Chapter 2: Section 2 The French Empire

Report
Chapter 2: Section 2
The French Empire
Mr. Kelsey
U.S. History
The French Empire
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Spain was the first
European country
to explore North
America but France
followed
French settlers
focused on
Northern US and
Canada along the
St. Lawrence River
The Northwest Passage
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Primary focus of
French explorers
was the Northwest
Passage: a water
route to Asia
through N. America
Led to exploration of
the St. Lawrence
River
Establishing New France
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French King claimed the area
around the St. Lawrence River
Settlers survived by fishing and
hunting whales and seals
Met Indians and traded tools for
furs - lots of $ back in Europe
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Indians fought each other to
provide supply
Europeans fought each other
over furs that could be bought
Quebec: Major Canadian city
established as 1st permanent
settlement and trading post
French-Indian Relations
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French life depended on Indians hunting and trading
Low numbers, didn’t attempt
taking land/enslaving
Samuel de Champlain: Founder
of Quebec and ally to Indians.
Helped trading partners attack
foes.
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Used guns (advanced
technology at the time)
Helped their allies but angered
others
Increased fighting among
native tribes
Expansion to Louisiana
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Late 17th Century, French continued to
look for Northwest Passage
One trip brought them down the
Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico
Claimed the area around the
Mississippi River for France
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Named Louisiana after King Louis
XIV
Largest city at the river mouth - New
Orleans
Swampy land = bad for farming,
promoted disease
Used as a military base to keep
England from moving West
Chapter 2: Section 3
England’s Southern
Colonies
England’s First American
Colonies
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Queen Elizabeth I and wealthy English proposed sending
poor to North America to mine for gold/silver and grow
crops
Groups obtained charters: certificates of permission, and
formed a joint-stock company: a business run by a group
of investors who share profits
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One of these investors was Sir Walter Raleigh
These joint-stock companies ran the first British
colonies
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One of the most famous was on Roanoke Island
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The 1st group failed and returned home
The 2nd group disappeared (video)
Jamestown
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Jamestown considered the first successful
Southern colony
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10,000 people brought over from 1607-1622,
only 20% survived
Fighting with Indians, then uneasy peace
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Powhatan’s daughter, Pocahontas,
converts, marries John Rolfe
Virginia Company allows colonists to own
land
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Named for King James I
Rolfe helped teach how to grow tobacco
England makes money on import back
home
Virginia Company offers free land to those
who can make it to America, population
grows
House of Burgesses
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Virginia Company allows political
reforms
Planters (colonists) create the House of
Burgesses: the first representative body
in colonial America
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Male landowners over 17 voted for
two “Burgesses” to represent their
settlement
House made laws and raised taxes
1624, British government takes control
of Virginia from Virginia Company,
becoming a royal colony: a colony that
belonged to the Crown
Proprietary colony: owned by an
individual or company
Bacon’s Rebellion
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Royal Governor in Virginia imposed heavy
taxes that favored the wealthy
Nathaniel Bacon (1676) led a rebellion
against the governor, slaughtering hostile
and peaceful Indians
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Made already uneasy relationship with
Indians worse
Bacon died suddenly and rebellion failed
Showed that poor farmers wouldn’t take
unfair government
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Taxes reduced, frontier policies made
easier
Other Colonies (Besides Virginia)
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Maryland
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Overseen by Lord Baltimore
Founded as a refuge for Catholics discriminated against
by Protestants in England
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More Protestants end up coming, conflict arises
Carolinas
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Belonged to British aristocrats
Eventually split into North and South in late 17th, early
18th century and taken over by the Crown
Georgia
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Started as a proprietary colony to protect against
Spanish in Florida
James Oglethorpe turned it into haven for debtors,
strict rules on work and life
Became royal colony in mid 18th century

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