering the relevant information. • 2. Understanding. As an indicator of the ability to understand the meaning of studied material may serve a transformation (translation) of the material thereof to another form of expression, "translation" from one "language" to another (e.g., from verbal form - in math). As an indicator of understanding can also act interpretation of material by pupil (explaining summary) or assumption about the future course of phenomena, events (predicting consequences, results). These learning outcomes are superior to simple memorization of material. • • • • • know the specific facts; knows the methods and procedures; knows the basic concepts; knows the rules and principles. understands the facts, rules and principles; interprets verbal material; interprets diagrams, graphs and charts; converts verbal material in mathematical expressions; supposedly describes future consequences arising from the available data. 3. Applying. This category denotes the ability to use studied material • uses the concepts and principles in in specific circumstances and new situations. This includes the application of rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws and theories. • Appropriate learning outcomes require a higher level of mastery of the • material than understanding. new situations; apply the laws, theories in specific practical situations; demonstrates the correct application of the method and procedures. 4. Analysis. This category denotes the ability to break the material into components so that its structure appeared clear. This includes isolation of parts of the whole, revealing the relationships between them, the realization of the principles of the whole organization. Learning outcomes are characterized with higher intellectual level than understanding and application because they require awareness of both the content of the learning material, and its internal structure. 5. Synthesis. • • • • • This category denotes the ability to combine elements so as to • obtain a whole, embracing novelty. Such a new product can be a message (performance, report), a plan of action or a set of generalized relations (scheme • to arrange the available data). Appropriate learning results suggest an action of creative nature with an emphasis on the creation of new schemes and structures. • 6. Assessment. This category denotes the ability to assess the significance of each material (approval, artwork, research data) for a specific purpose. Judgments of pupil should be based on clear criteria. Criteria can be either • internal (structural, logical) and external (matching the intended target). Criteria can be determined by the student, or be asked to him outside (e.g., teacher). • This category implies the achievement of learning outcomes on all previous categories plus evaluative judgments based on clearly defined criteria. allocates hidden (implicit) suggestions; sees the errors and omissions in the logic of the argument; makes differences between facts and consequences; assesses the significance of the data.. writes a little creative essay; makes a plan of the experiment; uses knowledge from various fields to compare plan of solving a particular problem. assesses the logic of the material in the form of written text; assess the compliance of conclusions of available data; assesses the importance of a product of the activity, on the basis of external quality criteria. (Interrelation of taxonomy of aims with the levels of mastering, motive, activity, skills and quality of knowledge) Skills Generalization The need for and cognitive systematization, activity evaluation Creative level of Creative skills activity Applying Sustained interest Heuristic level of activity Understanding Situational interest Interpretive level Reproductive of activity skills in changing situation Knowledge Indifference Reproducing level Quality of knowledge Partiallysearching skills Reproductive skills in standard situation Levels of mastering Creative Consistency, strength Activity Efficiency, flexibility, depth, systematicity Motive Effectiveness, mindfulness Taxonomy of aims Correctness, completeness уровни иерархии Didactical matrix<=> Logical and structural model of TTMSL Heuristic Algorothmic pupilary Т Psycho-pedagogical bases of TTMSL 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Theory of L.S. Vygotsky on the transition, in the learning process, of mental development of the student from the zone of "actual development" to the zone "of proximal development", implemented through the work, passing from reproductive to a productive level. The concept of S.L. Rubinstein on the inclusion of the object's thoughts in new connections in the thinking process and thereby identification of new properties in it, leading to inventions and discoveries. Philosophy and pedagogical views of John Dewey. "The theory of complete assimilation" B. Bloom. "Theory of needs" A. Maslow. The concept of V.P. Bespalko on pedagogical technologies. Pupil – subject of a didactic process KNOWLEDGE Self-development of student and the formation of functional literacy through the application of TTMSL. 2 literacy Functional creative Productive activity Reproductive activity UNDERSTANDING Stage of Challenge APPLICATION Technology of critical thinking ANALISYS Didactical matrix SYNTHESIS Stage of comprehension Stage of reflection EVALUATION Teacher – subject (facilitator) of didactical process As a result, learning process becomes an environment of "immersion" of search activity for pupil, the teacher becomes a coach. Pedagogical interaction is implemented on a "subject-subject“ scheme He becomes: an author of developing textbooks and teaching materials developed on a technological basis, including taking into account the didactic possibilities of ICT He develops by himself: a) a system of task to ensure independent searching activity of pupil on “ladder” of didactical matrix; B) a system of leveled tasks for criterial evaluation of learning achievements of students. He is ICT competent: effectively uses didactical opportunities of ICT in designing of lesson He designs: lesson on technological basis He masters:: Two trends of pedagogical technologies (PT) a) PT suggesting learning as a process of research (including critical thinking PT) and aimed at creative thinking, dialogue training, team work, etc.; b) result-oriented PT (development on stairs of didactic matrix, individual learning activities, criterial assessment, guarantee of academic success in accordance with SES) 3 Some construction principles of three-dimensional content of methodical system of training Personality and pragmatist approach, developing education, suggests that students in a process of performance of a leveled tasks system gradually climbed up the ladder of didactic matrix development, herein the stepping stones ladder of development are leveled exercises - tasks; With orientation to diagnostic set aim of education and upbringing in the school must be made a content selection in all school subjects of the curriculum. The task of skills formation as a learning objective should be reflected in the structure of the educational process and the system of exercises in the textbook and the learning process, on their number and system of their inclusion in the context of the lesson and method of development in homework. THE ROLE OF DIDACTICAL MATRIX IN DEVELOPMENT OF CRITICAL THINKING AND ORGANIZATION OF DEVELOPMENTAL LEARNING, AS A WHOLE 1. Taxonomy of tasks of didactic matrix form a hierarchy of tasks, quite appropriate:-to the stages of technology of critical thinking such as: challenge - comprehension - reflection;- hierarchies of application of thin and thick questions;- hierarchy of different types of thinking at different levels of complexity;-formation stages of techniques of thinking activity of students. 2. Leveled tasks necessary for the development of individual search activities of students, criteriabased assessment of their academic success, organization of address corrective action. 3. Solution of leveled tasks plays an important role in perfecting skills of pupils needed for their successful performance at international researches of education quality PISA, TIMSS, etc. 4. Taxonomy of tasks provides an optimal combination of individual and group forms of activity of students. Models of questions and tasks on taxonomy of B.Bloom Types K N D O G W E L E U N D E R S T A N D I N G Sample questions, that you can ask to students Sample tasks (learning aims) Levels of knowledge and skills Aimed at testing memory through repetition or recognition of information, remembering information and material: perform test tasks, insert missing symbols, learn by heart, , the repetition of rules and definitions, bring the order of application - When the Great Patriotic War started? - What is the subject? - How to write simple fractions? - What is the capital of Egypt? To determine, to repeat, to note, to list, to remember, to name, to correlate, to highlight Low Transfer of information into another, known system to identify ways of transferring to another stored information. Description of similarities, differences and result, mapping. Divided into four groups: 1. Explanation (interpretation) - determination of the basic idea and its internal interrelation; here can be attributed the questions "how", "why", tasks as "Compare", "Enter the difference", etc. 2. Translation (transformation) - translating ideas into a familiar symbolic system or form with preservation of meaning: to read a graph, to explain the picture, to explain in their own words. 3. Examples - show that the idea, understood information correctly. 4. Definition - transfer content of the term or concept in your own words, summarization of definitions with familiar and understandable words (not a repetition of the above definition). 1. Explanation: What is the difference between X and Y? - Compare the relief of Western and Eastern Kazakhstan. 2. Translation: Explain in your own words what is understood; - Show the study in the form of tables and briefly summarize the content; -Tell the story in your own words. 3. Examples: Give examples on topic (definition). 4. Definition: Define the problem understandable for the student of 3 grade; - Explain the term in your own words. To translate, to reformulate, to describe, to recognize, to explain, to express, to distinguish, to arrange, to report, to tell, to read a graph, to explain the picture, to explain in your own words, to compare, to tell the difference, to match, to give an example Content Middle A P P L I C A T I O N Pupils / students have an idea of metaphors and similes (learning) in the literature, and Use or application of the information to solve a problem. they know their difference Pupil / student should without a teacher / instructor (understanding). Now they need independently solve unfamiliar problems. Teacher / to apply this information and find instructor should pay attention not only on the correctness of out (to tell), what images they the decision, but also on the process of decision; because constructed in the poem of Abay solutions may be more important than the decision itself. "Winter". / Corresponds to tasks "How can you apply? Try to make. What do you know? Make a table, graph "/. To interpret, to apply, to attach, to use, to show (the principles and procedures of work), to perform in compliance with the rules (play a role), to practice, to illustrate, to resort to ideas (use the ideas), to show in writing, order, to indicate schematically M i d d l e A N A L Y S IS Division of investigated object into its component parts to determine its structure, as well as finding out the hidden meanings. Pupil / student discovers and understands how the various parts and how they lead to the result / An analysis differs understanding from a deeper processing and assimilation of information /. Kinds of analytical questions and tasks: 1. Figuring a matter of fact 2. Identifying subtext 3. Motivation. 1. Figuring matter of fact - disintegration (in order to show the relationship between the basic concepts of information, pupils / students should go beyond it), the development of ideas expressed. 2. Identifying the subtext - requires to identify the relationship between the two conclusions / solutions can be given associations, cause and effect are not listed directly /. 1.3. Motivation - determine the causes. Pupil / student identifies the direct and hidden meanings and actions to To allocate, to analyze, to share, to assess, to calculate, to experiment, to test, to compare, to oppose, to criticize, to diagrammize, to inspect, to debate, to inventory, to ask, to correlate parts, to decide, to examine, to categorize, to divide into parts, to identify causes and effects, to argue, to reveal hidden meaning h i g h 1. figuring a matter of fact - Give the difference of plot elements of the story; - Compare two parts of the theorem. 2. Identifying the subtext - What is the essence of pension reform? - How do you understand the saying "There is no prophet in his own country?" 3. Motivation - What reasons of trip of the President to China in the month of May? - Why exactly these days is discussing the law of the land? S Y N T H E S I S E V A L U A T I O N Creative association of elements in order to create new content. Construction of new model (structure) on the basis of their experience with the use of assumptions, conditions, and opportunities. Types of work and the results: 1. Creative genres. 2. Devising a plan or conducting experience. 3. The results, based on abstract concepts. 1. Creative genres - essays, writings, poems, a report, a script, a project, development of a computer program. 2. Collection and concretization of knowledge on the subject, leading to a single system, a plan or scheme / planning experience, control over the results /. 3. Construction and an offer of scientific hypothesis (predicting). To draw up, to plan, to offer, to create, to formulate, to assign, to collect, to pick up to construct, to establish, to organize, to arrange, to prepare, to write Decision-making and protection of their own point of view on a controversial and polemical topic. Pupils / students must formulate and convey their thoughts, ideas, conclusions and justify them. At this level, are applied concrete, logical and reasonable standards. Carried out through formulation of issues of a discussion and disputes, for example: "Do you think it is right/ wrong, important / unimportant, Are you "for" or "against"? To judge, to weigh, to assess, to rate, to compare, to review, to assign, to select, to choose, to measure, to argue "for" and "against" H I G H H I G H Tasks on constructing of content of three-dimensional methodical system of learning (on taxonomy of B.Bloom, V.P. Bespalko etc.) Level 1 What…? Where..? Why…? When…? How…? Who were majors…? Who/What from …? Who was…? Level 2 Compare… Find a context… Demonstrate… Retail in your own words… When…happened? How would you show…? How… happened? List three…? Memorization of facts Remember… Choose… Define… Name… Understanding How would you explain…? What do you mean ...? Give the classification of following ... What can you say about ...? What is the main idea ...? What is the best answer ...? What suggestions ... confirm? How would you briefly Explain what is happening now ... explain...? Level 3 Applying How would you use ...? How differently would you do to ...? What are some examples you can find ...? How would you decide ... using what is now Apply the facts in order to ... learned? How would you show your understanding of ...? How would you have placed the ... to show ...? What approach would you use ...? What elements would you choose to change ...? What would happen as a result of ...? What facts would you have selected to show ...? What would you ask in an interview with ...? How would you apply what you have learned to develop ...? Level 3 How ... is associated with ...? Why do you think ...? What is the theme ...? What is the motive in ...? List the parts ...? What is the function ...? (on taxonomy of B.Bloom, V.P. Bespal'ko etc.) (continued) What are the parts or characteristics of ...? How would you classify ...? Identify the different parts ...? What is the relationship between ...? Spend the difference between ...? What ideas confirm...? Level 4 Do you agree with actions ...? Do you agree with the effects ...? What is your opinion on ...? How would you prove ...? Refute ...? Define the value or importance ... It would be better if ...? Why did they chose ....? Analysis Which category would you distribute ...? What conclusion can be derived ...? What conclusions can be made ...? Assessment What would you recommend ...? To what sort ... do you qualify? How could you define ...? How would you substantiate ... ? Why is it better than ...? What would you quoted in defense of actions ...? What choice would you do in their place? In what order by priority would you have placed ...? What judgment would you put up ...? Basing on what you know, how would you explain ...? What data have been used to reach this conclusion? How would you compare the ideas ...? People ...? Creation How would you improve ...? How you think, why ...? Suggest alternative ... Think ... Predict the consequences if ... A model that would change ... How would you design ...? What changes would you make to solve ...? What would happen if ... 7 How would you test ...? What facts you can gather ...? Come up with an unusual way to ...? What could be combined to improve (change) ...? How would you have altered ... to create another ...? How would you have changed (altered) content (plan) ...? What could be done to reduce (increase) ...? If suddenly you could .... what would you do ...? Formation of methods of cogitative activity of students one of the main challenges of TTMSL • In conditions of developmental, pragmatical learning pupils must learn methods and techniques of self-exploration - cognitive activity. The driving force in this plays methods of cogitative (mental) activity. • Under the techniques of mental activity is understood the logic operation or a set of logical operations, subordinated to resolution of certain problems. • Main types of methods of cogitative activity are: 1) analysis and synthesis; 2) a comparison; 3) the allocation of main; 4) generalization and systematization; 5) specification; 6) proof and refutation; 7) modeling. • Formed methods of cogitative activity becoming active learning methods, help to achieve higher levels of learning/ • Execution of leveled tasks allows the formation of rational methods of mental activity. • TTMSL content consists of tasks that require the use of any method of mental activity. Критериальное оценивание учебных успехов учащихся в условиях применения TTMCO. 1. Критериальное оценивание – это оценивание по научно-обоснованным критериям, соответствующим целям и содержанию образования, т.е. оценка, складывающаяся из составляющих (критериев), которые точно отражают учебные достижения учащихся по разным направлениям развития их учебнопознавательной компетентности. 2. Таксономия Б. Блума, Таксономия В.П. Беспалько, дидактическая матрица служат основой для разработки системы критериального оценивания в условиях формирования функциональной грамотности школьников. 3. Критериальное оценивание должно стимулировать поступательное развитие ученика по «лестнице» дидактической матрицы. 4. Критериальное оценивание предпологает внедрение многобалльной системы оценивания в практику. 4 Assessment by method of stimulation (computed method, transparent gradebook) № Name Topic of learning material A1 A2 A3 ++ 1 Sidorov +++++ ++++ 2 Petrov +++++ +++ 3 Ivanov +++++ ++ ----- ----- 25 Kulikov +++ А4 Individual trajectory of student development levels α3 α2 α1 ТСР1 ТКР1 ТСР2 ТКР2 ТСРn ТКРn The averaged semester academic achievements of students levels α3 α2 α1 1-я четверть 2-я четверть 3-я четверть 4-я четверть Т (semester) Pedagogical technologies of learning as a condition for the modernization of the education system Only by creation of educational technologies can be overcome current stagnant state of both pedagogical science and practice, are overcome well-known negative phenomena. To go from the traditional Pedagogical System without diagnosticity of goals and objective control, without didactically reasonable content, random didactical processes and ossified organizational forms to prospective PS, is required a special design of it and experimental refinement to the degree of excellence when guaranteed the ratio "goal-result." Pedagogical technology develops classical didactics, and this development is expressed in articulated principles of pedagogical technology: structural and meaningful integrity of technology, its diagnosticity purposefulness, completeness, socio and nature aligned, finally, the intensity of all processes. A transition of all the work of learning and upbringing in the education system on the rails of educational technology means a decisive change in school practice from arbitrariness in the construction and implementation of the pedagogical process to the strict validity of each of its elements and stage, focus on objectively diagnosed final result . A transition in the practice of education system at rails of pedagogical technology means equally decisive turn and in pedagogical science from the widespread substitution of genuine scientific research and scientific demagogy and verbal gymnastics to search of true fundamental and applied pedagogical knowledge, capable to become a direct productive force in the improvement of school practice. Updating of school is only possible through science-based improvement of pedagogical technology, involving a strictly scientific design and exact reproduction in the classroom ensuring the success of pedagogical processes, rather than hope for the mythical occurring from nowhere pedagogical skill of the teacher. Good, science-based technology of learning and upbringing - this is the pedagogical skill. (V.P.Bespalko. Components of pedagogical technology, Moscow, 1989). What gives applying of TTMSL? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. TTMSL integrates two world trends of pedagogical technology: technologies, oriented to research and technologies, result-oriented. Transition from knowledge centric didactics to three-dimensional pragmatical didactics. Provides functional literacy of students, criterial evaluation system. To implement the project "Developmental books" where as a developer of the textbook becomes the teacher himself. Effectively solves the problem of ungraded schools with combined classes. Ensures effective use of ICT in the learning process. Implement health sparing didactics in school practice. Thank you for your attention!