stretch - Office of Assessment

Report
WHY TEXT COMPLEXITY MATTERS
Dr. Cristi Alberino, Ph. D.
Amy Radikas
Joanne White
SUPPORTING DISTRICTS WITH
DETERMINING TEXT COMPLEXITY
COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS AND
LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS
OBJECTIVES
 Understand the three part model of text
complexity and the final step of placing
texts in grade bands.
 Discuss how this understanding can be
shared in a district/school to facilitate the
placement and shifts of texts.
THE “CRISIS” OF TEXT COMPLEXITY
 Complexity of texts students are expected to
read is far below what is required to achieve
college and career readiness:
 High school textbooks have declined in all subject
areas over several decades
 Average length of sentences in K-8 textbooks has
declined from 20 to 14 words
CCSSO Text Complexity
IS THIS REALLY A CRISIS?
 Vocabulary demands have declined, e.g., 8th
grade textbooks = former 5th grade texts; 12th grade
anthologies = former 7th grade texts
 Too many students are reading at too low a level
(<50% of graduates can read sufficiently complex
texts)
CCSSO Text Complexity
IS THIS REALLY A CRISIS?
 The chief difference between students who
succeed and students who struggle in
introductory college courses is NOT:
 Question type (main idea, word meanings,
details)
 Question level (higher order vs. lower order; literal
vs. inferential)
The complexity of what students can read is
greatest predictor of success in college (ACT study)
ACT, INC., REPORT
 In 2006, ACT, Inc., released a report
called Reading Between the Lines that
showed which skills differentiated those
students who equaled or exceeded the
benchmark score (21 out of 36) in the
reading section of the ACT college
admissions
ACT, INC., REPORT
The most important implication of this study:
 “What students could read, in terms of its
complexity, was at least as important as what
they could do with what they read.”
CCSS Appendix A. p. 2
CCSS INSTRUCTIONAL SHIFTS
 Building knowledge through content-rich
nonfiction and informational texts
 Reading and writing grounded in evidence
from text
 Regular practice and instruction with
complex texts and its academic
vocabulary
CCSS INSTRUCTIONAL SHIFTS
 All students must
be exposed to
grade level text
complexity
regardless of their
reading ability
CCSS, Appendix A
WHAT DOES “EXPOSED” TO GRADE LEVEL
TEXT COMPLEXITY MEAN?
 Read - Alouds
 Independent Reading
 Shared Reading
 Close reading of a passage
 Multiple exposures
 Reading for different purposes
 Reading for extended periods of time
THREE-PART MODEL FOR
MEASURING TEXT COMPLEXITY
TEXT COMPLEXITY MODEL
Text complexity is defined by:
1. Quantitative measures – readability and
other scores of text complexity often best
measured by computer software.
Kansas Department of Education
TEXT COMPLEXITY MODEL
Text complexity is defined by:
2. Qualitative measures – levels of meaning,
structure, language conventionality and
clarity, and knowledge demands often best
measured by an attentive human reader.
Kansas Department of Education
TEXT COMPLEXITY MODEL
Text complexity is defined by:
3.Reader and Task considerations – background
knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and
complexity generated by tasks assigned often best
made by educators employing their professional
judgment.
Kansas Department of Education
A CLOSER LOOK
QUANTITATIVE MEASURES
QUANTITATIVE MEASURES
 Sentence and word length
 Frequency of unfamiliar words
 Word frequency
 Number of syllables in words
QUANTITATIVE MEASURES
 Sentence length and vocabulary/word
frequency
 Fire Cat – names of characters appear
frequently, challenging words are minimal
 Sarah Plain and Tall – challenging words appear
once or twice in a chapter
Elfrieda H. Hiebert, Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction and Assessment, Pre-K–6
Edited by Martha C. Hougen, Ph.D., & Susan M. Smart
FIRE CAT
Joe took Pickles to the Chief, who was sitting at
his desk.
“Oh!” said the Chief. “I know this young cat.
He is the one who chases little cats.”
“How do you know?” asked Joe. The Chief
answered, “A Fire Chief knows many things.”
Just then the telephone began to ring.
Elfrieda H. Hiebert, Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction and Assessment, Pre-K–6
Edited by Martha C. Hougen, Ph.D., & Susan M. Smart
SARAH PLAIN AND TALL
“Every-single-day,” I told him for the second
time this week. For the twentieth time this
month. The hundredth time this year? And the
past few years?
Elfrieda H. Hiebert, Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction and Assessment, Pre-K–6
Edited by Martha C. Hougen, Ph.D., & Susan M. Smart
REVISED LEXILE BANDS
Grade
Band
Current
Lexile Band
"Stretch"
Lexile Band*
K–1
N/A
N/A
2–3
450L–725L
420L–820L
4–5
645L–845L
740L–1010L
6–8
860L–1010L
925L–1185L
9–10
960L–1115L
1050L–1335L
11–CCR
1070L–1220L
1185L–1385L
*Grade Bands reflect the 2012 Revised Appendix A of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATORS
General Rule:
 Use any one of the quantitative analyzer tools to
place text into a complexity band level.
 For decisions about whether to place a text at the
upper, lower, or middle of a band, use qualitative
analysis.
(For drama and poetry, use qualitative measures.)
A CLOSER LOOK
QUALITATIVE MEASURES
QUALITATIVE MEASURES
A. Levels of meaning or purpose
B. Structure
C. Language conventionality and clarity
D. Knowledge demands
CCSS, Appendix A
Elfrieda H. Hiebert, Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction and Assessment, Pre-K–6
Edited by Martha C. Hougen, Ph.D., & Susan M. Smartt, Ph.D.
Publication Date: April 5, 2012
QUALITATIVE MEASURES
A. Levels of meaning or purpose
 Stage 1: Single level of meaning (often supported
by illustrations); explicitly stated purpose
 Stage 3: More than one level of meaning
 Stage 5: Multiple levels require drawing extensively
on reading/experiences from other sources; implicit
purpose, may be hidden or obscure
Elfrieda H. Hiebert, Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction and Assessment, Pre-K–6
Edited by Martha C. Hougen, Ph.D., & Susan M. Smartt, Ph.D.
Publication Date: April 5, 2012
QUALITATIVE MEASURES
B. Structure
 Stage 1: Texts follow structure of common genres
(simple narrative)
 Stage 3: Texts include less common genres (e.g.,
autobiography, cause-effect expository)
 Stage 5: Traits specific to a content-area discipline
or use of unique chronologies/perspectives
Elfrieda H. Hiebert, Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction and Assessment, Pre-K–6
Edited by Martha C. Hougen, Ph.D., & Susan M. Smartt, Ph.D.
Publication Date: April 5, 2012
QUALITATIVE MEASURES
C. Language conventionality and clarity
 Stage 1: Literal
 Stage 3: Figurative; some irony/sarcasm
 Stage 5: Literary: high level of figurative,
metaphorical language (e.g., Hemingway)
Elfrieda H. Hiebert , Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction and Assessment, Pre-K–6
Edited by Martha C. Hougen, Ph.D., & Susan M. Smartt, Ph.D.
Publication Date: April 5, 2012
HEMINGWAY, ERNEST. A FAREWELL TO ARMS.
There were mists over the river and clouds on the
mountain and the trucks splashed mud on the road and
the troops were muddy and wet in their capes; their rifles
were wet and under their capes the two leather
cartridge-boxes on the front of the belts, gray leather
boxes heavy with the packs of clips of thin, long 6.5 mm
cartridges, bulged forward under the capes so that the
men, passing on the road, marched as though they were
six months gone with child.
CCSS, Appendix B, p. 150
QUALITATIVE MEASURES
D. Knowledge demands (literary text)
 Stage 1: Simple theme; everyday knowledge and
familiarity with genre conventions required; low
intertextuality (few if any references/allusions to
other texts)
 Stage 3: Complex ideas interwoven
 Stage 5: Interconnected theme; cultural and literary
knowledge useful; high intertextuality (many
references/allusions to other texts)
Elfrieda H. Hiebert, Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction and Assessment, Pre-K–6
Edited by Martha C. Hougen, Ph.D., & Susan M. Smartt, Ph.D.
Publication Date: April 5, 2012
BARBERY, MURIEL. THE ELEGANCE OF THE HEDGEHOG
In our building there are two dogs: the whippet
belonging to the Meurisses who looks like a skeleton
covered over with beige leather hide, and a ginger
cocker spaniel who belongs to Diane Badoise, an
anorexic blond woman who wears Burberry
raincoats and who is the daughter of a very la-di-da
lawyer. The Whippet is called Athena and the
cocker Neptune. Just in case you don’t yet
understand what sort of place I live in…
QUALITATIVE MEASURES
D. Knowledge demands (chiefly informational
texts)
 Stage 1: Everyday knowledge and familiarity with
genre conventions required; low intertextuality (few
if any references to/citations of other texts)
 Stage 3: Complex knowledge and familiarity with
genre conventions
 Stage 5: Extensive, perhaps specialized discipline-
specific content knowledge required; high
intertextuality (many references to/citations of other
texts)
Elfrieda H. Hiebert, Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction and Assessment, Pre-K–6
Edited by Martha C. Hougen, Ph.D., & Susan M. Smartt, Ph.D.
Publication Date: April 5, 2012
A CLOSER LOOK
READER AND TASK CONSIDERATIONS
READER AND TASK CONSIDERATIONS






Reasoning skills/strategic planning
Motivation and engagement
Knowledge and experience
Purpose for reading
Complexity of associated tasks
Skills and strategies
READER AND TASK CONSIDERATIONS
 Complexity of task assigned regarding


text
Complexity of questions asked regarding
text
Differences between literary texts and
informational texts
A CLOSER LOOK
DETERMINING TEXT COMPLEXITY
STEP 1: QUANTITATIVE MEASURES
Lexile Text Measure: 870L
ATOS Book Level: 5.6
In which of the text
complexity bands
would this novel fall?
Kansas State Department of Education
www.lexile.com
Text Complexity
Grade Bands
“Stretch”
Lexile Range
Suggested ATOS
Book Level
Range**
K-1
100L – 500L*
1.0 – 2.5
2-3
420L – 820L
2.0 – 4.0
4-5
740L – 1010L
3.0 – 5.7
6-8
925L – 1185L
4.0 – 8.0
9-10
1050L – 1335L
4.6 – 10.0
11-CCR
1185L – 1385L
4.8 – 12.0
QUANTITATIVE MEASURES RANGES FOR
TEXT COMPLEXITY GRADE BANDS
Text Complexity
Grade Bands
“Stretch”***
Lexile Range
Suggested ATOS
Book Level Range**
K-1
100L – 500L*
1.0 – 2.5
2-3
420L – 820L
2.0 – 4.0
4-5
740L – 1010L
3.0 – 5.7
6-8
925L – 1185L
4.0 – 8.0
9-10
1050L – 1335L
4.6 – 10.0
11-CCR
1185L – 1385L
4.8 – 12.0
* The K-1 suggested Lexile range was not identified by the Common Core State Standards and was added by Kansas.
** Taken from Accelerated Reader and the Common Core State Standards, available at the following URL:
http://doc.renlearn.com/KMNet/R004572117GKC46B.pdf
***Grade Bands reflect the 2012 Revised Appendix A of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
Kansas State Department of Education

www.lexile.com
STEP 1: QUANTITATIVE MEASURES
 The quantitative measures is only the first
of three “legs” of the text complexity
triangle.
 Final recommendation may be
validated, influenced, or even over-ruled
by examination of qualitative measures
and the reader and task considerations.
Kansas State Department of Education
STEP 2: QUALITATIVE MEASURES
 Measures such as:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Levels of meaning
Levels of purpose
Structure
Organization
Language conventionality
Language clarity
Prior knowledge demands
Kansas State Department of Education
STEP 2: QUALITATIVE MEASURES
Rubrics for Literary and
Informational Text:
 The rubric for literary text
and the rubric for
informational text allow
educators to evaluate the
important elements of
text that are often missed
by computer software
that tends to focus on
more easily measured
factors.
Kansas State Department of Education
STEP 2: QUALITATIVE MEASURES
 Because the elements for literary texts are
different from information texts, these two rubrics
contain different content. However, the
formatting of each document is exactly the
same.
 And because these factors represent continua
rather than discrete stages or levels, numeric
values are not associated with these rubrics.
Instead, four points along each continuum are
identified: high, middle high, middle low, and
low.
Kansas State Department of Education
STEP 2: QUALITATIVE MEASURES
 So…
How is the rubric used?
How would To Kill a Mockingbird fair when
analyzed through the lens of the Literary Text
Rubric?
x
x
X
x
X
x
X
x
x
X
X
x
x
X
X
x
STEP 2: QUALITATIVE MEASURES
Lexile Text
Measure: 870L
ATOS Book
Level: 5.6
But after reflecting
upon the qualitative
measures, we
believed:
"Stretch"
Text Complexity
Grade Band
Lexile Band*
Suggested ATOS
Book Level Range**
K–1
N/A
1.0-2.5
2–3
420L–820L
2.0-4.0
4–5
740L–1010L
3.0-5.7
6–8
925L–1185L
4.0-8.0
9-10
1050L–1335L
4.6-10.0
11–CCR
1185L–1385L
4.8-12.0
"Stretch"
Text Complexity
Grade Band
Lexile Band*
Suggested ATOS
Book Level Range**
K–1
N/A
1.0-2.5
2–3
420L–820L
2.0-4.0
4–5
740L–1010L
3.0-5.7
6–8
925L–1185L
4.0-8.0
9-10
1050L–1335L
4.6-10.0
11–CCR
1185L–1385L
4.8-12.0
STEP 2: QUALITATIVE MEASURES
 Initial placement of To Kill a Mockingbird into a
text complexity band changed when the
qualitative measures were examined.
 Remember, this completes only the first two
legs of the text complexity triangle.
 The reader and task considerations still remain.
STEP 3: READER AND TASK
 Considerations such as:
• Motivation Knowledge and experience
• Purpose for reading
• Complexity of task assigned regarding text
• Complexity of questions asked regarding text
STEP 3: READER AND TASK
Questions for Professional
Reflection on Reader and Task
Considerations:
 The questions provided in this
resource are meant to spur
teacher thought and
reflection upon the text,
students, and any tasks
associated with the text.
STEP 3: READER AND TASK
 The questions are largely
open-ended questions
without single, correct
answers, but help
educators to think
through the implications
of using a particular text
in the classroom.
STEP 3: READER AND TASK
 Based upon the examination of the
Reader and Task Considerations, the
third leg of the text complexity model
has been completed and final
placement within a text complexity band
may be determined.
NEXT STEPS
 Develop a pool of annotated
texts that exemplify and help
benchmark the process of
evaluating text complexity, using
both quantitative and qualitative
measures and the professional
judgment of teachers -- complex
text playlists!
 The texts and the annotations accompanying them
will provide educators with a deeper, more
multidimensional picture of text complexity that can
be used to help them select materials.
IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING
 Current instructional materials will need to be
supplemented, enhanced, or moved to a different
grade.
USEFUL WEBSITES
 Connecticut State Department of Education:







http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/site/default.asp
Council of Chief State School Officers:
http://www.ccsso.org/Resources/Digital_Resources/Common_Core_Impleme
ntation_Video_Series.html
Kansas State Department of Education:
http://www.ksde.org/Default.aspx?tabid=4778#TextRes
Lexile Analyzer: www.lexile.com/findabook
Maine Department of Education:
http://www.maine.gov/education/lres/commoncore/
National PTA: http://www.pta.org/common_core_state_standards.asp
The Hunt Institute (video series):
http://www.youtube.com/user/TheHuntInstitute#g/u
The Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction & Assessment, PreK-6
http://products.brookespublishing.com/The-Fundamentals-of-LiteracyInstruction-and-Assessment-Pre-K6-P256.aspx

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