Close reading in the Elementary Classroom

Report
Close Reading in the
7-12 Classroom
Pre-K-5 Balance
of Informational
text and
Literature
6-12
Knowledge
in the
Disciplines
Academic
Vocabulary
Close Reading
Staircase of
Complexity
Writing from
Sources
Text-Based
Answers
What is close reading?
•
•
•
•
Engaging with a text of sufficient complexity directly
Examining meaning thoroughly and methodically
Reading and re-reading
Understanding the central ideas and key supporting
details
• Reflecting on:
• the meanings of individual words and sentences
• the order in which sentences unfold
• the development of ideas over the course of the text
• Ultimately arriving at an understanding of the text as a
whole
(PARCC, 2011, p.7)
http://youtu.be/adXdTXEzmzE
Selecting the right text is very
important!
Criteria for Text Selection
Quantitative
Qualitative
Reader and Task
• Aligned with the Lexile (or other computergenerated) levels outlined in the standards
• Allows you to teach the skills described in the
standards
• Has a complex level of meaning, purpose,
structure, language, and knowledge demand
• Content-rich and interesting
• Models the kind of thinking and writing
students should aspire to in their own work
Lexile Ranges
Text Complexity Old Lexile Ranges
Grade Band in
the Standards
K-1
N/A
Lexile Ranges
Aligned to CCR
expectations
N/A
2-3
450-725
450-790
4-5
645-845
770-980
6-8
860-1010
955-1155
9-10
960-1115
1080-1305
11-CCR
1070-1220
1215-1355
Go to www.lexile.com to analyze a text’s Lexile level for free.
Types of Texts to Consider
How to Support Students
Basic Lesson Structure
Beginner
Intermediate
Advanced
1. The teacher reads the
text out loud to students
without stopping to give
them a sense of the
overall plot or main idea.
1. The students read the
text silently one time
through to get a sense of
the overall plot or main
idea.
1. The student reads the
text silently one time
through to get a sense of
the overall plot or main
idea.
2. The teacher re-reads
small chunks of the text
at a time and asks
discussion questions. The
students may work in
pairs first, but answers
are shared with the
whole group.
2. Teacher re-reads small
chunks of the text out
loud and asks discussion
questions. Students may
discuss the questions as a
whole group, in pairs, or
small groups.
2. The student re-reads
small chunks of the text
at a time, stopping to
make notes, underline
key points, and ask
himself questions.
3. The students and
3. The students write a
teacher develop a written written response to a
response to a prompt
prompt independently.
together.
3. The student writes a
response to a prompt and
provides evidence from
the text in his answer.
Three Types of TextDependent Questions
consider the following three categories:
1.
2.
3.
Questions that assess themes and central ideas
Questions that assess knowledge of vocabulary
Questions that assess syntax and structure
11
When you're writing or reviewing a set of questions,
Assessing Themes and Central
Ideas
• What is Lincoln saying is significant about America in the first
paragraph?
12
Example:
Assessing Vocabulary
13
Example:
• Lincoln says the country was “conceived in Liberty.” What does he
mean when he says this?
Assessing Syntax
Example:
wolves are in the pack? To answer this, pay close attention
to the use of commas and semi-colons in the last
paragraph on pg. 377. The semi-colons separate or list
each member in the pack.
14
• Who are the members of the wolf pack? How many
Assessing Structure
•
“Dillard is careful to place opposing descriptions of the
natural and man-made side-by-side. How does this
juxtaposition fit with or challenge what we have already
read? Why might she have chosen this point in the text for
these descriptions?”
15
Example:
Culminating Tasks
•
•
Should relate to core understanding and key ideas.
•
Whenever possible, try to get your students to make claims or
arguments and support them with evidence.
Examples:
• In the last paragraph of the “Gettysburg Address,” Lincoln shifts the focus of his
speech away from what he says is its purpose at the end of the second
paragraph. What reasons does he give for the shift in focus? What does Lincoln
think is the task left to those listening to his speech? Use evidence from the text
to support your analysis. Formulate an answer to these questions in a
thoughtful brief essay. (Approximately a page).
• Why is accurately predicting the weather such a difficult task for
meteorologists? Use evidence from the text to support your answer.
16
A coherent sequence of text dependent questions will scaffold
students toward successfully completing the culminating task.
Progression of Text Dependent
Questions
Structure
Vocabulary
and Syntax
Themes
and Central
Ideas
Culminating
Task
Planning Close Reading
Questions
Stop
After
Question
pg. 31 Why did the illustrator
include details like the
power outlets in the
walls?
How will
students
answer it?
Discuss with
a partner
Type of
Analysis
Structure
CCLS
R.I.7.7
Practice
• http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/maryfisher1992r
nc.html
• At your table, read the first six paragraphs of A Whisper of
Aids.
• Design one of each of the following types of text dependent
questions:
•
•
•
•
Vocabulary
Syntax
Themes and Central Ideas
Culminating Task
• Choose one person to share your questions with the whole
group.
Using a Fish Bowl Discussion
http://www.engageny.org/resource/a-protocol-for-citingevidence-from-informational-text-from-expeditionary-learning

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