Soups, Salads, Gelatin

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Soups
Types
Clear and Thin Soups-bouillon, broth,
consomme
Thickened Soups-milk or cream (white
sauce), vegetables, grains or pasta
Vegetable-carrots, onions, legumes
Fruit-melon, blueberry
Cold- Borscht, Gazpacho, Vichyssoise
Noodle
Dessert-Oriental origin
Stocks for Soups
Meat Stocks- cracked bones, raw meat.
More mature animal has more flavor.
Started in cool water as cold water allows
more efficient transfer of flavor to the
liquid.
Poultry Stock-more mature, free-range
have better flavor.
Fish Stock-backbones and heads of lean
white fish
Vegetable Stocks
Flavoring-Bouquet garni includes parsley,
thyme, bay leaf and other aromatic herbs
or spices
Clear and Thin Soups
Bouillon-simmered meat and vegetables,
usually unstrained and not clear
Broth- simmered meat and vegetables,
usually strained and clear
Consomme-simmered meat and
vegetables, clarified by egg white
Thin soups have a broth base but meats,
vegetables, and/or starch such as pasta,
rice or barley, and seaweed allow for some
thickening to occur
Thickened Soups
Cream Soup-thin white sauce made of
milk, butter and flour
Bisques-cream used as thickening agent
Pureed vegetables
Starch based products like rice, noodles,
barley, bread, or plain starch
Salads
Appealing way to increase
consumption of fruits and
vegetables
Types
Appetizer - small, green or tart fruits, tart
dressing
Dinner accompaniment - light, crisp, tart to
complement the entree, variety of
dressings
Main course - generous portion, protein,
potato, rice, pasta with greens or other
vegetables, variety of dressings
Dessert - medium to small portion of fruit,
rich, sweet dressing
Ingredients
All should be edible
Should be clean, free of defects
Raw fruits and vegetables should be at
optimum stage of maturity
All inedible portions should be removed
Nutrients vary with ingredients
Preparation
Thorough cleaning
Remove excess water
Don’t mince vegetables as paste may
form when dressing is added
Marinades - add flavor to food
Marinating is coating food lightly with
dressing or oil and allowing them to
stand prior to salad preparation. Drain
marinade before adding ingredients to
salad
Characteristics of a good salad
Combination for contrast in color, texture,
and flavor
Size variation for contrast and interest
Pieces of fish and poultry should be large
enough to be identified
Pasta should be firm enough to be in
discrete pieces
Firm foods should be cut into bite size
pieces
Dressings
Part of salad
Dressing determined by use of salad
Flavor should complement flavor of salad
Can add significant calories to salads:
reduced calories and no-fat versions are
available
Gelatin
Properties
Gelatin is an effective jelling agent due to
the unique amino acid make-up. One-third
or the amino acids are glycine, one-fourth
are proline and hydroxyproline which
provides a high number of acid or basic
amino groups giving high polarity and
great affinity for water.
Made from demineralized bones and
skin. Then purified.
Dispersion in Liquid
Soaked a short time in cold water, then
heated to form sol (dispersion of protein in
liquid). Used for unflavored gelatin.
Sol can form in hot water - gelatin
desserts, Jello. Sol can form as gelatin is
finely pulverized and separated with sugar
allowing better access to liquid.
Gel Formation
Small sections of a number of gelatin
molecules unite by lateral association or
cross-linking to form crystallites which give
three dimensional network that
immobilizes liquid. Chemical forces bind
gel.
Gelatin needed to set 1 cup water = 1 1/2
teaspoon.
Uses in Food Preparation
Gelatin salads such as aspics or fruited salads.
Whips - gelatin cooled to consistency of raw egg
whites, them whipped or beaten to introduce air
and form a foam.
Sponges - gelatin foam and egg white foam
combined.
Creams
1. Bavarian - gelatin foam and whipped cream
2. Spanish - custard thickened with gelatin,
beaten to a foam, then combined with egg
white foam
Power Point Author
Dr. Jane Ross
The University of Vermont
Foods and Nutrition
Basic Concepts of Food

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