Human-to-Human Relationship Model Travelbee extended the interpersonal relationship theories of: Peplau Orlando Unique Focus With emphasis on Caring Travelbee’s theory stresses: Empathy Sympathy Rapport The Emotional Aspects of Nursing The Relationship A “mutually significant meaningful relationship” (p. 125) through which the nursing needs of the individual (or family member) are met (Travelbee, 1966) Phases of the Relationship Original Encounter Emerging Identities Empathy Sympathy Rapport Empathy To Travelbee Empathy is a verb, an action word that is: the nurses most valuable method of communicating with patients ‘operationalzed’ by the nurse within the nurse-patient relationship To empathize is to gain an intellectual understanding of the mental world and psychological state of another (Travelbee, 1966) HOW: Empathetic receivers (of communication form others): Listen to the message Use own experiences to feel their way into the sender’s experience Know their own thoughts about their experience Use their own thoughts and experiences to become sensitive to the what the sender is telling them Know which boundaries exist between their experiences and thoughts and those of the sender Make a conscious choice to stay with the sender and help them to bear their experience (Donna, 1979, p. 50) Sympathy “…A process wherein an individual is able to comprehend the distress of another, be moved or touched by another’s distress, and desires to alleviate the cause. One ‘shares’ in the feelings of another and experiences compassion”. (Travelbee, 1966, p. 146) Rapport “The establishment of a nurse-patient relationship, and the experience that is rapport is the terminus of all nursing endeavor. Rapport is that which is experienced when nurse and patent has progressed through the four interlocking phases preceding rapport and the establishment of a nurse-patient relationship, namely: The original encounter 2. Emerging identities 3. Empathy 1. 4. Sympathy” (Travelbee, 1966, p. 155) Travelbee’s View of Nursing An interpersonal process between two individuals One needs assistance because of an illness The other able to give needed assistance The Goal of the assistance is to facilitate the individual to: Cope with the illness situation Find meaning in the experience Grow from the experience (Travelbee, 1966) Domain Concepts of Travelbee’s Theory Defined Nursing “An interpersonal process whereby the professional nurse… assists an individual… to prevent or cope with… illness and suffering and… find meaning in these experiences” (Travelbee, 1966, pp. 5-6). Person ...“a unique irreplaceable individual-a one-time being in the world-like yet unlike any person who has ever lived or ever will live”(Travelbee, 1966, p. 26). Health “…the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard… without distinction” (Travelbee, 1966, p.7). “…an individually defined state of well-being in accord with self-appraisal of physicalemotional-spiritual status” (Travelbee, 1971, p.9). Environment Not defined Other Major Concepts of Travelbee’s Theory Communication Nurse-Patient Relationship Human-to-Human Relationship Therapeutic Self Perception Suffering Hope Transcend Self Self-Actualization A Propositions of Travelbee’s Theory “The Nurse’s perception of the patient is a major factor in determining the quality and quantity of nursing care… rendered to each Patient” (Travelbee, 1966, p. 34). A Proposition of Travelbee’s Theory “The quality of nursing care given is determined by the nurse’s beliefs about illness, suffering, and death” (Travelbee, 1966, p. 55). A Proposition of Travelbee’s Theory “The spiritual values… [and] philosophical beliefs [of nurses] about illness and suffering will determine the extent to which they will be able to help patients find meaning (or no meaning)in these situations” (Travelbee, 1966, p. 55). Travelbee Life Influences Education Honors Experience Personal Travelbee’s Education Crossman School (Elementary) 1939 Joseph Kohn High School 1943 Charity Hospital School of Nursing 1946 LSU (B.S.N. Ed.) 1956 Yale University (M.S.N.) 1959 Doctoral program enrollment (Florida, 1973) Travelbee’s Honors Kappa Delta Pi Who’s Who in American Education Leaders in Science Edition Teacher of the Year University of Mississippi SON 1968 Outstanding Alumna Award Louisiana State University 1970 Travelbee’s Experience LSUMC SON Director of Graduate Education 1973 LSUMC SON 1971 – 1973 Hotel Dieu SON Project Director 1969 – 1971 University of Mississippi SON 1966-1969 New York University 1965-1966 LSU SON 1956-1965 Charity Hospital SON 1954-1956 De Paul Hospital Affiliate School 1952-1954 Travelbee Personal Order of Diacalced Carmelites Secular Poetry Order of Diacalced Carmelites 16th Century Reform of Carmalite Nuns Reestablish Carmelite Objectives & Disciplines St. Teresa of Avila St. John of the Cross Known as Contemplative Carmelites and later Discalced Carmelites Order of Diacalced Carmelites Secular Pervasive Ideas 1. The Secular Rule of Life, Plan for Spiritual Growth 2. Vocation & Mission Evangelical Life & Contemplative Prayer Apostolic & Contemplative Witness 3. Contemplative Prayer Poetry Uplifting Sounds New Orleans The Dreamer Sorrow Magnolia The wind is White tonight So? Mental Health Patients Hurry Inspiration Sandra Burnt Sienna Untitled References Catholic University of America (1967). Catholic Encyclopedia. NY: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Donna, M.K., (1979). Intervention in psychiatric nursing (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis. LSU Personnel Records (1971). Biographical Data Form. New Orleans: LSU. Speziale, H.J. & Carpenter, D.R. (2007). Qualitative Research in Nursing Advancing the Humanistic Imperative. (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott. Travelbee, J. (n.d.) Poetry. New Orleans. Travelbee, J. (1966). Interpersonal aspects of nursing. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis. Travelbee, J. (1971). Interpersonal aspects of nursing (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.